Lyuh Woon-hyung (Korean여운형; RRYeo Un-hyeong; 25 May 1886 – 19 July 1947), also known by his art name Mongyang (몽양; 夢陽), was a Korean independence activist and reunification activist.

Lyuh Woon-hyung
Lyuh in May 1947
Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Korean Provisional Government
In office
5 August 1919 – 22 January 1920
Chairman of the National People's Representative Conference
In office
14 September – November 1945
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byPosition abolished
Personal details
Born(1886-05-25)25 May 1886
Yangpyeong, Gyeonggi, Joseon
Died19 July 1947(1947-07-19) (aged 61)
Rotary road, Hyehwa-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul, Southern Korea
Manner of deathAssassination
Resting placeUi-dong, Gangbuk District, Seoul, South Korea
SpouseJin Sang-ha
Parent(s)Lee (Mother)
Lyuh Jung-hyun (Father)
Alma materJinling University , Pyongyang Presbyterian Theological Seminary
WebsiteMongyang Memorial Society
Korean name
Revised RomanizationYeo Unhyeong
McCune–ReischauerYŏ Unhyŏng
Art name
Revised RomanizationMongyang

Lyuh was a prominent figure in the Korean Provisional Government during the Japanese colonial period.[1] He is rare among politicians in modern Korean history for being revered in both South and North Korea.[citation needed]

Biography edit

In August 1945, Lyuh organized a meeting with the representatives of "the Committee for Preparation of Korean Independence" who came from all over the country.

Lyuh was born in 1886 in Yangpyeong, Gyeonggi Province, Joseon. He was born into the Hamyang Yeo clan to father Yŏ Chŏng-hyŏn (여정현; 呂鼎鉉). At around age 14, he married Yu Se-yŏng (유세영; 柳世永), but she died, and he remarried to Jin Sang-ha (진상하; 陳相夏).[2]

In 1900, Lyuh enrolled in the Western-style Pai Chai School. Soon afterwards, he switched to studying at the Hŭnghwa School [ko] and Umu School (우무학당; 郵務學堂).[2] In 1907, he became involved in the National Debt Repayment Movement, part of the Korean independence movement. Also around this time, he became a Protestant Christian and became associated with the American missionary Charles Allen Clark. Through his relationship with Clark and Christianity, he became active in intellectual circles in Korea of the time.[2]

With assistance with Clark, he found the Kidok Kwangdong School in 1909.[citation needed] In 1910, Lyuh dramatically parted from Korean tradition by freeing slaves owned by his household.[citation needed] In 1911, Lyuh enrolled in Pyongyang Presbyterian Theological Seminary.[citation needed]

In 1914, Lyuh went to China where he studied English literature at a university in Nanjing.[citation needed] In 1917, he moved to Shanghai.[2] While in China, he became significantly involved in the Korean independence movement. In 1918, he established what eventually became the Shanghai Korean People's Association [ko].[2] That year, he also led the New Korean Youth League [ko].[2]

In 1919, Lyuh participated in the creation of the February 8 Declaration of Independence in Tokyo.[2] This declaration is considered a direct precursor to the Korean Declaration of Independence which began the landmark March 1st Movement protests in Korea.[3] Concurrently, he participated in efforts to send Korean representatives to the 1919–1920 Paris Peace Conference, in hopes that they could advocate for Korean independence there.[2]

In April 1919, Lyuh became one of the founders of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.[2] He would serve in a variety of roles in the government, such as being a member of the organization's Legislative Assembly [ko]. He also established a Korean school called Insŏng School [ko] in Shanghai around this time. That year, he also visited Japan and met with several high-ranking Japanese politicians, during which he advocated for Korea's independence.[2]

In 1920, he joined the Korean Communist Party and became active in both its Shanghai and Irkutsk chapters.[2] In 1922, he attended the Congress of the Peoples of the East in Moscow.[2][4] In Moscow, he met with Leon Trotsky and Vladimir Lenin.[4] That year, he organized the Korean Veterans Association [ko] alongside Kim Ku and Son Jŏng-do [ko].[2] In 1925, at the recommendation of Sun Yat-sen, he joined the Chinese Nationalist Party and worked to improve Sino-Korean ties.[2] In 1929, he was arrested by Japanese authorities in Shanghai and sentenced to three years in prison.[2]

In 1932, he was released from prison.[2] In 1933, he became the head of the Chŏson Chungang Ilbo [ko] newspaper. In 1934, he became head of the Joseon Sports Council.[2] In 1936, he was forced by Japanese authorities to step down from his position at the newspaper, after involved he became involved in the Sohn Kee-chung uniform scandal. During this scandal, Korean newspapers erased the Japanese flag off of images of Sohn, the first ethnic Korean to win an Olympic gold medal.[2] In 1942, he was arrested on charges of violating the Peace Preservation Law and sentenced to a year in prison and three years of probation.[2]

In 1944, in anticipation of Japan's defeat in World War II, Lyuh organized in 1944 the secret Korean National Establishment Committee [ko] and served as its chairman. The organization expanded across Korea and allied itself with other Korean nationalist organizations.[2]

Just before the surrender of Japan in August 1945, Japanese official Endo Ryusaku established contact with Lyuh and agreed on the release of prisoners and the Japanese withdrawal from Korea.[5] On the 17 August, Lyuh established the Committee for Preparation of Korean Independence which created over 140 subsections in North and South Korea by the end of August.[5]

On 6 September 1945, Lyuh proclaimed the People's Republic of Korea[6] with Lyuh as Chairman of the National People's Representative Conference.[7] When the United States landed on the Korean Peninsula two days later,[8] General Hodge did not recognize the government of the People's Republic of Korea that Lyuh Woon Hyung established. In October, he stepped down under pressure from the United States Military Government, and organized the People's Party of Korea, becoming its chairman. For the following months of the anti-trusteeship movement and other political changes, Lyuh took a line of action in concert with the communists.[9]

When a movement to unify the political left and the political right arose in May 1946, Lyuh represented the center-left. However, Lyuh's political stance was attacked by both the extreme right and the extreme left, and his efforts to pursue a centrist position was made increasingly untenable by the political realities of the time.[citation needed]

Death edit

On 19 July 1947, Lyuh was assassinated in Seoul by a 19-year-old man named Han Chi-geun, who fled from North Korea and was an active member of the right-wing terrorist group the White Shirts Society. Lyuh's death was widely mourned.[citation needed]

Timeline edit

Lyuh during the Soviet-US Committee in May 1946.
Resting place in Seoul
  • 1894 – Moved to Danyang, Chungcheongbuk-do and returned to Myogok after two years.
  • 1900 – Enrolled in the Baejae School
  • 1901 – Transferred to Heung-hwa School (흥화학교).
  • 1902 – Entered school attached to the Correspondent bureau (우무학당).
  • 1903 – Spouse died in August. Grandfather died in October.
  • 1905 – Mother died.
  • 1906 – Father died.
  • 1907 – Became Christian. Founded Gwang-dong school (광동학교) in Yangpyeong.
  • 1908 – Founded branch of National Debt Repayment Movement in Yangpyeong and toured to speech about it.
  • 1910 – Became a teacher of Chodang Uisuk (초당의숙) of Gangneung.
  • 1911 – Had been fired from school because of rejecting Japanese era name. Entered to Pyongyang seminarium and studied to 2 years
  • 1914 – Entered the English literature course of Jinling University (金陵大学) in Nanjing, studied 3 years.
  • 1917 – Got a job of travel Agent at Xiehe bookstore (協和書局) in Shanghai and helped Koreans in passage procedure. Met Sun Yat-sen. In summer, returned to Korea in private. Fled to China with Lee Beom-seok.
  • 1918 – Founded New Korea Youth Party in Shanghai and had been appointed to the leader.
  • 1919 – Became deputy of Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in Shanghai.
  • 27 November 1919 – Visited Japan and had a speech at the Imperial Hotel about Right to life of Koreans.
  • 1920 – Joined the Koryǒ Communist Party in Shanghai and became a translation committee member and propaganda agent.
  • 1921 – Established "Korea-China Cooperated company" (Hanjung hojosa, 韓中互助社, 한중호조사) in Shanghai.
  • January 1922 – Participated in "Conference for Oppressed people of the Far East" (遠東被壓迫民族大會, 원동피압박민족대회) in Moscow. Met Vladimir Lenin and discussed about anti-imperialism movement in Korea. in October, Organized "Hanguk Nobyunghoe" (韓國勞兵會, 한국노병회) with Kim Ku, Son jung-do etc.
  • 1924 – Became a special member of the Chinese Communist Party
  • July 1929 – Became coach of the soccer team of Fudan University and went to the Southeast Asia for educational travel with players. While in travel he made a speech of Anti-Imperialism at the Philippines, Singapore etc. Arrested by Japanese police in Shanghai and taken to Korea. Had been sentenced to imprisonment for 3 years.
  • November 1932 – Had been released on parole from the prison of Daejeon.
  • February 1933 – Became the president of the Chungang Daily News (Chosun JungAng Ilbo, 조선중앙일보).
  • 1934 – Became chairman of the "Korea Sports Council" (조선체육회).
  • 1935 – Set up the gravestone in Yi Sun-sin graveyard of Asan.
  • August 1936 – Chungang Daily News ceased publication eternally for removing Japanese flag of Sohn Kee-chung's picture.
  • 1940 – Gone off to Tokyo and led and inspire Korean students in Japan. Met Fumimaro Konoe, Shūmei Ōkawa.
  • December 1942 – Arrested by Military police for violation of "Peace Preservation Law" (治安維持法)
  • 1943 – Got released from prison with three years of probation. while retired from active life, he made contact with comrade and led the young people.
  • 10 August 1944 – Formed Korean Restoration Brotherhood Secretly in Sam-gwang Oriental Medical Clinic (삼광한의원) in Seoul and expanded it on a nationwide scale. Rejected the suggestion to go to China of Endo Ryusaku (遠藤柳作), the vice-minister of the post of Governor-General of Korea (朝鮮総督府政務総監). Formed the "Farmers' Brotherhood"(농민동맹) at the Yongmun Mountain in Yangpyeong.
  • 15 August 1945 – Met Endo and had been transferred authority of administration and public order from Endo.
  • 17 August 1945 – Formed the Committee for Preparation of Korean Independence.
Flag of the People's Committee of Korea
  • 6 September 1945 – Had been elected to temporary chairman of "National People's Representative Conference"(전국인민대표자회의 →People's Republic of Korea).
  • 12 November 1945 – Formed "People's Party of Korea" (조선 인민당).
  • 9 February to 11 February 1946 – Visited Haeju, Pyongyang and met Cho Man-sik, Kim Il Sung.
  • 15 February 1946 – Be elected one of the co-chairmen of "National Front for Democracy" (民主主義民族戰線, 민주주의민족전선).
  • May 1946 – Propelled "Left-right cooperation movement" (좌우합작운동) with Kim Kyu-sik, An Jae-hong etc.
  • 17 July 1946 – kidnapped and taken to a mountain of Sindang-dong, Seoul and escaped risk of being murdered
  • 16 October 1946 – Founded "Socialist Labourer's Party" (사회로동당).
  • 28 December 1946 to 8 January 1947 – Visited Pyongyang.
  • 24 May 1947 – Founded "Labor People's Party" (근로인민당). Had been elected to chairman.
  • 19 July 1947 – Assassinated by Han Ji-geun of the White Shirts Society, at the Rotary Road, Hyehwa-dong, Seoul.

Genealogy edit

  • Spouse : Rhew, Se-yeong's daughter (류세영의 장녀, 진주柳氏, ? – 1903 October, Married 1899–1903)
  • Spouse : Jin Sang-ha (진상하, 陳相夏, 1885 – ?)
    • Daughter : Lyuh Nan-gu (여난구, 呂鸞九, 1923 – ?)
    • Daughter : Lyuh Yeon-gu (여연구, 呂鷰九, 1927 – 1996 September 28)
    • Daughter : Lyuh Won-gu (여원구, 呂鴛九, 1928 – 2009 July 30)
    • Daughter : Lyuh Hyeong-gu (여형구; 呂鶑九)
    • Son : Lyuh Bong-gu (여봉구, 呂鳳九, 1914 – 1932 November 14), Died of typhoid fever[10][11]
    • Son : Lyuh Hong-gu (여홍구, 呂鴻九, 1918 – 1939), Died of tetanus
    • Son : Lyuh Young-gu (여영구, 呂鸋九, 1930~?)
  • Japanese woman
    • Son : Lyuh Boong-gu (여붕구, 呂鵬九, 1936 – 1991)
  • Jin Ok-chul (진옥출; 陳玉出)
    • Daughter : Lyuh Sun-gu(여순구, 呂鶉九, 1942 – )
  • Brother : Lyuh Woon-il (여운일, 呂運一, 1890 – ?)
  • Brother : Lyuh Woon-hong (여운홍, 呂運弘, 1891 September 1 – 1973 February 3)
  • Sister : Lyuh

In popular culture edit

References edit

  1. ^ Weems, Benjamin (1948). "Behind the Korean Election". Far Eastern Survey. 17 (12): 143. doi:10.2307/3022008. ISSN 0362-8949. JSTOR 3022008.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t 허, 종, "여운형 (呂運亨)", Encyclopedia of Korean Culture (in Korean), Academy of Korean Studies, retrieved 15 May 2024
  3. ^ 박, 성수, "2·8독립선언서 (二八獨立宣言書)", Encyclopedia of Korean Culture (in Korean), Academy of Korean Studies, retrieved 29 April 2024
  4. ^ a b 김, 삼웅 (2015). 몽양 여운형 평전. 채륜. pp. 188–189.
  5. ^ a b Kim, Hakjoon (1988). "The American Military Government in South Korea, 1945-1948: Its Formation, Policies, and Legacies". Asian Perspective. 12 (1): 60–61. ISSN 0258-9184. JSTOR 42703907 – via JSTOR.
  6. ^ Bartel, Wilfried (1972). "Neues Licht auf die Frage der Schuld am Ausbruch des Korea-Krieges: Die UNO schuldet sich und der Welt eine gründliche Untersuchung der Vorgänge von 1950". Vereinte Nationen: German Review on the United Nations. 20 (2): 42. ISSN 0042-384X. JSTOR 45229279 – via JSTOR.
  7. ^ Kim, Hakjoon (1988). pp.61–62
  8. ^ Kim, Hakjoon (1988). p.61
  9. ^ Weems, Benjamin (1948). p.145
  10. ^ "Joong-Ang Ilbo, 1932 November 16, page 2 column 9".
  11. ^ "Dong-A Ilbo, 1932 November 17, page 2 column 10".

External links edit