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Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea

The Korean Provisional Government (KPG), formally the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, was a partially recognized Korean government-in-exile based in Shanghai, China, and later in Chungking, during the Japanese colonial rule of Korea.

Provisional Government of the
Republic of Korea

대한민국 임시정부 / 大韓民國 臨時政府
Daehanminguk Imsijeongbu
Motto: "대한독립만세!" (Korean)
"Long Live Korean Independence!"
Anthem: "Aegukga"[1]
Map of the Korean Peninsula showing the government's territorial claims; controlled and occupied by Japan.
Map of the Korean Peninsula showing the government's territorial claims; controlled and occupied by Japan.
StatusGovernment in exile
CapitalHanseong 1945–1948 (de jure)
Common languagesKorean
GovernmentPresidential (1919–1925)
Parliamentary (1925–1940)
Presidential (1940–1948)
(All 3 Formed a Provisional Government)
• 1919–1925
Syngman Rhee
• 1925–1925
Park Eunsik
• 1935–1940
Yi Dongnyeong
• 1926–1927
Kim Gu
Prime Minister 
• 1919–1921
Yi Donghwi
• 1924–1925
Park Eunsik
• 1944–1945
Kim Kyu-sik
LegislatureProvisional Assembly
Historical eraEarly 20th century
1 March 1919
• Constitution
17 March (Vladivostok)
11 April (Shanghai)
23 April (Seoul) 1919
• Unified Provisional Government
11 September 1919
29 April 1932
• Declaration of War against Japan and Germany
9 December 1941
15 August 1945
• First Republic of Korea established
15 August 1948
ISO 3166 codeKR
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Japanese Korea
South Korea
Today part of China (exile)
 North Korea
 South Korea
Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
Revised RomanizationDaehanmin(-)guk Imsijeongbu
McCune–ReischauerTaehanmin'guk Imsijŏngbu

On April 11, 1919, a provisional constitution providing for a democratic republic named the “Republic of Korea” was enacted. It introduced a presidential system and three branches (legislative, administrative and judicial) of government. The KPG inherited the territory of the former Korean Empire. It[who?] actively supported and supported the independence movement under the provisional government, and received economic and military support from the Kuomintang of China, the Soviet Union and France.[citation needed]

After the surrender of Japan on August 15, 1945, figures such as Kim Gu returned. On August 15, 1948, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was dissolved. Rhee, who was the first president of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, became the first President of the Republic of Korea in 1948. The Constitution of South Korea, last amended in 1987, claims that there is continuity between the KPG and current government.



The government was formed on April 13, 1919, shortly after the March 1st movement of the same year during the Imperial Japanese colonial rule of the Korean peninsula. [2] Key members in its establishment included An Changho and Syngman Rhee, both of which were leaders of the Korean National Association at that time. An Changho played an important part in making Shanghai the center of the liberation movement and in getting KPG operations underway. As acting premier, he would help reorganize the government from a parliamentary cabinet system to a presidential system.

The government resisted the colonial rule of Korea that lasted from 1910 to 1945. They coordinated the armed resistance against the Japanese imperial army during the 1920s and 1930s, including the Battle of Chingshanli in October 1920 and the assault on Japanese military leadership in Shanghai's Hongkou Park in April 1932.

This struggle culminated in the formation of Korean Liberation Army in 1940, bringing together many if not all Korean resistance groups in exile. The government duly declared war against the Axis powers Japan and Germany on December 9, 1941, and the Liberation Army took part in allied action in China and parts of Southeast Asia.

During World War II, the Korean Liberation Army was preparing an assault against the Imperial Japanese forces in Korea in conjunction with American Office of Strategic Services, but the Japanese surrender prevented the execution of the plan. The government's goal was achieved with Japanese surrender on September 2, 1945, but they were not approved by other governments as a member of allied nations, who signed peace treaty with Japan in San Francisco.

The sites of the Provisional Government in Shanghai and Chongqing (Chungking) have been preserved as museums.

Foreign relationsEdit

In 1919, when U.S. President Woodrow Wilson advocated for national self-determination, Rhee Syng-man promoted the League of Nations mandate in the United States, and Kim Kyu-sik pushed for independence under the approval of a victorious country in Paris.[3][4] The provisional government gained approval from China and Poland through diplomatic efforts.[5] Meanwhile, in 1944, the government received approval from the Soviet Union.[6] Jo So-ang, the head of diplomatic department of provisional government, met with the French ambassador in Chongqing and was quoted as saying that French government would give unofficial approval to the government in April 1945.[7][5] However, the government did not gain formal recognition from United States, United Kingdom and other world powers.[8][9]

Transition of PowerEdit

The Republic of Korea's government in exile was established in order to lead the independence movement on the Korean Peninsula against colonial rule. It was established on April 11, 1919 in Shanghai, China. On September 11 of the same year, it established a single government in Shanghai by intergrating temporary governments such as those of Seoul and Russia's Maritime Province.

The Provisional Constitution was enacted to form the Republic of Korea as a democratic republic. It introduced the presidential system and established separate legislative, administrative and judicial branches. It succeeded the territory of the Korean Empire. The first interim president, Lee Seung-man, was impeached and succeeded by Kim Gu. Under the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, he actively supported and supported the independence movement, including the conscription of Yong Bong-gil and the organization of the Korean Liberation Army, and received economic and military support from the Chinese Nationalists, the Soviet Union, France, the United Kingdom and the United States.

After the liberation on Aug. 15, 1945, temporary government factors such as Kim Guu returned to Korea. On August 15, 1948, the Korean government was dissolved and the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was dissolved. Rhee, who was the first president of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, became the first President of the Republic of Korea in 1948. The Korean Constitutional Amendment, revised in 1987, stated that the Korean people inherited the rule of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea,

Editing Government Process Preparation for government preparation

The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919 as part of the March 1st Movement. On January 21, 1919, rumors that Emperor Gojong was poisoned by the Japanese imperial family came to light. This culminated in a demonstration that took place at the Emperor's funeral on March 1. Among the 20 million Koreans present, 3.1 million people participated in the demonstration, about 2.20 million, 10% of the total population.3.1 million people participated in the demonstration, about 2.20 million, 10% of the total population.[citation needed] There were 7,500 deaths, 16,000 injured, and 46,000 arrested and detained. The protests, which started in March and continued until May, included 33 people who had signed the Declaration of Independence, but were in fact held by the Japanese police.

The independence movement's popularity grew quickly both locally and abroad. After the March 1, 1919, campaign, a plan was set up at home and abroad to continue expanding the independence movement. However, some were hesitant due to their obedience to the occupying powers. At that time, many independent activists were gathered in Shanghai. Those who set up independent temporary offices repeatedly discussed ways to find new breakthroughs in the independence movement. First, the theory of provisional government was developed, and it was generally argued that the government should organize government in exile against the Chosun governor's office. However, it was argued that the party was not sufficiently equipped to form a government.

Shanghai was a transportation hub and also a center of support for the Guangdong government led by Wu Yuan. In addition, there were delegates of Britain, France, Germany, and the United States, which allowed them to escape the influence of Japan. For this reason, independent offices flocked to Shanghai.

Independent movements in Shanghai moved more aggressively in the summer of 1919. Seo Byeong-ho, Seung-hyung Cho, Dong-ho Cho, Park Chan-ik, and Sun Woo-hyuk met with the governments from Korea, Manchuria, the Russian Maritime Province and the Americas. Shanghai's independent offices provided accommodation for people from outside the country, centering on the French settlement, and organizing social gatherings for Koreans to create a close network. Around this time, the highly respected independent branch offices of Manchu and the Maritime provinces, such as Dongying, Lee, Shim, Kim DongSam, Shin Chae Ho, Cho Sung Hwan and Chaosang, came to Shanghai and were sent to Korea.

Shinhan Young Youth Party desired a promise of an independence in Korea at the Paris Peace Conference and dispatched Kim Kyu-sik as a delegate. Since his childhood, he had been studying at the Underwood Academy, where he received a Western education in English, Latin, theology, mathematics, and science. He was a talented person, being able to speak English, French, German, Russian, Mongolian and Sanskrit as well as Korean, Chinese and Japanese. He delivered the Korean Independence petition to President Woodrow Wilson in the name of the Shinhan Young Youth Party, and went to Paris, France, in January 1919 to submit a petition in the name of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea. However, he was not allowed to attend the Peace Conference because the provisional government had not yet been established. Kim subsequently formed a provisional government to receive the credentials of officially representing the Korean government. Eventually, the dispatch of Kim to the conference became the motivation of the 3.1 movement and the establishment of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.

Prior to his departure, Kim ordered the Shinhan Youth Party members to hold an independent demonstration as follows: "Even if sent to Paris, Westerners do not know who I am. To expose and propagate the Japanese rule, one must declare independence in Korea. The person to be dispatched will be sacrificed, but what happens in Korea will fulfill my mission well."

Kim Kyu-sik communicated with the Shinhan Young Youth Club in Paris by radio, and Shinhan Young Youth Party raised money for the lobby. Inspired by Kim Gyu-sik's arguments, the Shinhan Young Youth Party sent people to Korea and met with national leaders such as Ham Tae-young and Cho Man Sik. Kim's wife, Kim Soon-Ae, snuk into the country aboard a ship and promoted the formation of a patriotic woman's wife. He met with Ham Tae-young to discuss strategy for the independence movement in Korea, but when he was arrested and imprisoned, Ham Tae-young, who persuaded her that she could hurt the activities of her husband working overseas, returned to Shanghai. Kim Gyu-sik's order for independence demonstrations was the moment when the March 1, 1919 campaign began.

Participants at the time of the establishment of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea were Kim Gyu - shik, representative of the Shinhan Youth Group, Yeon Un Hyung, Son Soo Jung, Kim Cheol, Sun Woo Hyuk, Han Jin Kyu, Shin Seok Woo, and Hyun Soon, Shin Ik Hee, There were 30 people including Kim Dae Ji, Nam Hyung Woo, Lee Sihyoung, Dong Nyeong, Cho Wan Gu, Shin Chae Ho, Jin Hee Chang, Shin Chul Lee, Younggeun Lee, In addition, Kim Gu, Dong Nyeong, and new type participated in the establishment, and Ahn Chang Ho, Dong Hui Lee, and Seung Man Lee were appointed as the Emperor of Shanghai from April to September 1919 and entered Shanghai.

Former empire personnel also participated in the establishment of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea. Kim Gajin, who served as an observer of Hwanghae Province and Chungcheongnam-do during the reign of the empire, was a high-ranking official who was defeated in 1910 by the Japanese patriarchate after being deprived of his country. He formed a secret independent organization called Daedong Dan after the 3.1 movement in 1919, and served as governor. He was exiled to the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in Shanghai, China in October 1919, and served as a provisional government adviser and general counsel to Kim Ji-jin's adviser to the North Korean government.

Kim Gajin, the fifth son of Emperor Gojong of the Korean Empire and one of the prime candidates for the prince, prepared a plan to escape to the Korean Provisional Government. The Wang Wang Wang River sent a letter and indicated his intention to participate in the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea. In November 1919, the Pious King of the River went to Andong, Manchuria, to escape to the provisional government in Shanghai, but was arrested after being apprehended by the Japanese army and forced to return home. The contents of the book, which was sent to the Provisional Government by the King, were published in an independent newspaper article on November 20, 1919.

On April 10, 1919, 1,000 Chinese and Shinhan young people became the main actors in the "Kim Shin-ro," a French tribe in Shanghai. On the next day, on April 11, 1919, the National Assembly was established as the Republic of Korea and the Republic of Korea adopted the Provisional Charter of the Republic of Korea as a democratic republic. After appointing Lee Myung-man as the prime minister who is in charge of the administration, he appointed six ministers, including Ahn Chang-ho, Kim Gyu-sik to the foreign ministry, Dongwook Lee to the secretary of the army, and Choi Jae-hyung to the treasurer. On November 11, the government announced its establishment. On April 22, 57 representatives of the 2nd Uijeongwon attended and representatives of the 8 provinces of Korea and representatives of Russia, China, and the Americas. In the chairman Dong-nyung, the deputy chairman elected his hand. The Uijeongwon had the same function as the National Assembly, such as the resolution of bills and the election of a temporary president.

Prior to this, on March 17, 1919, the Provisional Government of the Korean People's Congress was established in the Russian Maritime Province, followed by the establishment of the Hanseong Provisional Government in Kyungsang (Seoul) on April 23. The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in Shanghai raised the issue of integration. Negotiations proceeded between the Korean National Assembly and the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea. Won Sehun, who was selected as representative of the National Assembly of Korea, came to Shanghai and negotiated. Both argued that the center of the government should be placed in the area, but that only the departments of the subordinate should be placed on both sides. Despite the two arguments, they were eager to establish a single government as well. Finally, on September 11, 1919, the Korean National Assembly of the Russian Maritime Province and the Hansung Provisional Government of Kyungsung (Seoul) were incorporated into the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in Shanghai, China. As a result, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea became able to develop into a single unified government representing various independence movements scattered in Korea, China and Russia, as well as domestic and foreign Koreans.

List of presidentsEdit


See alsoEdit


  1. ^
  2. ^ Sources of Korean Tradition, vol. 2, From the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Centuries, edited by Yŏngho Ch'oe, Peter H. Lee, and Wm. Theodore de Bary, Introduction to Asian Civilizations (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000), 336.
  3. ^ 이승만 [Rhee Syngman]. Encyclopedia of Korean culture (in Korean). Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
  4. ^ Eckert, Carter J., Lee, Ki-baik, Lew, Young Ick, Robinson, Michael & Wagner, Edward W. (1990). Korea old and new. Seoul: Ilchokak.
  5. ^ a b Ministry of Patriots and Veterans Affairs (국가보훈처) (1997). 대한민국임시정부의 법통과 역사적 재조명 [Legitimacy and Historical Review of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea] (in Korean). Daejeon: National Archives of Korea. pp. 167–169.
  6. ^ 대한민국임시정부수립기념일 [Day to celebrate the establishment of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea]. Encyclopedia of Korean folk culture (in Korean). National Folk Museum of Korea.
  7. ^ PRC Documents, F. 1864 / 1394 / 23
  8. ^ The Ambassador in China ( Gauss ) to the Secretary of State No. 2583 Chungking , May 19, 1944.(Received June 2.)
  9. ^ The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in China ( Gauss )Washington , June 12, 1944—9 p.m.

External linksEdit