Yi Kang

Yi Kang, Prince Imperial Ui (also known as Prince Uihwa, born 30 March 1877-15 August 1955), was the fifth son of Emperor Gojong of Korea and his concubine, Lady Jang, who was a court lady-in-waiting.

Yi Kang
Prince Imperial Ui.jpg
Born(1877-03-30)30 March 1877
Hanseong-bu, Joseon
Died15 August 1955(1955-08-15) (aged 78)
Seongrak Manor, Seongbuk-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, South Korea
Burial
Hongyu-reung, Namyang-ju
SpouseKim Sudeok, Princess Imperial Ui

(m. 1892; died 1955)

Concubines:
  • Lady Jeong of Sugwandang
  • Kim Heung-in, Lady Suindang
  • Jeong Un-seok, Lady Suhyundang
  • Cho Byung-suk
  • Yi Hui-chun, Lady Sudeokdang
  • Kim Jeong-wan, Lady Suwandang
  • Park Yeong-hui, Lady Sugildang
  • Lady Song
  • Kim Chang-hui, Lady Sokyungdang
  • Ham Kae-bong
  • Kim Hye-su
  • Hong Jeong-sun
Issue
Detail
Prince Yi Geon (Kenichi Momoyama)
Prince Yi U
Yi Bang
Yi Hae-wan
Yi Chang
Yi Ju (Yi Su-gil)
Yi Hae-won
Yi Gon
Yi Hae-chun
Yi Hae-suk
Yi Gwang
Yi Hyun
Yi Haegyeong
Yi Gap
Yi Seok
Yi Hoe-ja
Yi Hwan
Yi Hae-ran
Yi Jung
Yi Hae-ryeon
Yi Chang-hui
FatherEmperor Gojong of Korea
MotherLady Jang of the Deoksu Jang clan
Yi Kang
Hangul
의친왕 이강
or 의화군
Hanja
Revised RomanizationUichinwang I Gang or Uihwagun
McCune–ReischauerŬich'inwang I Kang or Ŭihwagun

It was not until 1892 when he was recognized as a legitimate prince with the name of Yi Kang, and was titled Prince Uihwa with the style of Royal Highness, following a decree issued by his father. He married Lady Kim Sudeok, a daughter of an official in court, Kim Sajun. Prince Yi Kang was not the Crown Prince, even though he was older than his half-brother Prince Imperial Yeong, due to various reasons including the status of his mother.

BiographyEdit

Education and early lifeEdit

There is no much official records about his early life, which may be caused by being born by Lady Jang, a court lady-in-waiting of King Gojong but not the king's official consort or concubine during her lifetime. Lady Jang came from the Deoksu Jang clan, and Queen Inseon (Hyojong of Joseon's queen consort) was her distant relative.[i] According to the tradition, the half-brothers of the crown prince, in this case, Yi Cheok (future Sunjong of Korea), needed to move out from the palace until the latter reached the age 10; as the result, there were some years that Yi Kang lives with Pak Yung-hio, the son-in-law of King Cheoljong.[2] During the Gapsin Coup in 1884, Yi Kang and his mother were taken by Pak Yung-hio to the palace; contemporary rumors claimed that the coup d'état tried to replace the king with Yi Kang;[3] but after the coup ended, Yi left the palace again. During his young age, Yi Kang grew up with a bad reputation because of his behavior.[2]

Later, Queen Min, Gojong's wife, asked her husband to grant Yi Kang a title, so Yi Kang became Prince Uihwa (의화군) in 1892.[4] After three rounds of choosing in 1893,[5] the daughter of an official Kim Sa-jun, Lady Kim (Kim Sudeok), was chosen to be the spouse of Yi Kang, which was arranged by Queen Min.[6] Lady Kim, also known as "Lady Kim of Deokindang", was a distant relative to Queen Inmok, the queen consort of Seonjo of Joseon in early 17th century;[ii] Yi Kang never had an issue with his wife. Even after getting married, Yi Kang got involved into deft and lawsuit problems.[6]

Prince Yi Kang was appointed special ambassador to the Empire of Japan for the celebration ceremonies for Japan's victory in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895. The next year, he visited six European countries as an ambassador extraordinary: the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Russia, Italy and Austria-Hungary. In 1899, he studied for a year at Keio University in Tokyo. While he was not in Korea, Yi Kang was promoted to the rank of Prince Imperial Ui, and styled His Imperial Highness in 1900;[8] his late mother was also posthumously recognized as a concubine of the Emperor. By the same year, he went to the United States and began studies at Roanoke College in Salem, Virginia from March 1901, where he majored in mathematics. After graduation, he spent a brief period at the Ohio Wesleyan University in Delaware, Ohio, and then traveled to San Francisco and Hawaii, returning to Korea in 1905. While in the United States, he scandalized the Korean government with his profligate spending and playboy lifestyle. As the result, as well as the help from the Japanese, when childless Sunjong of Korea ascended to the throne in 1907, Yi Un, their younger half-brother, became the crown prince almost without any obstacles.[9]

Prince Yi Kang served as the president of the Korean Red Cross from 1906 to 1910.

Under Japanese ruleEdit

Following the abdication of King Gojong in 1907, and the Japan-Korea Treaty of 1910 by which Korea was annexed to the Empire of Japan, Prince Yi Kang grew increasingly dissatisfied with his status, even though the Japanese provided him with a huge annual allowance. At the same time, the title "Prince Imperial Ui" was abolished and he was known as the "Duke Yi Kang", a title given by Japanese.[10]

In 1919, he collaborated with Choe Ik-hwan, a member of Daedongdan, who attempted to support him as the new leader of Korea. Prince Yi Kang then tried to escape to the Provisional Government of Korea based in Shanghai, only to be discovered in Dandong from Manchuria and returned to his home country. After this, the Japanese government claimed that Yi Kang was "abducted" and "wanted to escape to live profligately again".[11] Later, Yi Kang asked to deprive his title multiple times but he wasn't approved. As of November 10, 1925, a law for defining the status of the former Korean imperial family was made; on June 12, 1930, Yi Kang officially retired and his eldest son Yi Geon succeeded him as duke, but Yi Kang's styles and allowances still remained until the end of World War II.[12][13]

Throughout the Japanese rule, there were only few members of Yi Kang family recognized by Japan: Yi Kang himself, his wife Kim Sudeok (Duchess Consort of Yi Kang), his eldest son Duke Yi Geon with his family, and his second son Duke Yi U (adopted as the heir to Duke Yi Jun-yong in 1917) with his family;[14] for the rest of his children, they could either be adopted by various Korean nobles to retain fundamental rights including education,[15] or be illegitimate children, living with their mothers without any titles or noble privileges.[16]

After the independence of Korea, he continued to live in Seoul, but in increasing poverty.[17] On 9 August 1955 he was baptized a Roman Catholic, given the Christian name "Pius"; Lady Kim was also baptized and had a name "Maria".[18] Yi Kang passed way a week later on August 15, 1955, at the age of 78, in his mansion "Seongrakwon" Manor (now Seongnagwon Garden, in Seongbuk District, Seoul); he was buried in Hongneung and Yureung,[19] where his father and brothers were buried in Namyangju near Seoul.

FamilyEdit

Prince Yi Gang married Kim Sudeok (22 December 188014 January 1964) in 1892; however, the couple had no children. Therefore, all children Yi Gang had, 12 sons and 9 daughters, were born by 13 of his various concubines.[17]

WifeEdit

Name Hanja and Korean Birth Death Bon-gwan Parents Issue
Kim Suk
[20][21][iii]
金淑
김숙
22 December 1880 14 January 1964 Yeonan Kim clan Baron Kim Sa-jun
Lady Hwang of the Changwon Hwang clan
No issue

ConcubinesEdit

Courtesy Title Name Issue(s)
Lady Jeong of Sugwandang (수관당 정씨) Lady Jeong (정씨)
Lady Kim of Suindang (수인당 김씨) Kim Heung-in (김흥인)
  • 2nd son: Yi U (b. 1912)
  • 5th son: Yi Ju (b. 1917)
  • 6th son: Yi Gon (b. 1919)
Lady Jeong of Suhyundang (수현당 정씨) Jeong Un-seok (정운석)
  • 3rd son: Yi Bang (b. 1914)
Cho Byeong-suk (조병숙)
  • 4th son: Yi Chang (b. 1915)
Lady Yi of Sudeokdang (수덕당 이씨) Yi Hui-chun (이희춘)
  • 1st daughter: Yi Hae-wan (b. 1918)
  • 2nd daughter: Yi Hae-won (b. 1919)
Lady Kim of Suwandang (수완당 김씨) Kim Jeong-wan (김정완)
  • 3rd daughter: Yi Hae-chun (b. 1920)
Lady Park of Sugildang (수길당 박씨) Park Yeong-hui (박영희)
  • 4th daughter: Yi Hae-suk (b. 1920)
Lady Song (송씨)
  • 7th son: Yi Kwang (b. 1920)
Lady Kim of Sugyungdang (수경당 김씨) Kim Chang-hui (김창희)
  • 8th son: Yi Hyun (b. 1922)
Kim Geum-deok (김금덕)
Ham Gae-bong (함개봉)
  • 9th son: Yi Gap (b. 1938)
Kim Hye-su (김혜수)
  • 6th daughter: Yi Hoe-ja (b. 1940)
  • 11th son: Yi Hwan (b. 1944)
  • 9th daughter: Yi Chang-hui (b. 1953)
Hong Jeong-sun (홍정순)
  • 10th son: Yi Seok (b. 1941)
  • 7th daughter: Yi Hae-ran (b. 1944)
  • 12th son: Yi Jeong (b. 1947)
  • 8th daughter: Yi Haeryeon (b. 1950)

SonsEdit

Name Hanja Birth Name Registered Name Birth Death Notes Family
1 Yi Geon
이건
李鍵 Yi Yong-gil
이용길
1909 1990
  • Acquired the duke title in 1930 after his father
  • Naturalized as a Japanese citizen in 1947 and changed the name to "Momoyama Kenichi" (桃山虔一)
  • Wife: Matsudaira Yoshiko (松平誠子), daughter of Captain Matsudaira Yutaka and a first cousin of Yi Bangja. They had two sons and a daughter; divorced in 1951
  • Wife: Maeda Yoshiko (前田美子), daughter of Maeda Fujiyoshi. They had a son and two daughters[23]
2 Yi U
이우
李鍝 Yi Seong-gil
이성길
1912 1945
  • Adopted as the heir to Duke Yi Jun in 1917
3 Yi Bang
이방
李鎊 Yi Heung-gil
이흥길
Yi Hae-jin
이해진
1914 1951
4 Yi Chang
이창
李鎗 Yi Chang-gil
이창길
Yi Hae-jik
이해직
1915 ?
  • Adopted as the heir to Yi Heon-yong [ko] (1886-1921), a 4th cousin of Yi Kang
  • He died in the United States
  • Wife: Cho Ui-hye (조의혜); they had two sons and two daughters[25]
5 Yi Ju
이주
李鑄 Yi Su-gil
이수길
Yi Hae-il
이해일
1917 1982
  • Wife: Cheongija (천기자/千枝子), a Japanese; they had two sons and two daughters
  • Wife: Kim Sin-deok (김신덕);[29] they had a son
6 Yi Gon
이곤
李錕 Yi Myung-gil
이명길
1919 1984
  • The heir to his father upon the death of Yi Kang
  • Wife: Hwang Gyung-saeng (황경생);[30] they had two sons
7 Yi Gwang
이광
李鑛 Yi Hyung-gil
이형길
Yi Hae-cheong
이해청
1920 1952
  • Adopted as the heir to Viscount Yi Ki-yong [ko] (1889-1961), a second cousin of Yi Kang
  • Passed away of a heart attack when swimming in 1952[25]
8 Yi Hyun
이현
李鉉 Yi Gyung-gil
이경길
1922 1996
9 Yi Gap
이갑
李鉀 Yi Chung-gil
이충길
Yi Hae-ryung
이해룡
1938 2014
  • Wife: Yi Gyung-suk (이경숙);[34] they had two sons and a daughter
10 Yi Seok
이석
李錫 Yi Yung-gil
이영길
Yi Hae-seok
이해석
1941
  • Self-claimed pretender to the imperial throne upon the death of Yi Ku since 2005[35][36]
  • Wife: Dokko Jeong-hui (독고정희); they had a daughter (Yi Hong) and divorced in 1970s[37]
  • Wife: Kim Jin-ok (김진옥); they had a daughter and later divorced[38]
11 Yi Hwan
이환
李鐶 Yi Mun-gil
이문길
Yi Hae-seon
이해선
1944
12 Yi Jeong
이정
李鉦 Yi Jeong-gil
이정길
Yi Hae-jun
이해준
1947

DaughtersEdit

Name Birth Name Registered Name Hanja Birth Death Notes
1 Yi Yung
이영
Yi Gil-sun
이길순
Yi Hae-wan
이해완
李海琬 1918 1981 Adopted by Viscount Yi Ki-yong[15]
2 Yi Jin
이진
Yi Gil-un
이길운
Yi Hae-won
이해원
李海瑗 1919 2020
  • Husband: Yi Seung-gyu (이승규); they had three sons and a daughter[39]
  • Self-claimed "Empress of Korea" in 2006-2020[35][40]
3 Yi Chan
이찬
Yi Gil-yun
이길연
Yi Hae-chun
이해춘
李海珺 1920 2009
  • Husband: Marquess Park Chan-beom (박찬범), grandson of Pak Yung-hio and his successor; they had a son but later divorced[24]
4 Yi Suk
이숙
Yi Gil-yung
이길영
Yi Hae-suk
이해숙
李海璛 1920 ?
  • Husband: Yi Hak-jin (이학진); they had a daughter[41][42][43]
5 Yi Gong
이공
Yi Gil-sang
이길상
Yi Haegyeong
이해경
李海瓊 1930
  • Also known as "Amy Hai Kyung Lee"[44]
  • Moved to Texas in 1956 and worked as a Korean Studies Librarian in Columbia University since 1960s; she retired in 1996[45]
6 Yi Jang
이장
Yi Hoe-ja
이희자
李惠子 1940 2015
  • Became a nun and went by the name, either Catalina (카타리나) or Paulina (바울리나), in the Society of Saint Paul until her death[46]
7 Yi Yong
이용
Yi Suk-gi
이숙기
Yi Hae-ran
이해란
李海珃 1944
8 Yi Hyun
이현
Yi Suk-hyang
이숙향
Yi Hae-ryun
이해련
李海瑢 1950
9 Yi Min
이민
Yi Chang-hoe
이창희
李昌惠 1953

AncestryEdit

Ancestors of Yi Kang[1][47][48][49]
Yi Byeong-won (1752-1822)
Prince Namyeon (1788-1836)
Lady Jeong of the Yeonil Jeong clan (1753-1792)
Heungseon Daewongun (1820-1898)
Min Gyeong-hyeok (1746-1815)
Lady Min of the Yeoheung Min clan (1788-1831)
Lady Han of the Cheongju Han clan (1744-1822)
Emperor Gojong of Korea (1852-1919)
Min Dan-hyon (1768-1858)
Min Chi-Ku (1795-1874)
Lady Park of the Miryang Park clan (1769-1843)
Grand Internal Princess Consort Sunmok (1818-1898)
Yi Ok (1773-1820) [iv]
Lady Yi of the Jeonju Yi clan (1797-1873)
Lady Kim of the Gyeongju Kim clan (1770-1832)
Yi Kang, Prince Imperial Ui
(1877-1955)
Jang Seok-Jeong (1736-1796)
Jang Un (1792-1827)
Jang Jwa-geun (b. 1819)
Lady Choe of the Gyeongju Choe clan (1793-1876)
Lady Jang of the Deoksu Jang clan
Yi Buk-eung
Lady Yi of the Jeonju Yi clan (b. 1821)

NotesEdit

  1. ^ According to the Jang family genealogy book published in 1974, Lady Jang was recorded as daughter of Jang Seok-Jeong (장석정, 1736-1796) but the time didn't match; it's also conjectured that her father could be Jang Jwa-geun (장좌근, b. 1819), a grandson of Jang Seok-Jeong, and Lady Yi of the Jeonju Yi clan (b. 1821).[1]
  2. ^ Through her father, Kim Sudeok was a 8-great-grandniece of Queen Inmok.[7]
  3. ^ "Kim Suk" was her official name, while "Kim Sudeok" was her original name by birth, whereas the more known one.[22]
  4. ^ A 9-great-grandson of Deokheung Daewongun, the 7th son of Jungjong of Joseon.[50]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b 덕수장씨족보 德水張氏族譜 (Page 548-550)
  2. ^ a b "Records of the Japanese Embassy in Korea", p. 384-385.
  3. ^ 清季中日韓關係史料-第三卷. Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica. 1 January 1972. p. 1530. ISBN 9789860458626. 十月十九日辰刻,承旨李鳳九筆談:「關內環衛倭人,意欲立新王:王之庶子,張氏所生子,其母子本在於關外矣。日前其母子俱入來,朝臣中用事者洪英植也、金玉均也、朴泳孝也,入于關内之朝臣,殺盡無餘。」 (Around 7am to 9am on December 17, 1884, the Royal Secretaries [承旨] Yi Bonggu [李鳳九] wrote: 'The palace was surrounded by the Japanese and they wanted to replace the king with his illegitimate son, who was born by Lady Jang and the two were previously living outside the palace. Recently, Lady Jang and her son were in the palace, and the officials in charge were Hong Yung-sik, Kim Ok-gyun and Pak Yung-hio; the rest of officials in the palace were all killed.')
  4. ^ "왕자인 강에게 의화군의 작위를 봉하다". Veritable Records of the Joseon Dynasty. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  5. ^ "의화군 부인으로 참봉 김사준의 딸을 정하다". Veritable Records of the Joseon Dynasty. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  6. ^ a b "李堈夫人金氏". Retrieved 8 July 2020. 仁穆大妃懲國婚之禍作,書遺本家,世世勿連姻王室,至是思濬上之,后愛金氏容德堅不許,……堈旣出閤,驕侈好貨賄,……干訟徵債如追贜…… (After the disastrous events due to her marriage, Queen Inmok left a note to her family, hoping them never marry the royalties again; the note was given by Kim Sajun to Queen Min, but she liked the virtue of his daughter and persisted her decision. ...After he married, Yi Kang started to live luxuriously and accept bribes,... lawsuits and those who came for debt collection appeared as if they were recovering loots... )
  7. ^ 연안김씨의민공파보 延安金氏懿愍公派譜 (The Family Tree of Yeongam Kim clan in 1901; Volume 3, Page 1 & 92)
  8. ^ "중화전에 나아가 황자를 책봉하다". Veritable Records of the Joseon Dynasty.
  9. ^ "英親王垠을 皇太子로 封함". Retrieved 8 July 2020. 朝野皆知新皇帝不慧,且無嗣屬望,……嚴貴妃方專寵,欲貴其子,厚賂博文,冀得其力;義親王堈,年雖長,多失儀、無人望,且孤立援少……由是衆議自歸於垠,援定宗朝故事,立爲皇太子。 (The people by the time knew that the new emperor was not exactly smart and there's no hope for him to produce an heir,... Lady Eom, the Imperial Noble Consort just gained much love from the Emperor [Emeritus] and she wanted to promote her son's position, so she bribed Itō Hirobumi for his support; the Prince Imperial Ui, despite being elder, had many scandals and lost reputation, making him lack to support... and so, people eventually agreed to make Yi Un the crown prince, following the precedent from King Jeongjong of Joseon.)
  10. ^ "대일본 천황이 조서를 내리다". Veritable Records of the Joseon dynasty. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  11. ^ "大同團事件 豫審決定書". The Dong-a Ilbo. 29 June 1920.
  12. ^ 新城 道彦 (24 March 2015). 朝鮮王公族―帝国日本の準皇族. 中央公論新社. ISBN 978-4121023094.
  13. ^ "官報. 1930年06月13日". 國立國會図書館デジタルコレクション. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  14. ^ "왕공족보(王公族譜)". 디지털 장서각. Retrieved 28 May 2020.
  15. ^ a b ""황실복원은 시대착오" 조선조 마지막 공주 이해경 여사 뉴욕서 쓴소리". Naver뉴스. Retrieved 28 May 2020.
  16. ^ "조선시대 마지막 황족인 의친왕의 둘째딸 이해원 옹주". Retrieved 25 June 2020.
  17. ^ a b Neff, Robert (18 May 2011). "Eui-hwa: most progressive, anti-Japanese prince". Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  18. ^ "[순교자성월 특집] 도심 속의 성지순례 (3편)". Catholic Pyeonghwa Broadcasting Corporation. 20 October 2015. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  19. ^ "의친왕(義親王) 54주기 제향... 15일, 홍유릉묘역에서". 남양주투데이. 10 August 2009.
  20. ^ "20日 八旬 맞이, 李堈公妃 金淑 女史". 22 December 1959.
  21. ^ 가회동성당 영세문서 제1권
  22. ^ "義親王妃 金氏 別世". Dong-a Ilbo. 15 January 1964.
  23. ^ Otabe, Yūji (11 March 2009). 皇族に嫁いだ女性たち. 角川学芸出版. ISBN 978-4047034433.
  24. ^ a b "《반남박씨세보 5권》" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  25. ^ a b c d "공화국 시대, 황실의 비극". Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  26. ^ "황실 후손이 매국노의 양자로…" (574). 한겨레21. 25 August 2005. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  27. ^ "문화유산신문". 문화유산신문. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  28. ^ "역대 이사장". Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  29. ^ "몰락한 왕의 후예들 "오욕 씻어내자"". Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  30. ^ "홍능 지키는 의친왕 6남 이금씨; 왕가의 영화·체면 떨쳐버린채…조모 엄비능 곁서 20년". 21 August 1982. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  31. ^ Yi, Hyo-jae (20 February 1996). "어느 황손의 쓸쓸한 설밑죽음...의친왕 8남 이경길옹". Chosun Ilbo. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  32. ^ Sin, Hyeon-jun (21 July 2005). "끊어진 조선황실 후계 40대 회사원이 잇는다". Retrieved 7 June 2020.
  33. ^ "황실 후손 생활 담은 다큐 만들고파". The Chosun Ilbo. 18 August 2005. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
  34. ^ Yang, Hyo-gyung (19 March 2018). "이원 대한제국 황사손 모친 이경숙 씨 별세". MBC NEWS. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  35. ^ a b Park, Sung-ha (22 October 2006). "Coronation of Korea's new empress leads to royal family controversy". Retrieved 21 June 2020.
  36. ^ Onishi, Norimitsu (19 May 2006). "Forgotten Korean prince gets royal treatment". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  37. ^ Seo, Il-ho (1 March 2007). "연예인이 된 고종의 증손녀 이홍씨". Chosun Ilbo. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  38. ^ O, Jong-chan (16 May 2006). "[Why] 그리하여 공주의 속은 까맣게 탔고 공주의 손은 흙을 쥐었습니다". Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  39. ^ "용인이씨대동보 龍仁李氏大同譜, 6권". FamilySearch. (Volume 3, Page 324)
  40. ^ "조선황실 마지막 옹주 이해원씨 별세". monthly.chosun.com (in Korean). 9 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  41. ^ "이학진 옹, 99세 일기로 별세". Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  42. ^ "한국바둑의 숨은 공로자 이학진 옹". 16 November 2009. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  43. ^ Yi, Hae-jun. "함석태와 강우규, 그리고 대동단". 세미나비즈. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  44. ^ "Amy Hai Kyung Lee - "My Early Life in My Father's Palace"". Korean Studies - University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  45. ^ Yi, Na-yun (11 March 2011). "고종 손녀 "나는 프린세스가 아니다"". 시사인. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  46. ^ "도심 속의 성지순례 (4편)". Catholic Pyeonghwa Broadcasting Corporation. 20 October 2015. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  47. ^ "원종대왕자손록 권1(元宗大王子孫錄 卷之一)". Retrieved 11 July 2020. (Page 16)
  48. ^ "여흥민씨파보驪興閔氏派譜 (1959)". Retrieved 11 July 2020. (Page 64)
  49. ^ "여흥민씨세계보 驪興閔氏世系譜 (1974)". Retrieved 11 July 2020. (Volume 4, Page 690-691)
  50. ^ "덕흥대원군파 권3(德興大院君派 卷之三)". Retrieved 11 July 2020. (Genealogy of the House of Deokheung Daewongun; Volume 3, Page 18)