Chumo (Hangul: 추모, Hanja: 鄒牟), posthumously Chumo the Holy (Hangul: 추모성왕, Hanja: 鄒牟聖王), was the founding monarch of the kingdom of Goguryeo, and was worshipped as a god-king by the people of Goguryeo and Goryeo. Chumo was originally a Buyeo slang for an excellent archer, which became his name later.[note 1] He was commonly recorded as Jumong (Hangul: 주몽, Hanja: 朱蒙) by various Chinese literatures including history books written by Northern Qi and Tang—the name became dominant in future writings including Samguk Sagi and Samguk Yusa. Chumo's title was changed to Dongmyeong the Holy (Hangul: 동명성왕, Hanja: 東明聖王), literally translated to the Bright Holy King of the East, at some point of time prior to compilation of Samguk Sagi (1145). His other names include Chumong (Hangul: 추몽, Hanja: 鄒蒙),[note 2] Jungmo (Hangul: 중모, Hanja: 中牟),[note 3] Nakamu,[note 4] or Tomo.[note 5] In Samguk Sagi, he was recorded as Jumong with the surname Go (Hangul: 고, Hanja: 高), and was also known as Junghae (Hangul: 중해, Hanja: 衆解) or Sanghae (Hangul: 상해, Hanja: 象解).
|Chumo the Holy|
|King of Goguryeo|
|Reign||BC 37 – BC 19|
|Successor||Yuri of Goguryeo|
|Clan||Go clan / Hae clan|
|Revised Romanization||Chumo Seongwang / Dongmyeong Seongwang|
|McCune–Reischauer||Ch'umo Sŏngwang / Tongmyŏng Sŏngwang|
|Revised Romanization||Chumo / Go Jumong|
|McCune–Reischauer||Ch'umo / Ko Chumong|
Life and myth Edit
The records about Chumo are associated with both mythical and symbolic wordings. They are also mixed with legends about Dongmyeong of Buyeo involving supernatural events told among the people of Buyeo, Goguryeo, and Baekje—all monarchs from same ancestry. The founding myths of Goguryeo are told in ancient writings, including the Gwanggaeto Stele. The best-known version is found, with slight variations, in the Samguk Sagi, Samguk Yusa, and the "Dongmyeongwang" chapter (동명왕편, 東明王篇) of the Donggukisanggukjip (동국이상국집, 東國李相國集).
The following description is based on Samguk Sagi. As Eastern Buyeo did not exist at the time, consider it as Buyeo (or Northern Buyeo).
Hae Buru (해부루, 解夫婁), the king of Buyeo, performed religious ceremonies in hope of having a son as he was getting old without an heir. When he arrived to Gonyeon (or Gon Pond) (곤연, 鯤淵), he noticed his horse was dropping its tears in front of large rock. The king ordered to remove the rock, and he found a young boy who looked like a golden frog. The king treated the kid as a gift from heaven, and named him Geumwa (금와, 金蛙).[note 6] Hae Buru adopted Geumwa, and made him the Crown Prince when he became older.
Later, Aranbul (아란불, 阿蘭弗), the minister of Buyeo, told Hae Buru that he received the messages from the heaven. "The heaven will send its descendent and create new kingdom above Buyeo, thus the king should resettle at Gaseopwon (Korean: 가섭원; Hanja: 迦葉原),"[note 7] a fertile land next to the ocean. Hae Buru and his followers relocated the capital, and created new kingdom called Eastern Buyeo (Korean: 동부여; Hanja: 東扶餘). Meanwhile, in Buyeo, a person named Hae Mosu (Korean: 해모수; Hanja: 解慕漱), self-proclaiming as the Son of Heaven, established the new capital at Buyeo.
After Hae Buru died, Geumwa became the next king of Eastern Buyeo. When he went to Wubalsu (or Wubal Pond) (Korean: 우발수; Hanja: 優渤水), which is located at the south of Taebaeksan (or Taebaek Mountain) (Korean: 태백산; Hanja: 太白山),[note 8] he met a woman named Yuhwa (Korean: 유화; Hanja: 柳花)[note 9][note 10] who was a daughter of Habaek (Korean: 하백; Hanja: 河伯).[note 11] She told Geumwa that she was in exile by her father, because she slept with Hae Mosu, who was self claiming as the son of heaven, prior to the marriage. She explained Hae Mosu lured her to a place near Amrok (or Yalu River) (Korean: 암록; Hanja: 鴨綠) next to Ungsimsan (or Ungsim Mountain) (Korean: 웅심산; Hanja: 熊心山).[note 12] Geumwa thought her story strange, so he locked her in a room. While Yuhwa was locked, the sunlight followed her wherever she go, and she eventually became pregnant. After she gave a birth to a large egg, Geumwa gave the egg to dogs and pigs, but they refused to eat. He then put the egg on middle of the street, but cows and horses walked beside it. The egg was also thrown on the field, but birds came to protect it. After failing multiple attempts to crack the egg, Geumwa returned the egg to Yuhwa. Later, a boy was born from the egg. The young boy learned how to craft bow and arrows, and became the master of archery by age of 7 and earned the nickname Chumo, which was a slang word used to describe excellent archers by people of Buyeo.
Escaping Eastern Buyeo Edit
Daeso (Korean: 대소; Hanja: 帶素), the eldest of the seven sons of Geumwa, was worried Chumo would rise as a threat to him, but Geumwa commanded Chumo to take care of the horses.While raising the horses, Chumo intentionally gave more food to slow horses and gave less food to fast and talented horses to make them look unappealing and thin. When Geumwa went for hunting with others, Chumo was given the thin horse with fewer arrows, yet he was able to hunt more than anyone participated(because the horse was fast). The hunting episode increased Daeso's desire to kill Chumo. Seeing the increased threat, Yuhwa asked Chumo to leave the place and use his abilities elsewhere.
Chumo and his three friends—Oi (Korean: 오이; Hanja: 烏伊), Mari (Korean: 마리; Hanja: 摩離), and Hyeopbo (Korean: 협보; Hanja: 陜父)—escaped from Eastern Buyeo, followed by cavalries sent out by Daeso. Chumo and his companions arrived to Eomsasu (or Eomsa River) (Korean: 엄사수; Hanja: 淹㴲水), but failed to find bridge to cross the river. As the cavalries are approaching, Chumo asked the river to help, declaring him as the son of the Emperor of Heaven (Korean: 천제; Hanja: 天帝) and grandson of Habaek.[note 13][note 14] Answering Chumo's call, fishes and soft shell turtles floated from the river and created the bridge for Chumo to cross, then disappeared by the time troops arrived.[note 15]
Founding of Goguryeo Edit
After escaping the death, Chumo met three people, each wearing different cloths at Modungok (or Modun Valley) (Korean: 모둔곡; Hanja: 毛屯谷). Considering as gift from heaven, Chumo gave surname to each person: Jaesa, wearing hemp cloth, as Geuk Jaesa (Korean: 극재사; Hanja: 克再思); Mugol, wearing monk cloth, as Jungsil Mugol (Korean: 중실무골; Hanja: 仲室武骨); Mukgeo, wearing waterweed cloth, as Sosil Mukgeo (Korean: 소실묵거; Hanja: 少室默居).[note 16] Chumo gave roles to everyone, and together arrived at Holboncheon (or Holbon Stream) (Korean: 홀본천; Hanja: 忽本川).[note 17] Chumo wanted to build palace on Mountain, but he wasn't able to afford it. Thus he built a thatched house near Biryusu (or Biryu River) (Korean: 비류수; Hanja: 沸流水) and lived there. He named his new founding nation as Goguryeo (Korean: 고구려; Hanja: 高句麗), and changed his surname to Go (Korean: 고; Hanja: 高) at the age of 21 (B.C. 37). People who heard of the news of the birth of new nation joined him.
One day, Chumo saw vegetable leaves were floating on the Biryu River. He went hunting toward upper stream, and arrived at Biryuguk (or State of Biryu) (Korean: 비류국; Hanja: 沸流國). Song Yang (Korean: 송양; Hanja: 松讓), the king of Biryu, saw Chumo and told him to submit under him since the State of Biryu is stronger and older. Two kings had arguments and competed with archery skill, which Chumo was victorious. [B.C. 36] In June, Song Yang surrendered to Chumo. Chumo renamed the land to Damuldo (or Damul City) (Korean: 다물도; Hanja: 多勿都),[note 19] and appointed Song Yang to be the Marquis of Damul (Korean: 다물후; Hanja: 多勿侯) and continue to rule the area.
[B.C. 34] On July, the construction of wall and palace was completed. [B.C. 32] In October, Chumo sent Oi and Bu Bunno (Korean: 부분노; Hanja: 扶芬奴), and conquered Haenginguk (or State of Haengin) (Korean: 행인국; Hanja: 荇人國), which is located in southeast of Taebaek Mountain. [B.C. 28] In November, the king ordered Bu Wiyeom (Korean: 부위염; Hanja: 扶尉猒) to attack Northern Okjeo (Korean: 북옥저; Hanja: 北沃沮), and Bu Wiyeom successfully made Northern Okjeo to submit under Goguryeo.
[B.C. 24] In August, Yuhwa died in Eastern Buyeo. The funeral was held and the shrine was built in the manner of dowager by Geumwa. On October, Chumo sent an envoy along with regional products to Buyeo as a recompense for the virtue and generosity shown from Geumwa.[note 20]
[B.C. 19] On April, Yuryu (Korean: 유류; Hanja: 儒留) and his mother fled from Buyeo, and arrived to Goguryeo. Chumo set Yuryu as the crowned prince of Goguryeo. On September, Chumo died aged 39. He was buried at Yongsan (or Yong Mountain) (Korean: 용산; Hanja: 龍山),[note 21] and was posthumously given the title Dongmyeong-Seongwang.
Comparison and controversies Edit
|Stories from||Character||Birthplace or found||Birth event||River crossing event||Arrived to||Notes|
|Buyeo||Dongmyeong of Buyeo||Gori (Korean: 고리; Hanja: 高離) or
Takri (Korean: 탁리; Hanja: 橐離)
|Maid (or concubine) claim to be pregnant by holy spirit of size of an egg. King attempted to kill the boy, but was protected by animals.||The king became jealous of Dongmyeong's archery skill, so attempted to kill him. Dongmyeong ran southward, arrived at Yieomsu (or Yieom River) (Korean: 이엄수; Hanja: 施掩水). He hit the river with the bow, then fishes and softshell turtles created bridge for him to cross. His chasers were forced to return.||Dongmyeong arrived to Buyeo and became the king.||Records of the Three Kingdoms|
|Baekje||Dongmeyong of Buyeo||Saekri (Korean: 색리; Hanja: 索離) or
Goryeo (Korean: 고려; Hanja: 高麗)[note 22]
|Maid (or concubine) claim to be pregnant by sunlight with a sprit of a large egg. King attempted to kill the boy, but was protected by animals.||The king became jealous of Dongmyeong's archery skill, so attempted to kill him. Dongmyeong ran southward, arrived at Eomchesu (or Eomche River) (Korean: 엄체수; Hanja: 淹滯水). He hit the river with the bow, then fishes and softshell turtles created bridge for him to cross.||Dongmyeong arrived to Buyeo and became the king.||History of the Northern Dynasties|
Book of Sui
|Goguryeo||Chumo||Northern Buyeo||Chumo was son of Heaven and Lady Habaek (daughter of river god), who was born from the egg, came down to Earth.||He went southward by the order of (or from) □□□□□□, and arrived at Eomridaesu (or the Great Eomri River) (Korean: 엄리대수; Hanja: 奄利大水) of Buyeo. He ordered the river with divine authority, then reed and turtles made the bridge for him.||Arrived at Holbon in Biryugok (or Biryu Valley), and built the capital on the mountain.||Gwanggaeto Stele|
|Goguryeo||Jumong||Buyeo||Daughter of Habaek was pregnant by sunlight. She gave birth to an egg. King attempted to crack the egg, but was protected by animals. A boy was born from the egg.||People of Buyeo became jealous of Jumong's archery skill, and his mother insisted him to run away. Jumong ran Southeastward with two companions, and arrived to the river. He ordered river with divine authority, then fishes and softshell turtles created bridge for him to cross. His chasers were forced to return.||Jumong arrived to Bosulsu (or Bosul river) (Korean: 보술수; Hanja: 普述水) and found three person each wearing different outfit. Jumong and his followers established Goguryeo at Heulseunggolseong (or Heulseunggol Castle) (Korean: 흘승골성; Hanja: 紇升骨城), and changed surname to Go.||Book of Wei|
|Goguryeo/Tang||Dongmyeong of Buyeo||Dongmyeong, insisted by Spirit, crossed Sacheon (or Sa Stream) (Korean: 사천; Hanja: 㴲川), and established the nation.||Tombstone of Yeon Namsan, the third son of Yeon Gaesomun.|
|Goguryeo/Tang||Jumong||Jumong, embracing the Sun, arrived at Paesu (or Pae River) (Korean: 패수; Hanja: 浿水), and built the capital.||Tombstone of Yeon Namsan, the third son of Yeon Gaesomun.|
|Silla||Hyeokgeose||Najeong (or Na Well) (Korean: 나정; Hanja: 蘿井)||Sobyeoldori saw a horse was sitting and crying between trees. When he approached, horse disappeared but left behind an egg. He cracked the egg, and found Hyeokgeose.|
|Samguk Sagi||Geumwa||Gonyeon (or Gon Pond)||Hae Buru went to the pond, then his horse was dropping tears in front of the rock. He removed the rock and found Geumwa.||Geumwa's son Daeso sent out cavalries to pursuit Jumong.||Samguk Sagi|
|Samguk Sagi||Jumong as Dongmyeong-Seongwang||Eastern Buyeo||Yuhwa, who had slept with Hae Mosu, was then pregnant by sunlight, and gave birth to an egg. Geumwa attempted to crack the egg, but it was protected by animals. A boy was born from the egg.||Geumwa's son Daeso became jealous of Jumong. Jumong ran southward, arrived at Eomsasu (or Eomsa River) (Korean: 엄사수; Hanja: 淹㴲水). Jumong prayed to river, declaring his divine authority, then fishes and softshell turtles made bridge for him. His chasers were forced to return.||Jumong arrived to Jolboncheon (or Jolbon Stream), but was not afford to build palace. Thus, he lived in thatched house next to next to Biryusu (or Biryu River) (Korean: 비류수; Hanja: 沸流水), and created Goguryeo. He changed his surname to Go.||Samguk Sagi|
By comparing the myths, we can presume the following after eliminating overlapping and glorifying parts:
- The legend of Dongmyeong was shared among Buyeo origin kingdoms—Buyeo, Goguryeo, and Baekje, with variations.
- There seem to be an ancient kingdom located in north of Buyeo, which existed before the creation of Buyeo.
- Dongmyeong and Chumo were considered as separate entity by Goguryeo; however, the legend was mixed together before the reign of Jangsu. Many Buyeo and Goguryeo royals married since the birth of kingdom of Goguryeo, and appear to be mixed naturally or purposely to claim legitimacy and subjugating Buyeo.
- Eastern Buyeo was created after the invasion of Xian Bei. Many people ran to North Okjeo, and found Eastern Buyeo rather than returning to Buyeo.[note 23] The addition of Eastern Buyeo in the myth appears to be the process of claiming legitimacy and subjugating Eastern Buyeo, or was added during unified Silla or Goryeo period.[note 24]
- The description of the Book of Wei has the most similarities with the story written in Samguk Sagi. The myth was completed, exception to Eastern Buyeo related stories, by the time when the Book of Wei was written.
- By the time when Samguk Sagi was written, Dongmyeong and Chumo were considered as same person, posthumously changing the title of Chumo to Dongmyeong. The story of Geumwa also seems to be influenced by Heokgeose of Silla.
Alternative story Edit
There is an alternative story of Chumo, which was annotated by compilators of Samguk Sagi.[note 25] The name Soseono only appears here. The storyline can extend to the theory of coup led by Onjo, killing both Biryu and Soseono in order to claim Baekje for himself.[note 26]
The following description is based on Samguk Sagi.
Both Biryu (Korean: 비류; Hanja: 沸流) and Onjo (Korean: 온조; Hanja: 溫祚) were sons of Wu Tae (Korean: 우태; Hanja: 優台), the bastard grandson of Hae Buru, and Soseono (Korean: 소서노; Hanja: 召西奴), the daughter of Holbon native Yeon Tabal (Korean: 연타발; Hanja: 延陀勃). Unfortunately, Soseono became a widow after Wu Tae died. When Chumo arrived to Holbon, he established Goguryeo and married to Soseono.
Soseono supported Chumo every way possible, paving the way for the future of the Kingdom of Goguryeo, while Chumo helped raising her sons as if his own children. However, everything eventually turned against Soseono after Yuryu, the only biological son of Chumo from Lady Ye, came to Goguryeo and was appointed to the crowned prince. Biryu was displeased by the decision since Yuryu had zero contribution in creating the kingdom. Also in fear of purge by Yuryu after Chumo's death, Biryu led his followers along with Onjo and Soseono, and left Goguryeo to create his own kingdom.[note 27]
Records by people of Goguryeo Edit
There are only handful of records from Goguryeo still remaining today as many are lost throughout centuries. According to the records, Chumo was born in Northern Buyeo. He arrived to Holbon (Korean: 홀본; Hanja: 忽本), and built the capital on the mountain located west of Holbon. After He became tired of the throne, he went to the hill at east of Holbon, and died there.
Other records Edit
According to the Notes on History of the Three Kingdoms, previous Books written by Chinese dynasties made huge discrepancy on the history of Goguryeo by seeing the Old Goguryeo (Korean: 고고구려; Hanja: 古高句麗) and the New Goguryeo (Korean: 신고구려; Hanja: 新高句麗) as same entity, while separating Sosu Maek (Korean: 소수맥; Hanja: 小水爲) and the event written on Eastern Okjeo part. The Old Goguryeo was occupied by Han Dynasty shortly after the fall of Joseon, and became one of the county under Xuantu Commandery in B.C. 107. On the other hand, the New Goguryeo was founded by Chumo. In B.C. 82, New Goguryeo launched attack on Commanderies of Han, and was responsible for driving out Xuantu Commandery from original location to the northwest of Goguryeo.[note 28] Based on this, Chumo was old enough to command his military force by B.C. 82, which directly challenges to the records from Samguk Sagi.
However, there are indications that Goguryeo was actually older than 705 years based on the recordings.
- Tombstone of Go Ja recognized the history of Goguryeo as 708 years old. (B.C. 42)
- Silla recognized the history of Goguryeo as 800 years old in A.D. 670. (≈ B.C. 130)
- Tang recognized the history of Goguryeo as 900 years old in A.D. 668. (≈ B.C. 232)
According to Gwanggaeto Stele, Gwanggaeto the Great was the 17th generation (世孫) while Samguk Sagi recorded as 13th generation of Chumo. There are two analysis on this:
- Gwanggaeto the Great was the 17th generation after Chumo.
- Gwanggaeto the Great was the 17th generation after Daejuryu.
Regardless which, there is missing history of Goguryeo within the Samguk Sagi per evidence left by people at the time.
The Kingdom of Goguryeo eventually evolved into a great regional territory with considerable power and influence. Goguryeo existed for 705 years and was ruled by 28 consecutive emperors of the Go Dynasty until the collapse of the central government by the Silla-Tang alliance in 668. Both Goryeo (Balhae) and Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, and the modern descendants of Chumo still bear his family name of "Go."
In Goguryeo, Chumo was deified into an ancestral deity and he was worshipped throughout centuries.
In popular culture Edit
From 2006 to 2007, MBC aired an 81-episode drama, Jumong, to mark the network's anniversary. The series took elements from historical records and mythology, and retold the story in a more down-to-earth manner than found in the myths, recounting how Jumong, the spoiled stepchild of the Buyeo royal family, embarks on a journey of self-discovery, becoming a leading figure of Buyeo, but retreats from Buyeo after his step-brothers' betrayal. Relaunching the armed and militarily capable guerrilla fighters' force his biological father Hae Mo-su once headed, Jumong goes on a life mission to rescue and band together the refugees of the ancient Joseon peoples, leading the fight against the oppression of Imperial China, finally establishing himself as the king of the new nation Goguryeo.
From 2010 to 2011, KBS1 aired King Geunchogo, also known as The King of Legend. In this series, Jumong is portrayed as a tyrant who could not accept sharing the power over Goguryeo with Soseono and the Jolbon faction. After Yuri of Goguryeo's arrival, the declared crown prince and successor to Jumong's throne, Soseono and all her subordinates and servants decided to leave "their beloved Goguryeo" to establish a new kingdom "much more powerful than Goguryeo ever was."
Since 2017, KCTV aired 고주몽, a historical animation directed by Kim Kyung-ho at the SEK Studio. The animation contains the contents of Jumong, when he brings small countries of the same family together and builds up Goguryeo into a powerful nation. It deals with the history from the time when the parents Hae Mo-su and Yuhwa established their family until the birth of Jumong. In the first ten parts, Jumong tells the story of Buyeo, where he was born, and escaped. The first episode was broadcast on January 1, 2017, and so far 24 episodes have been broadcast. South Korean netizens were surprised at the quality development of the North Korean animation.
Actors who have played Jumong Edit
See also Edit
- The name is variously transcribed as "Jumong", "Jungmo", or "Domo".
- From Samguk Yusa, only in one chapter.
- In Silla.
- In Nara Japan, the Korean pronunciation is "Jungmo" (중모, 仲牟).
- In Heian Japan, the Korean pronunciation is "Domo" (도모, 都慕).
- Korean translation of golden frog is geumwa (금와). Frog is also used to describe Buyeo and Goguryeo as a metaphor, and is related to water. It can be phonetically translated as goma or gom (bear).
- The words Aranbul and Gaseopwon are originally from Buddhism. Buddhism was state religion of Goryeo when Samguk Sagi was written.
- translation: the Great White Mountain
- Yuhwa was recorded as Lady Habaek (Korean: 하백녀; Hanja: 河伯女) or Maiden Habaek (Korean: 하백여랑; Hanja: 河伯女郞) by Goguryeo and China.
- The Shoku Nihongi records that the ancestor of the royal family of Baekje is daughter of the river deity Habaek (하백, 河伯) which is similar to the Korean Chumo tales.
- Habaeak is a common noun for the river god in Asia.
- translation: Bear Heart Mountain
- Habaek is associated with the river god.
- 我是皇天之子, 母河伯女郎, 鄒牟王. 爲我連葭浮龜!
- In the Book of Wei, one of the oldest record of the myth, it is written "我是日子, 河伯外孫, 今日逃走, 追兵垂及, 如何得濟" describing relation to the Sun (日). Sun in Korean is 해 (Hae), and is one of the oldest native word.
- This can be interpret as joining of three different groups, or a meeting with three saints.
- Per History of Baekje, Chumo arrived to Holbon Buyeo (Korean: 홀본부여; Hanja: 忽本扶餘) and married to the second daughter of the king of Holbon Buyeo, and had two sons from her.
- Mohe or Malgal was the term used by Tang dynasty.
- Damul (多勿) is Goguryeo native word for reclaimed land.
- One of the common error within Samguk Sagi, mixing Eastern Buyeo and Northern Buyeo. Story involving Eastern Buyeo is a fabricated story hundreds years later. Early description of Eastern Buyeo actually means (Northern) Buyeo.
- Translation: Dragon Mountain
- Also can be pronounced as Gori.
- Samguk Sagi often confused Buyeo and Eastern Buyeo. Also the movement of people or troops is only described as north and south direction, not west and east.
- This could have been added during Yeon Gaesomun era, whose family was originated from Eastern Buyeo. Yeon family often related themselves with water.
- This storyline is actually more convincing and inartificial with cross validations.
- If Soseono is recognized, then Biryu also must be recognized as the founder of Baekje.
- This is an indication that Lady Ye, who came from Northern Buyeo, had more power and support than Soseono. Lady Ye was more likely a daughter of powerful family of Buyeo, which also prevents Daeso from purging Lady Ye and her family.
- 漢初, 燕亡人衛滿王朝鮮, 時沃沮皆屬焉. 漢武帝 元封二年, [集解4] 伐朝鮮, 殺滿孫右渠, 分其地爲四郡, [集解5] 以沃沮城爲玄菟郡. [集解6] 後爲夷貊所侵, 徙郡句麗西北, 今所謂玄菟故府是也. [集解7] 沃沮還屬樂浪. 漢以土地廣遠, 在單單大領之東, 分置東部都尉, [集解8] 治不耐城, [集解9] 別主領東七縣, 時沃沮亦皆爲縣. [集解10] — [集解7] 丁謙曰, 徙治古高句驪西北, 在昭帝五年, 正朱蒙開國後, 攘斥邊境, 沃沮與濊貊, 爲所役屬時, 傳云, 爲夷貊所侵, 實卽高句驪也.
- "모두루묘지(牟頭婁墓誌)". encykorea.aks.ac.kr. Retrieved 2021-09-11.
- Vovin, Alexander (2013). "From Koguryo to Tamna: Slowly riding to the South with speakers of Proto-Korean". Korean Linguistics. 15 (2): 231–232. doi:10.1075/kl.15.2.03vov.
- "Samguk Sagi Book 13 History of Goguryeo Part 1 Section 1". db.history.go.kr. Retrieved 2021-09-08.
- Shoku Nihongi
- "Samguk Sagi Book 23 History of Baekje Part 1 Section 1". db.history.go.kr. Retrieved 2021-09-15.
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