Kim Chwa-chin or Kim Chwa-jin (December 16, 1889 – January 24, 1930), sometimes called by his pen name Baekya, played an important role in the attempt of development of anarchism in Korea.
|Died||January 24, 1930Manchuria, China(aged 40)|
|Revised Romanization||Gim Jwajin|
Kim was born to a wealthy family of the Andong Kim lineage in Hongseong County, Chungcheong province. His father was Kim Hyeong-gyu. When Kim was 18, he released 50 families of slaves when he publicly burned the slave registry and provided each family with enough land to live on. This was the first emancipation of slaves in modern Korea.
In 1905, he moved to Seoul to attend an Army Military Academy. Back in 1907, he returned to HyangrI to establish a school named Namyeon School, to collect his wealth and provide 90 houses for school operation.
He also organized branches of the Korea Association and the Association for the Performing Arts in Hongseong to lead the movement for the enlightenment of patriotism. In 1909, he served as a director of the Hansung-Sik Company. He established a northwestern academic institution with An and Yi Kap, and established the Oh Sung-sung School as its affiliated educational institution to serve as vice president. He also helped establish a youth student association.
In 1911, he visited Jokdol Kim Jong-geun (6 years old) in DonuI-dong, a fund-raising institution, to establish the Independence Military Academy in northern Gando.
In 1916, he joined the Liberation Corps, which was formed by Park Sang-jin and Chae Ki-joong, together with Nobalin and Shin Hyun-dae. In 1918, he went to Manchuria to escape the supervision of Japan, joined a cult and signed the Muo Declaration of Independence, a prelude to the March 1 Declaration of Independence.
He joined the Korea Justice Corps, which focused on Senol, took military responsibility, reorganized the definition group into the military department, and was recommended as the commander. In 1919, he adopted the recommendation of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea and was renamed as the Northern military administration office army, and became the general commander of the armed independence army and focused on establishing the independence forces.
First of all, a military center was installed in the mountain song of Wangcheonghyeon to foster independence. He became a director himself, gave him strict training, and focused on acquiring weapons. In September 1920, 298 graduates from the First Military Academy were released.
When a Japanese military unit was sent to Manchuria in October for the purpose of the liberation of the Japanese army, it met with Japanese troops in Cheongsan-ri while moving its independence forces to Mount Baekdu. On October 21, the Battle of Cheongsan-ri took place after the Battle of Godonghae, starting with Baegun-ri, Baegung, on October 26. In particular, the Northern Korean military regime led by General Kim Jwa-jin contributed greatly to the victory in Cheongsan-ri by winning a great victory in the Battle of Baegun Pyeongjoon, Gonjeongjeon, and Eorang Village. His tactical strategy won a miraculous victory, marking a landmark in the battle for independence.
Later that year, he went through the office Northern Korean army and arrived at the North Manju Milsan Mountain near Russia. About 10 groups of independence fighters united and took office as vice president of the Korean Liberation Army. When many people moved to northern Russia on a silver lining to support the independence of small ethnic groups, Kim crossed the red river.
But it had thought that he returned to Manchuria to reunite and wait for the scattered comrades, and in March 1925, he founded Sinminbu and became vice chairman of the military and commander of the army. In addition, the school was established as the first place to teach and train elite military officers. At that time, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea appointed him as a member of the Cabinet, but he did not take office and concentrated only on fostering the independence forces.
When many officials were captured by the Japanese government in 1927, the new administration was reorganized to lead the new administration as chairman of the Central Committee of the Commission. In 1929, when the Korean General Association was established as the successor of the new people, it was designated as the President. On January 24, 1930, Kim Jwa-jin was assassinated by Park Sang-sil.
Kim Chwa-chin, had recognised and fought against Japanese imperialism from an early stage. In 1919 Kim established the Northern military administration office army (북로군정서군, 北路軍政署軍). General Kim lead the Korean Righteous Armies in the Battle of Cheongsanni.
Afterward General Kim was appointed as the chairman of an executive committee at the age of 38 and attempted to integrate the Independence Movement groups in China and Manchuria. When anarchist and nationalist groups founded a rebel community in Manchuria in the province of Shinmin in 1929, Kim Chwa-chin was chosen to lead its armed forces. He was charged with organizing and leading guerrilla attacks on the Japanese. Though the Japanese soldiers were far more experienced and better armed than Chwa-chin's band, Kim's attacks were successful both in defending the young anarchist community of Shinmin, and in encouraging other groups in northeast Asia to resist the occupiers.
Kim Chwa-chin was assassinated in 1930 while repairing a rice mill the Korean Anarchist Federation had built in Shinmin. Although his assassin was never found, the assassin's handler was caught and executed.
Shinmin after Kim Chwa-chinEdit
After the assassination of Kim Chwa-chin, the anarchist movement in Manchukuo and Korea became subject to massive repression. Japan sent armies to attack Shinmin from the south, while the former allies, the Chinese Soviet Republic, attacked from the north. By the summer of 1931, Shinmin's most prominent anarchists were dead, and the war on two fronts was becoming untenable. The anarchists went underground and anarchist Shinmin was no more.
As a leader of the Korean independence movement, Kim is remembered in both North and South Korea. In 1991, the town of Hongseong restored his birthplace. A festival is now held in his honor every October.
- Father: Kim Hyeong-Gyu
- 1st Wife: Lady Oh (오씨 부인)
- 2nd Wife: Lady Kim (김씨 부인)
- Ha Ki-rak (1986). History of the Korean anarchist movement. Seoul: Anarchist Publishing Committee.