Jiaxing (Chinese: 嘉兴; Wade–Giles: Chia-hsing), formerly romanized as Kashing, is a prefecture-level city in northern Zhejiang province, China. Lying on the Grand Canal of China, Jiaxing borders Hangzhou to the southwest, Huzhou to the west, Shanghai to the northeast, and the province of Jiangsu to the north. At the 2010 census, its population was 4,501,657 and its built-up area made of 2 urban districts was home to 1,201,882 inhabitants.
Location of Jiaxing City jurisdiction in Zhejiang
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|• CPC Secretary||Zhang Bing|
|• Mayor||Mao Hongfang|
|• Prefecture-level city||4,008.76 km2 (1,547.79 sq mi)|
|• Urban||986.9 km2 (381.0 sq mi)|
|• Metro||986.9 km2 (381.0 sq mi)|
|• Prefecture-level city||4,501,657|
|• Density||1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard)|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-ZJ-04|
|GDP per capita||¥74,478|
|License Plate Prefix||浙F|
"Jiaxing", as written in Chinese
|Nanhu District||南湖区||Nánhú Qū|
|Xiuzhou District||秀洲区||Xiùzhōu Qū|
|Jiashan County||嘉善县||Jiāshàn Xiàn|
|Haiyan County||海盐县||Hǎiyán Xiàn|
Known as a placeEdit
- Spring and Autumn period: Jiaxing is known as Zuili (Drunken Plums) and is an important city in the state of Yuè.
Known as a countyEdit
- 210 BC: Qin Shi Huang changed the name of Jiaxing from Changshui District (長水縣) to Youquan (由拳縣).
- 231: Wild rice (野稻) of Jiaxing informed Sun Quan of the Kingdom of Wu that there was a sign of auspice, so Sun changed Youchuan to Hexing District (禾興縣). This why Jiaxing's abbreviation is He. Sun also changed his era name to Jiahe (嘉禾) in the following year.
- January 242: Sun He was made the crown prince. Because of the naming taboo, Jiahe was changed to Jiaxing.
Known as a prefectureEdit
- 938: (Later Jin of the Five Dynasties): Xiu Prefecture (秀州) established
- 1117: (Song Dynasty): Jiahe District (嘉禾郡)
- 1429: (Ming Dynasty): Xiushui District (秀水縣) was established northwest of Jiaxing.
- Early 1900s (the Republic of China): Xiushui and Jiaxing were combined into Jiahe County
- 1914: Reverted to Jiaxing County (because there's a Jiahe in Hunan)
- 1921: Communist Party of China founded at the South Lake in Jiaxing.
- 1926: Following the defection of Zhejiang civil governor Xia Chao to the Kuomintang during the Northern Expedition, the army of warlord Sun Chuanfang completely defeats Xia's largely untrained army at Jiaxing. Xia is captured and executed shortly thereafter.
- 1949 − 1958, 1979 (PRC): Upgraded to a city[clarification needed]
- 1981: Old Jiaxing County merged into the city
- 1983: Upgraded to prefecture-level city
Industry is the main economic driver to the city’s economy, contributing 47% to its GDP in 2015. Jiaxing is also well known as the 'hometown of silk', hence it is a famous producer of textiles and woolens. It is one of the world's largest exporters of leather goods. There are mechanical, chemical and electronic industries there.
Jiaxing is an important energy base in East China. Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant, the first self-designed nuclear power station in China, and Fangjiashan Nuclear Power Plant (under construction) are located in Haiyan County.
Jiaxing Export Processing ZoneEdit
Established in 2003, Jiaxing Export Processing Zone is a state-level export processing zone approved by State Council. It has a built-up area of 2.98 km2. Its development goal is to become the export processing base for IT, IC, mechanical and electrical, electronics and other high-tech industries.
The city is served by two railway stations: Jiaxing Railway Station, on the Shanghai–Kunming Railway, and Jiaxing South Railway Station on the high speed Shanghai–Hangzhou Passenger Railway. The city is served by two long-distance bus stations: Jiaxing North Bus Station and the new Jiaxing Transportation Center. Jiaxing is on the G92 Hangzhou Bay Ring Expressway, G60 Shanghai–Kunming Expressway and China National Highway 320.
Jiaxing dialect is a Northern Wu dialect in the Sujiahu dialect grouping. As such, it is a sister dialect of both Shanghainese and Suzhou dialect, and easily intelligible with both. It is not mutually intelligible with Mandarin or other varieties of Chinese such as Cantonese or Hakka.
- Zhu Yizun (朱彝尊), scholar and poet
- Wang Guowei (王国维), scholar, writer and poet
- Xu Zhimo (徐志摩), poet
- Shiing-Shen Chern (陈省身), mathematician
- Mao Dun (茅盾), novelist, critic, journalist
- Zhang Yuanji (张元济), publisher
- Zhang Zhongjun (张钟俊), scientist
- Xu Kuangdi (徐匡迪), scientist, politician
- Zhu Shenghao (朱生豪), translator
- Zhang Leping (张乐平), cartoonist, creator of Sanmao
- Yang Borun (杨伯润), poet, calligrapher, painter
- Jin Yong (金庸), novelist
- Fan Xiping (范西屏), Go player
- Miao Huixin, artist
- Shen Junru (沈钧儒), politician, patriot
- Wu Outing (吴藕汀), poet, painter, culture scholar
- Zhou Hanming, mathematician
- "China: Administrative Division of Zhejiang (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) - Population Statistics in Maps and Charts".
- Jordan (1976), p. 91.
- Smith (2000), p. 149.
- "Welcome RightSite Visitors". 5 June 2016.
- Li Zhongyang (利众羊). 嘉兴要建民营飞机场 (in Chinese). 0573ren.com. Retrieved 7 May 2012.