Sun He (Zixiao)

Sun He (224–253), courtesy name Zixiao, was an imperial prince of the state of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He was the third son of Sun Quan, the founding emperor of Wu. In 242, he became the crown prince after the death of his brother Sun Deng, the eldest son and first heir apparent of Sun Quan. In the 240s, a power struggle broke out between Sun He and his fourth brother, Sun Ba, over the succession to their father's throne. The conflict ended in 250 when Sun Quan forced Sun Ba to commit suicide, deposed Sun He and replaced him with Sun Liang. In 253, during Sun Liang's reign, the regent Sun Jun reduced Sun He to commoner status and forced him to commit suicide. In 264, one of Sun He's sons, Sun Hao, became the fourth emperor of Eastern Wu. After his coronation, Sun Hao honoured his father with the posthumous title Emperor Wen.

Sun He
Prince of Nanyang (南陽王)
TenureJanuary or February 252 – 253
Crown Prince of Eastern Wu
TenureFebruary or March 242 – 250
PredecessorSun Deng
SuccessorSun Liang
Died253 (aged 29)
Yi County, Anhui
Family name: Sun (孫)
Given name: He (和)
Courtesy name: Zixiao (子孝)
Posthumous name
Emperor Wen (文帝)
HouseHouse of Sun
Fatheremperor Da of Wu Sun Quan
MotherLady Wang

Early lifeEdit

Sun He was born as the third son of Sun Quan, a warlord of the late Eastern Han dynasty who became the founding emperor of the Eastern Wu state in the Three Kingdoms period. His mother was Lady Wang (王夫人), one of Sun Quan's concubines; she was posthumously honoured as "Empress Dayi" (大懿皇后) in 264. As Lady Wang was Sun Quan's favourite consort at the time, Sun He also became his father's favourite son. In 237, when Sun He was only 13 years old, Sun Quan appointed some officials to serve as Sun He's personal staff and ordered Kan Ze, the Prefect of the Palace Writers, to be Sun He's personal tutor. Sun He, then a young teenager, was known for being studious and respectful. The officials who met him all praised him.[1]

In 241, Sun Quan's eldest son and heir apparent Sun Deng, died of illness. One year later, in February or March 242,[2] Sun Quan designated an 18-year-old Sun He, his eldest surviving son,[a] as the new Crown Prince to replace Sun Deng. At the same time, Sun Quan also promoted Kan Ze to Crown Prince's Grand Tutor (太子太傅), appointed Xue Zong as the Crown Prince's Junior Tutor (太子少傅), and ordered Cai Ying (蔡穎), Zhang Chun (張純), Feng Fu (封俌), Yan Wei (嚴維) and others to serve as the Crown Prince's attendants and personal staff.[4]

As crown princeEdit

As Sun He was intelligent, Sun Quan favoured him and often kept him by his side. Sun Quan also treated Sun He exceptionally well; he gave Sun He new clothes, ornaments, toys and other gifts, but did not do the same for his other sons. Sun Quan's subjects also highly regarded Sun He because he was not only bright, perceptive and well-versed in literary arts, horse-riding and archery, but also respectful and courteous towards his tutors and elders. He was genuinely interested in getting to know people. In 247, Sun Quan ordered Zhuge Yi (諸葛壹) to pretend to defect to Wu's rival state, Wei, and lure the Wei general Zhuge Dan into a trap. When Sun Quan personally led the Wu forces to attack Zhuge Dan, Sun He showed grave concern about his father: he could not rest and have his meals in peace, repeatedly reminded his father to be careful, and hoped that his father would win the battle. He only put aside his worries upon seeing his father return safely to Wu.[5]

During Sun Quan's reign, some Wu officials abused the system of bureaucracy and exploited loopholes to find fault with other. Sun He saw that this could potentially become a serious problem if officials continued to abuse the system for personal gain (e.g. taking petty revenge against colleagues), so he wrote a memorial to the imperial court urging them to take actions to discourage and eliminate such harmful practices.[6] On one occasion, two officials, Liu Bao (劉寶) and Ding Yan (丁晏), made accusations against each other. Sun He told Ding Yan, "It's hard to find competent employees in both the civil and military sectors. If everyone starts attacking each other over trivial and petty disputes, then how can we expect to have prosperity?" He then stepped in to mediate the conflict and succeeded in helping them resolve their dispute.[7]

Sun He heard that Cai Ying (蔡穎), a member of his personal staff, enjoyed playing weiqi and that many of Cai Ying's subordinates also picked up the game and spent a lot of time playing. As he saw that weiqi was an unproductive activity meant to be a hobby or pastime, he became worried that Cai Ying and the others would become complacent and neglect their duties from playing too much weiqi. He thus came up with an idea to subtly remind and motivate his subordinates. He called for a meeting and asked them to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of playing weiqi. One of them, Wei Yao (韋曜), went home, wrote an essay on this topic and presented it to Sun He, who had copies of it distributed among his personal staff.[8]

Succession struggle against Sun Ba and deposalEdit

Sun He's mother, Lady Wang, was not on good terms with Sun Quan's eldest daughter, Sun Luban.[b] As a result, Sun Luban disliked her half-brother, Sun He. On one occasion, Sun Quan could not attend a ceremony at the imperial ancestral temple because he was sick, so he ordered Sun He to take his place. Zhang Xiu, an uncle of Sun He's wife Crown Princess Zhang (張太子妃), lived near the imperial ancestral temple so he invited Sun He to stay at his residence during that period. Sun Luban sent her servants to spy on Sun He and reported to her father that Sun He was not in the imperial ancestral temple and was instead staying with his in-laws and plotting something. She also used the opportunity to slander Sun He's mother, Lady Wang, whom she had a feud with, by telling Sun Quan that Lady Wang expressed glee when she heard that Sun Quan was sick. Sun Quan believed his daughter and became furious with Lady Wang. Lady Wang later died in distress. Sun He also fell out of his father's favour as a result and he became worried that his father would remove him from his position as Crown Prince.[9]

Sometime in the 240s, Sun He became embroiled in a power struggle against his fourth brother, Sun Ba, the Prince of Lu, who wanted to seize the position of Crown Prince from him. In fact, it was Sun Quan himself who sowed the seeds of the conflict between his third and fourth sons. Although Sun Quan had already made Sun He the Crown Prince in 242, he also treated Sun Ba exceptionally well. After discussing among themselves, some officials strongly urged Sun Quan to ensure that Confucian rules of propriety were followed and upheld. For example, Sun He should be accorded greater honours and privileges as compared to Sun Ba because he, as the Crown Prince, was in a higher position compared to the other princes. However, Sun Quan failed to make a clear distinction between his sons, so the power struggle intensified over time as Sun He and Sun Ba started vying for their father's favour and attention. Two opposing factions also emerged from among Sun Quan's subjects: On one side, Lu Xun, Zhuge Ke, Gu Tan, Zhu Ju, Teng Yin, Shi Ji, Ding Mi (丁密) and Wu Can believed that Sun He was the rightful heir apparent so they supported him. On the other side, Bu Zhi, Lü Dai, Quan Cong, Lü Ju, Sun Hong (孫弘), Quan Ji (全寄), Yang Zhu (楊笁), Wu An (吳安) and Sun Qi (孫奇) supported Sun Ba. Quan Ji and Yang Zhu, in particular, frequently spoke ill of Sun He in front of Sun Quan. As the power struggle intensified, Sun Quan grew tired of it and told Sun Jun that he was worried that the power struggle would end up in a civil war like the one between Yuan Shao's sons.[10] He wanted to end the power struggle and designate a new heir apparent, so he started taking action against some of the officials involved: Wu Can was imprisoned and executed later; Gu Tan was exiled to Jiao Province; Yang Zhu was executed and his body dumped into the river; Quan Ji, Wu An and Sun Qi were executed.[11][12]

The historian Pei Songzhi, who annotated Sun He's biography in the Records of the Three Kingdoms, drew comparisons between the Sun He–Sun Ba succession struggle and other similar conflicts such as the one between Yuan Shao's sons and Liu Biao's sons. He commented that Sun Quan was worse than Yuan Shao and Liu Biao because, unlike Yuan Shao and Liu Biao who defied traditional norms of succession and made it clear that they wanted a younger son to succeed them, Sun Quan created ambiguity and uncertainty when he favoured Sun Ba despite having already designated Sun He as his heir apparent. Pei Songzhi criticised Bu Zhi, Lü Dai and Quan Cong for supporting Sun Ba because he deemed Sun Ba's claim to the succession as illegitimate. He also remarked that this incident had a huge negative impact on Bu Zhi in particular, because Bu Zhi had a reputation for being virtuous and generous.[13]

After carefully considering some time, Sun Quan ordered Sun He to be put under house arrest. When Zhu Ju, Qu Huang (屈晃) and some other officials heard about it, they covered their heads in mud, tied themselves up, and came to plead with Sun Quan to release Sun He. When Sun Quan saw them, he felt angry and scolded them for creating a disturbance. Later, he had the intention of deposing Sun He and replacing him with Sun Liang, his youngest son. Two officials, Chen Zheng (陳正) and Chen Xiang (陳象), wrote a memorial to Sun Quan, citing the historical example of Shensheng and Xiqi to warn Sun Quan that changing the Crown Prince could lead to a civil war in the future. Zhu Ju and Qu Huang also repeatedly pressured Sun Quan to pardon Sun He. Sun Quan got fed up with them, so he executed Chen Zheng and Chen Xiang and had Zhu Ju and Qu Huang flogged 100 times.[14] Qu Huang was later removed from office and sent back to his home town, while Zhu Ju was demoted and later tricked by Sun Hong (孫弘), a supporter of Sun Ba, into committing suicide.[15] Zhang Chun (張純), one of Sun He's subordinates who also repeatedly begged Sun Quan to spare Sun He, was imprisoned and later executed.[16]

Sometime between September and November 250, Sun Quan deposed Sun He from his position as Crown Prince and relocated him to Guzhang County (故鄣縣; northwest of present-day Anji County, Zhejiang). He also forced Sun Ba to commit suicide. Sun He's personal staff, numbering dozens, met different fates as some were executed while others were exiled or dismissed. Many people thought that it was a grave injustice to Sun He and his personal staff.[17] In December 250, Sun Quan designated his youngest son, Sun Liang, as the new Crown Prince to replace Sun He.[18]

Life after being deposedEdit

When Sun Quan became critically ill between 250 and 252, he regretted his decision to depose Sun He and thought of restoring Sun He as Crown Prince. However, Sun Luban, Sun Jun, Sun Hong (孫弘) and others strongly objected to it, so he dismissed the idea.[19]

In late January or February 252, Sun Quan made Sun He the Prince of Nanyang (南陽王), with Changsha Commandery (長沙郡; around present-day Changsha, Hunan) as his princedom.[20][21] During his journey from Guzhang County to Changsha, Sun He saw a magpie's nest on a wall. Some people interpreted this as a sign that disaster would befall Sun He, while others thought that it was an auspicious sign since Sun He had now been restored to noble status after being deposed.[22]

After Sun Quan's death in May 252, his youngest son Sun Liang succeeded him as the new emperor, with Zhuge Ke serving as the regent because the emperor was still too young at the time. Zhuge Ke was a maternal uncle of Sun He's wife, the former Crown Princess Zhang. The former crown princess sent a messenger, Chen Qian (陳遷), to the imperial capital Jianye (present-day Nanjing, Jiangsu) to meet Zhuge Ke. Before Chen Qian left, Zhuge Ke told him, "Please tell her that in a matter of time, I'll make her greater than others." There were rumours that Zhuge Ke wanted to depose Sun Liang and put Sun He on the throne. His behaviour became even more suspicious when he floated the idea of moving the imperial capital from Jianye to Wuchang (武昌; present-day Ezhou, Hubei).[23]

In 253, after Zhuge Ke was overthrown and assassinated in a coup d'état, Sun Jun became the new regent for Sun Liang. Sun Jun demoted Sun He back to commoner status, had him relocated to Xindu Commandery (新都郡; around present-day Yi County, Anhui), and then sent an emissary to force Sun He to commit suicide. As Sun He bid farewell to his wife, the former Crown Princess Zhang, before taking his own life, she told him, "I'll accompany you through thick and thin; I won't continue living on my own." She followed suit after he committed suicide.[24] Sun He's concubine, Lady He, asked, "If we all die, who is going to raise the children?" She did not take her own life and lived on to raise Sun Hao (her son with Sun He) and his three younger brothers.[25]

Posthumous honoursEdit

In 264, after Sun He's son, Sun Hao, became the fourth emperor of Eastern Wu, he honoured his father with the posthumous title "Emperor Wen" (文皇帝) and had him reburied at the Ming Mausoleum (明陵), with officials and 200 households to watch over and maintain the tomb. In February or March 266, he separated nine counties from Wu Commandery and Danyang Commandery (丹楊郡) to form a new commandery, Wuxing Commandery (吳興郡), with its capital at Wucheng County (烏程縣; south of present-day Huzhou, Zhejiang). He appointed an Administrator (太守) to govern Wuxing Commandery and put him in charge of the organising the ceremonies to honour his father every season.[26]

In August 267, Sun Hao heeded a suggestion from one of his officials to build a temple in the imperial capital, Jianye (present-day Nanjing, Jiangsu), to honour his father. He then put Xue Xu in charge of overseeing the construction of the temple, which was named "Qing Temple" (清廟). In January 268, he ordered Imperial Counsellor Meng Ren (孟仁)[c] and Minister of Ceremonies Yao Xin (姚信) to lead 2,000 troops to the Ming Mausoleum as part of an entourage to "escort" Sun He's spirit from the mausoleum to the temple.[27] When the entourage reached Jianye, Sun He kept asking the priest conducting the ceremony about the condition of his father's spirit. After the priest told him that his father looked just the same as when he was still alive, Sun Hao shed tears of both sadness and joy and later rewarded his subjects.[28] Sun Hao also ordered the Imperial Chancellor Lu Kai to oversee the sacrificing of animals in the neighbouring villages as offerings to his father's spirit. That night, Sun Hao slept outside Jianye. The following day, Sun Hao appeared very sad when his father's spirit was being enshrined in the temple. Over the subsequent days, he kept visiting the temple – three times within seven days – to pay respects to his father's spirit, and even ordered singers and dancers to entertain his father's spirit day and night. He only stopped doing so when an official told him that the entire ceremony would lose its sacredness if he performed it excessively.[29]


Sun He had at least four sons – Sun Jun (孫俊), Sun Hao, Sun De (孫德) and Sun Qian (孫謙). Sun Jun was born to Sun He's wife Crown Princess Zhang (a daughter of Zhang Cheng),[30] while Sun Hao was born to Sun He's concubine Lady He.[31] It is not known who the mothers of Sun De and Sun Qian were, except that they were probably Sun He's concubines.

In 258, after Sun Quan's sixth son, Sun Xiu, replaced Sun Liang as the new Wu emperor, he enfeoffed Sun He's eldest son, Sun Hao, as the Marquis of Wucheng (烏程侯) with his marquisate in Xindu Commandery (新都郡; around present-day Yi County, Anhui).[32] Sun Xiu also enfeoffed Sun De and Sun Qian as the Marquis of Qiantang (錢唐侯) and Marquis of Yong'an (永安侯) respectively, and appointed Sun Jun as a Cavalry Commandant (騎都尉).[33] In 264, following Sun Xiu's death, Sun Hao succeeded him as the fourth emperor of Eastern Wu.

Sun Jun

Sun Jun had a reputation for being intelligent and bright, Sun Hao feared that he would pose a threat to him, so he found an excuse to have Sun Jun executed.[34]

Sun De

Sun De's eventual fate remains unknown. He probably died early, or else Sun Hao might have purged him too.

Sun Qian

In late September or October 265, Sun Hao moved the imperial capital from Jianye (present-day Nanjing, Jiangsu) to Wuchang (武昌; present-day Ezhou, Hubei) and left Imperial Counsellor Ding Gu (丁固) and General of the Right Zhuge Jing in charge of Jianye.[35] During this time, due to Sun Hao's tyrannical and oppressive rule, one Shi Dan (施但) from Wuxing Commandery (吳興郡; around present-day Huzhou, Zhejiang) rallied about 10,000 men and started a rebellion. The rebels took Sun Qian hostage and headed towards Jianye, where they intended to make Sun Qian the new emperor. When they were some 30 li away from Jianye, Sun Qian issued a decree to Ding Gu and Zhuge Jing, ordering them to submit to him. Zhuge Jing executed Sun Qian's messenger. When the rebels were about nine li away from Jianye, Ding Gu and Zhuge Jing led government forces from Jianye to attack them. As the rebels did not have body armour to protect themselves, they abandoned Sun Qian, who was sitting in a carriage, and fled at the sight of armoured soldiers marching towards them. Ding Gu and Zhuge Jing took Sun Qian captive but did not dare to execute him, so they sent a messenger to Wuchang to ask Sun Hao what to do with him. Sun Hao ordered Sun Qian and Sun Qian's mother to be poisoned to death.[36]

Sun He's daughter

Sun He also had a daughter who was born to Crown Princess Zhang (Zhang Cheng's daughter). She married Lu Jing, who was born to Lu Kang and another daughter of Zhang Cheng; both Sun He's daughter and Lu Jing therefore were Zhang Cheng's maternal grandchildren.[37]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Sun Quan's second son, Sun Lü, died even earlier in 232,[3] so Sun He, as Sun Quan's third son, became the eldest among Sun Quan's sons after Sun Deng's death in 241.
  2. ^ Sun Luban is also referred to as "Princess Quan" (全公主) because she married Quan Cong.
  3. ^ Meng Ren (孟仁), originally named Meng Zong (孟宗), was one of The Twenty-four Filial Exemplars.


  1. ^ (孫和字子孝,慮弟也。少以母王有寵見愛,年十四,為置宮衞,使中書令闞澤教以書藝。好學下士,甚見稱述。) Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  2. ^ ([赤烏]五年春正月,立子和為太子, ...) Sanguozhi vol. 47.
  3. ^ (嘉禾元年春正月,建昌侯慮卒。) Sanguozhi vol. 47.
  4. ^ (赤烏五年,立為太子,時年十九。闞澤為太傅,薛綜為少傅,而蔡穎、張純、封俌、嚴維等皆從容侍從。) Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  5. ^ (吳書曰:和少岐嶷有智意,故權尤愛幸,常在左右,衣服禮秩雕玩珍異之賜,諸子莫得比焉。好文學,善騎射,承師涉學,精識聦敏,尊敬師傅,愛好人物。穎等每朝見進賀,和常降意,歡以待之。講校經義,綜察是非,及訪諮朝臣,考績行能,以知優劣,各有條貫。後諸葛壹偽叛以誘魏將諸葛誕,權潛軍待之。和以權暴露外次,又戰者凶事,常憂勞憯怛,不復會同飲食,數上諫,戒令持重,務在全勝,權還,然後敢安。) Wu Shu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  6. ^ (是時有司頗以條書問事,和以為姦妄之人,將因事錯意,以生禍心,不可長也,表宜絕之。) Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  7. ^ (又都督劉寶白庶子丁晏,晏亦白寶,和謂晏曰:「文武在事,當能幾人,因隙構簿,圖相危害,豈有福哉?」遂兩釋之,使之從厚。) Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  8. ^ (常言當世士人宜講脩術學,校習射御,以周世務,而但交游博弈以妨事業,非進取之謂。後羣寮侍宴,言及博弈,以為妨事費日而無益於用,勞精損思而終無所成,非所以進德脩業,積累功緒者也。且志士愛日惜力,君子慕其大者,高山景行,恥非其次。夫以天地長乆,而人居其間,有白駒過隙之喻,年齒一暮,榮華不再。凡所患者,在於人情所不能絕,誠能絕無益之欲以奉德義之塗,棄不急之務以脩功業之基,其於名行,豈不善哉?夫人情猶不能無嬉娛,嬉娛之好,亦在於飲宴琴書射御之間,何必博弈,然後為歡。乃命侍坐者八人,各著論以矯之。於是中庶子韋曜退而論奏,和以示賔客。時蔡穎好弈,直事在署者頗斆焉,故以此諷之。) Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  9. ^ (是後王夫人與全公主有隙。權嘗寢疾,和祠祭於廟,和妃叔父張休居近廟,邀和過所居。全公主使人覘視,因言太子不在廟中,專就妃家計議;又言王夫人見上寢疾,有喜色。權由是發怒,夫人憂死,而和寵稍損,懼於廢黜。) Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  10. ^ (殷基通語曰:初權旣立和為太子,而封霸為魯王,初拜猶同宮室,禮秩未分。羣公之議,以為太子、國王上下有序,禮秩宜異,於是分宮別僚,而隙端開矣。自侍御賔客造為二端,仇黨疑貳,滋延大臣。丞相陸遜、大將軍諸葛恪、太常顧譚、驃騎將軍朱據、會稽太守滕胤、大都督施績、尚書丁密等奉禮而行,宗事太子,驃騎將軍步隲、鎮南將軍呂岱、大司馬全琮、左將軍呂據、中書令孫弘等附魯王,中外官僚將軍大臣舉國中分。權患之,謂侍中孫峻曰:「子弟不睦,臣下分部,將有袁氏之敗,為天下笑。一人立者,安得不亂?」於是有改嗣之規矣。) Tongyu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  11. ^ (魯王霸覬覦滋甚,陸遜、吾粲、顧譚等數陳適庶之義,理不可奪,全寄、楊笁為魯王霸支黨,譖愬日興。粲遂下獄誅,譚徙交州。) Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  12. ^ (時全寄、吳安、孫奇、楊笁等陰共附霸,圖危太子。譖毀旣行,太子以敗,霸亦賜死。流笁屍于江,兄穆以數諫戒笁,得免大辟,猶徙南州。霸賜死後,又誅寄、安、奇等,咸以黨霸搆和故也。) Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  13. ^ (臣松之以為袁紹、劉表謂尚、琮為賢,本有傳後之意,異於孫權旣以立和而復寵霸,坐生亂階,自構家禍,方之袁、劉,昏悖甚矣。步隲以德度著稱,為吳良臣,而阿附於霸,事同楊笁,何哉?和旣正位,適庶分定,就使才德不殊,猶將義不黨庶,況霸實無聞,而和為令嗣乎?夫邪僻之人,豈其舉體無善,但一為不善,衆美皆亡耳。隲若果有此事,則其餘不足觀矣!呂岱、全琮之徒,蓋所不足論耳。) Pei Songzhi's annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  14. ^ (權沈吟者歷年,後遂幽閉和。於是驃騎將軍朱據、尚書僕射屈晃率諸將吏泥頭自縛,連日詣闕請和。權登白爵觀見,甚惡之,勑據、晃等無事忩忩。權欲廢和立亮,無難督陳正、五營督陳象上書,稱引晉獻公殺申生,立奚齊,晉國擾亂,又據、晃固諫不止。權大怒,族誅正、象,據、晃牽入殿,杖一百, ...) Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  15. ^ (吳歷曰:晃入,口諫曰:「太子仁明,顯聞四海。今三方鼎跱,實不宜搖動太子,以生衆心。願陛下少垂聖慮,老臣雖死,猶生之年。」叩頭流血,辭氣不撓。權不納晃言,斥還田里。孫皓即位,詔曰:「故僕射屈晃,志匡社稷,忠諫亡身。封晃子緒為東陽亭侯,弟幹、恭為立義都尉。」緒後亦至尚書僕射。晃,汝南人,見胡沖荅問。) Wu Li annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  16. ^ (吳書曰:張純亦盡言極諫,權幽之,遂棄市。) Wu Shu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  17. ^ (... 竟徙和於故鄣,羣司坐諫誅放者十數。衆咸冤之。) Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  18. ^ ([赤烏]十三年 ... 八月, ... 廢太子和,處故鄣。魯王霸賜死。冬十月, ... 十一月,立子亮為太子。) Sanguozhi vol. 47.
  19. ^ (吳書曰:權寢疾,意頗感寤,欲徵和還立之,全公主及孫峻、孫弘等固爭之,乃止。) Wu Shu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  20. ^ (太元二年正月,封和為南陽王,遣之長沙。) Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  21. ^ (二年春正月,立故太子和為南陽王,居長沙; ...) Sanguozhi vol. 47.
  22. ^ (吳書曰:和之長沙,行過蕪湖,有鵲巢于帆檣,故官寮聞之皆憂慘,以為檣末傾危,非乆安之象。或言鵲巢之詩有「積行累功以致爵位」之言,今王至德茂行,復受國土,儻神靈以此告寤人意乎?) Wu Shu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  23. ^ (四月,權薨,諸葛恪秉政。恪即和妃張之舅也。妃使黃門陳遷之建業上疏中宮,并致問於恪。臨去,恪謂遷曰:「為我達妃,期當使勝他人。」此言頗泄。又恪有徙都意,使治武昌宮,民間或言欲迎和。) Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  24. ^ (及恪被誅,孫峻因此奪和璽綬,徙新都,又遣使者賜死。和與妃張辭別,張曰:「吉凶當相隨,終不獨生活也。」亦自殺,舉邦傷焉。) Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  25. ^ (何姬曰:「若皆從死,誰當養孤?」遂拊育皓,及其三弟。) Sanguozhi vol. 50.
  26. ^ (休薨,皓即阼,其年追謚父和曰文皇帝,改葬明陵,置園邑二百家,令、丞奉守。後年正月,又分吳郡、丹楊九縣為吳興郡,治烏程,置太守,四時奉祠。) Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  27. ^ (有司奏言,宜立廟京邑。寶鼎二年七月,使守大匠薛珝營立寢堂,號曰清廟。十二月,遣守丞相孟仁、太常姚信等備官寮中軍步騎二千人,以靈輿法駕,東迎神於明陵。皓引見仁,親拜送於庭。) Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  28. ^ (吳書曰:比仁還,中使手詔,日夜相繼,奉問神靈起居動止。巫覡言見和被服,顏色如平生日,皓悲喜涕淚,悉召公卿尚書詣闕門下受賜。) Wu Shu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  29. ^ (靈輿當至,使丞相陸凱奉三牲祭於近郊,皓於金城外露宿。明日,望拜於東門之外。其翌日,拜廟薦祭,歔欷悲感。比七日三祭,倡技晝夜娛樂。有司奏言「祭不欲數,數則黷,宜以禮斷情」,然後止。) Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  30. ^ (俊,張承外孫, ...) Wu Li annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  31. ^ (孫和何姬, ... 生男,權喜,名之曰彭祖,即皓也。) Sanguozhi vol. 50.
  32. ^ (孫休立,封和子皓為烏程侯,自新都之本國。) Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  33. ^ (吳歷曰:和四子:皓、德、謙、俊。孫休即位,封德錢唐侯,謙永安侯,俊拜騎都尉。) Wu Li annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  34. ^ (俊, ... 聦明辨惠,為遠近所稱,皓又殺之。) Wu Li annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  35. ^ ([甘露元年]九月,從西陵督步闡表,徙都武昌,御史大夫丁固、右將軍諸葛靚鎮建業。) Sanguozhi vol. 48.
  36. ^ (皓在武昌,吳興施但因民之不堪命,聚萬餘人,劫謙,將至秣陵,欲立之。未至三十里住,擇吉日,但遣使以謙命詔丁固、諸葛靚。靚即斬其使。但遂前到九里,固、靚出擊,大破之。但兵裸身無鎧甲,臨陣皆披散。謙獨坐車中,遂生獲之。固不敢殺,以狀告皓,皓酖之,母子皆死。) Wu Li annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  37. ^ (景字士仁,以尚公主拜騎都尉, ... 景妻,孫皓適妹,與景俱張承外孫也。) Sanguozhi vol. 58.