This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2014)
Gojoseon (Korean: 고조선; Hanja: 古朝鮮), is the first Korean kingdom with written historical records, founded by Dangun, the legendary founder of Korean nation. It was a period in the History of Korea lasting from 2333 BCE (?) to 108 BCE. Gojoseon possessed the most advanced culture in the Korean peninsula at that time and was an important marker in the progression towards the more centralized states of later periods. The addition of Go (고, 古), meaning "ancient", is used to distinguish it from the much later Joseon dynasty (1392–1897 CE).
|Common languages||Ye-Maek language (Koreanic)|
• 2333 BC ? - ?
• ? - ?
• ? - 194 BC
• 194 BC - ?
• ? - 108 BC
|Wi Ugeo (last)|
• First mentioned in Chinese texts
|c. 700 BC|
• Coup by Wi Man
• Fall of Wanggeom
|Today part of||North Korea|
According to the Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms, Gojoseon was established in 2333 BCE by Dangun, who was said to be the offspring of a heavenly prince and a bear-woman. Although Dangun is a mythological figure for whom no concrete evidence has been found, the account has played an important role in the development of Korean identity. Today, the founding date of Gojoseon is officially celebrated as National Foundation Day in North Korea and South Korea.
Some of the same sources state that in the 12th century BCE, a sage, who also belonged to the royal family of the Shang dynasty of China, named Jizi (also known as Gija) immigrated to the Korean Peninsula and founded Gija Joseon. There are many interpretations of Gojoseon and Gija Joseon.
In 108 BC, the Chinese Han dynasty, under Emperor Wu, invaded and conquered Wiman Joseon. The Han established four commanderies to administrate the former Gojoseon territory. After the fragmentation of the Han Empire during the 3rd century and the subsequent chaotic 4th century, the area was lost from Chinese control and conquered by Goguryeo in 313 CE.
Gojoseon was first mentioned in ancient Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE. During its early phase, the capital of Gojoseon was in present-day Liaoning. Around 400 BCE it was moved to Pyongyang. In the southern region of the Korean Peninsula, the Jin state arose by the 3rd century BCE.
There are three different main founding myths concerning Gojoseon, which revolve around Dangun, Gija, or Wiman.
The myths revolving around Dangun were recorded in the later Korean work Samguk Yusa (삼국유사) of the 13th century. This work states that Dangun, the offspring of a heavenly prince and a bear-woman, founded Gojoseon in 2333 BC, and was succeeded by Gija (Qizi) after King Wu of Zhou had placed him onto the throne in 1122 BC. A similar account is found in Jewang Ungi. According to the legend, the Lord of Heaven, Hwanin had a son, Hwanung, who descended to Baekdu Mountain and founded the city of Shinsi. Then a bear and a tiger came to Hwanung and said that they wanted to become people. Hwanung said to them that if they went in a cave and lived there for 100 days while only eating mugwort and garlic he would change them into human beings. However, about halfway through the 100 days the tiger gave up and ran out of the cave. The bear, in contrast, successfully restrained herself and became a beautiful woman named Ungnyeo (웅녀, 熊女). Hwanung later married Ungnyeo, and she gave birth to Dangun.
While the Dangun story is considered to be a myth, it is believed it is a mythical synthesis of a series of historical events relating to the founding of Gojoseon. There are various theories on the origin of this myth. Seo and Kang (2002) believe the Dangun myth is based on integration of two different tribes, an invasive sky-worshipping Bronze Age tribe and a native bear-worshipping neolithic tribe, that led to the foundation of Gojoseon. Lee K. B. (1984) believes 'Dangun-wanggeom' was a title borne by successive leaders of Gojoseon.
Dangun is said to have founded Gojoseon around 2333 BC, based on the descriptions of the Samgungnyusa, Jewang Ungi, Dongguk Tonggam and the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty. The date differs among historical sources, although all of them put it during the mythical Emperor Yao's reign (traditional dates: 2357 BC? – 2256 BC?). Samgungnyusa says Dangun ascended to the throne in the 50th year of the legendary Yao's reign, Annals of the King Sejong says the first year, and Dongguk Tonggam says the 25th year.
In the 7th century BCE, the Yan pioneered the Northeast regions. According to The Growth of Yan and The Context of Guanzi, it can be presumed that Gojoseon grew through trade in this era. It is estimated that Gojoseon developed so far as to be able to war against the Yan in the 4th century BCE.
Gija, a man from the period of the Shang dynasty, allegedly fled to the Korean peninsula in 1122 BC during the fall of the Shang to the Zhou dynasty and founded Gija Joseon. Gija Joseon is recognized and mentioned in the earliest surviving Chinese record, Records of the Three Kingdoms. Gija's story was further developed in later Korean texts such as Samguk yusa and Jewang ungi. By the middle of Goryeo dynasty, a state cult had developed around Gija. The Dongsa Gangmok of 1778 described Gija's activities and contributions in Gojoseon. The records of Gija refer to Eight Prohibitions (Korean: 범금팔조; Hanja: 犯禁八條), that are recorded by the Book of Han and evidence a hierarchical society with legal protections of private property.
In pre-modern Korea, Gija represented the authenticating presence of Chinese civilization. Until the 12th century CE, Koreans commonly believed that Dangun bestowed upon Korea its people and basic culture, while Gija gave Korea its high culture, and presumably, standing as a legitimate civilisation.
Many modern experts have denied Gija Joseon's existence for various reasons, mainly due to contradicting archaeological evidence and anachronistic historical evidence. They point to the Bamboo Annals and the Analects of Confucius, which were among the first works to mention Gija, but do not mention his migration to Gojoseon. Gija Joseon might have just existed as a symbol of the pre-Qin dynasty migrants who escaped the chaos of the Warring States period.
Wi Man was a military officer of the Yan of northeastern China who fled to the northern Korean peninsula in 195 BCE from the encroaching Han dynasty. He founded a principality with Wanggeom-seong as its capital, which is thought to be in the region of present-day Pyongyang. The 3rd-century Chinese text Weilüe of the Sanguozhi recorded that Wi Man usurped King Jun and thus took over the kingship of Gojoseon.
Academic perspectives(Criticism of Korean nationalism)Edit
Gojoseon history can be divided into three phases, Dangun, Gija Joseon, and Wi Man Joseon.
- Kang & Macmillan (1980), Sohn et al. (1970), Kim J.B. (1980), Han W.K. (1970), Yun N. H. (1985), Lee K.B. (1984), Lee J.B. (1987) viewed the Dangun myth as a native product of proto-Koreans, although it is not always associated with Gojoseon. Kim J.B. (1987) rejected the Dangun myth's association with Gojoseon and pushes it further back to the Neolithic period. Sohn et al. (1970) suggested that the Dangun myth is associated with the Dongyi, whom they viewed as the ancestors of Koreans. Kim C. (1948) suggested the Dangun myth had a Chinese origin, tracing it to a Han Dynasty tomb in the Shandong peninsula.
- Gardiner (1969), Henderson (1959), McCune (1962) considered the Gija myth to be a later conflation. Sohn et al. (1970) dismissed the Gija story as a Chinese fabrication. On the other hand, Hatada (1969), gave Gojoseon a Chinese identity, exclusively ascribed it to the Gija myth, and moved it to the 3rd century BCE. Shim Jae-Hoon (2002) accepted the eastward migration of Gija, but denied the relationship between Gija and Joseon, suggesting that the existence of Gojoseon could not be extended to the second millennium BCE.
- Kim C.W. (1966), Han W.K. (1970), Choi M.L. (1983, 1984, 1985, 1992), Han W.K. (1984), Kim J.B. (1987), Lee K.B. (1984) accepted Wi Man as a historical figure. Gardiner (1969) questioned authenticity of the Wi Man myth, although he mentioned there were interactions between Gojoseon and the Han Dynasty and social unrest in the area during that time period.
Around the mid-Joseon Dynasty, the established view among historians traced Korean origins to Chinese refugees, considering Korean history that of a long series of kingdoms connected with China. As such, the Gija Joseon and Silla states were valorized, while the Gojoseon and Goguryeo states were not considered as important. According to this view, the first state in Korea, Gija Joseon, was founded by Jizi in 1122 BCE, who was a disgruntled Chinese advisor to the Shang Dynasty. The story of how he brought poetry, music, medicine, trade, and a political system to the Korean peninsula was conceived similarly to the proposed Founding of Rome by the Trojan refugee Aeneas. But by the 1930s, under the influence of Shin Chaeho's histories, the Jizi Korean founding story became less popular than that of Dangun, the son of a tiger and a bear – the latter being common in Japanese folklore – who brought civilization to the Korean peninsula. Shin and the other historians who promulgated this myth had been influenced by Daejonggyo, a new religious movement which worshipped Dangun, but attacked pre-annexation textbook narratives of Dangun which portrayed him as the brother of the Japanese god Susanoo. To Shin, Dangun was both the founder of the Korean minjok and the first Korean state (kuk), and thus the necessary starting point for Korean history. In response to a challenge by the Japanese scholars Shiratori Kurakichi and Imanishi Ryū of Dangun as a fabrication by the author of the Samguk yusa, nationalist historian Choe Nam-seon attacked Japanese mythology as being built upon fabrications.
By focusing on a mythological god which founded a "sacred race" (shinsŏng chongjok), Korean nationalist historiography seeks to portray ancient Korea as a golden age of "gods and heroes" where Korea's cultural achievements rivaled those of China and Japan. Accordingly, Shin Chaeho elevated Dangun to play a similar role as did the Yellow Emperor in China and which Amaterasu does in Japan. Choe Nam-seon, according to his Purham culture theory, places Dangun even above the Chinese and Japanese emperors, because those rulers were supposedly Shamanistic rulers of the ancient Korean "Părk" tradition. The Dangun story also lends credence to claims that Korean heritage is over 5000 years old. According to Hyung Il Pai, the popularity of Dangun studies can be said to "reflect the progressively ultra-nationalistic trend in Korean historical and archaeological scholarship today". Shin Chaeho named Mount Changbai (Baekdu in Korean) on the Sino-Korean border as a part of Korean heritage, by virtue of connection with the mythical Dangun. Changbai, however, was already claimed by the Manchus of China's Qing Dynasty since the 17th century for their origin myth, as well as by the Mongols, and the mountains are considered sacred in Han Chinese culture as well. This nationalist identification of Changbai/Baekdu with Koreans was cemented by the operation of Korean independence movement partisans operating from the Chinese border and retroactively legitimized with reference to the history of the Gojoseon and Balhae states. The Chinese civilizational connection to ancient Korea continues to be attacked by North Korean historians, who allege that the history of Gija Joseon was "viciously distorted by the feudal ruling class, the sadaejuui followers, and the big-power chauvinists".
Criticism of Gija myth in KoreaEdit
According to the Shangshu(尙書大傳) written by Fu Sheng in the early days of Han dynasty, there is a phrase "Giza, the royal family of the Shang dynasty(殷), went to Joseon and became king." Many Chinese librarians, including Records of the Grand Historian written by Sima Qian, follow these records. However, Shangshu is a document from the 3rd century BCE and it is too late to record what happened in the 11th century BCE. It has been consistently denied since Japanese colonial era due to the fact that no artifacts directly related to the culture of the Shang dynasty have been found in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula and northeastern China.
In the early Zhou dynasty, the feudal lords did not receive "already territorial land". It's more of a concept of being instructed to "go and conquer the province". Due to the limitations of the ancient era, feudalism were used, and some barbarian tribal chiefs became feudal lords as a result of negotiations. In addition, two-letter national names such as Joseon(朝鮮) were not used for feudal dynasties during the Zhou(周) era. Korean national names have a variety letter names, including one, two, and three. China, on the other hand, mainly used one-letter national names. The two-letter national name was commonly used by non-Zhou(周) ethnic countries, as in the case of Zhongshan(中山) and Gouwu(句吳). According to Weilüe(魏略), in the 4th century BC, Gojoseon attacked the Yan(燕) for the Zhu Dynasty, as pretext of a descendant of the Giza. This means that the descendants of Giza, a man from the 11th century BC, were not claimed until the 4th century BC. Considering this, he impersonated the lineage of Giza to advance into China.
If the Giza must have moved in, he should have brought a variety of relics. The weakness is that there is no rapid influx of other cultures in terms of relics. Indeed, if Zhou(周) immigrants have been brought into the social hierarchy, it is reasonable that there is clearly a noticeable change. Archaeologically, the arrival of the Chinese bronze dagger does not match the times of Giza.
The first mentions of Gojoseon are found in contemporaneous historical records of Guanzi of the early 7th century BCE. It locates Gojoseon around Bohai Bay and mentions the state trading with Qi (齊) of China. The Zhanguoce, Shanhaijing, and Shiji—containing some of its earliest records—refers to Joseon as a region, until the text Shiji began referring it as a country from 195 BC onwards.
By the 4th century BCE, other states with defined political structures developed in the areas of the earlier Bronze Age "walled-town states"; Gojoseon was the most advanced of them in the peninsular region. The city-state expanded by incorporating other neighboring city-states by alliance or military conquest. Thus, a vast confederation of political entities between the Taedong and Liao rivers was formed. As Gojoseon evolved, so did the title and function of its leader, who came to be designated as "king" (Han), in the tradition of the Zhou dynasty, around the same time as the Yan (燕) leader. Records of that time mention the hostility between the feudal state in Northern China and the "confederated" kingdom of Gojoseon. Notably, a plan to attack the Yan beyond the Liao River frontier is recorded. This confrontation led to the decline and eventual downfall of Gojoseon, described in Yan records as "arrogant" and "cruel". But the ancient kingdom also appears as a prosperous Bronze Age civilization with a complex social structure, including a class of horse-riding warriors who contributed to the development of Gojoseon and its northern expansion into most of the Liaodong basin.
Around 300 BCE, Gojoseon lost significant western territory after a war with the Yan state, but this indicates Gojoseon was already a large enough state that it could wage war against Yan and survive the loss of 2000 li (800 kilometers) of territory. Gojoseon is thought to have relocated its capital to the Pyongyang region around this time.
Wiman Joseon and Its FallEdit
In 195 BCE, King Jun appointed a refugee from Yan, Wi Man, to guard the frontier. Wi Man later rebelled in 194 BC and usurped the throne of Gojoseon. King Jun fled to Jin in the south of the Korean Peninsula.
In 109 BCE, Emperor Wu of Han invaded near the Liao River. A conflict would erupt in 109 BCE, when Wi Man's grandson King Ugeo (우거왕, hanja: 右渠王) refused to let Jin's ambassadors through his territory in order to reach the Han dynasty. When Emperor Wu sent an ambassador (涉何) to Wanggeom-seong to negotiate right of passage with King Ugeo, King Ugeo refused and had a general escort him back to Han territory. However, when they got close to Han's borders, he assassinated the general and claimed to Emperor Wu that he had defeated Joseon in battle. Emperor Wu, unaware of his deception, made him the military commander of the Commandery of Liaodong. King Ugeo, offended, made a raid on Liaodong and killed him.
In response, Emperor Wu commissioned a two-pronged attack, one by land and one by sea, against Gojoseon. The two forces attacking Gojoseon were unable to coordinate well with each other and suffered large losses. Eventually, the commands were merged, and Wanggeom fell in 108 BCE. Han took over the Gojoseon lands and established Four Commanderies of Han in the western part of former Gojoseon.
Gojoseon disintegrated by the 1st century BCE as it gradually lost the control of its former fiefs. Many successor states sprang from its former territory, such as Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye. Goguryeo and Baekje arose out from Buyeo.
Around 2000 BCE, a new pottery culture of painted and chiseled design was developed. These people practiced agriculture in a settled communal life, probably organized into familial clans. Rectangular huts and increasingly larger dolmen burial sites were found throughout the peninsula. Bronze daggers and mirrors have been excavated, and there is archaeological evidence of small walled-town states in this period. Dolmens and bronze daggers found in the area are uniquely Korean and cannot be found in China. A few dolmens are found in China, mostly in the Shandong province.
In the Mumun pottery period (1500 – 300 BCE), plain coarse pottery replaced earlier comb-pattern wares, possibly as a result of the influence of new populations migrating to Korea from Manchuria and Siberia. This type of pottery typically has thicker walls and displays a wider variety of shapes, indicating improvements in kiln technology. This period is sometimes called the "Korean Bronze Age", but bronze artifacts are relatively rare and regionalized until the 7th century BCE.
Rice cultivation was extensive in the lower parts of South Korea and Manchuria in the periods between 1900 BCE to 200 CE.
The beginning of the Bronze Age on the peninsula is usually said to be 1000 BCE, but estimates range from the 13th to 8th centuries BCE. Although the Korean Bronze Age culture derives from the Liaoning and Manchuria, it exhibits unique typology and styles, especially in ritual objects.
By the 7th century BCE, a Bronze Age material culture with influences from Manchuria, eastern Mongolia, as well as Siberia and Scythian bronze styles, flourished on the peninsula. Korean bronzes contain a higher percentage of zinc than those of the neighboring bronze cultures. Bronze artifacts, found most frequently in burial sites, consist mainly of swords, spears, daggers, small bells, and mirrors decorated with geometric patterns.
Gojoseon's development seems linked to the adoption of bronze technology. Its singularity finds its most notable expression in the idiosyncratic type of bronze swords, or "mandolin-shaped daggers" (비파형동검, 琵琶形銅劍). The mandolin-shape dagger is found in the regions of Liaoning, Hebei, and Manchuria down to the Korean Peninsula. It suggests the existence of Gojoseon dominions. Remarkably, the shape of the "mandolin" dagger of Gojoseon differs significantly from the sword artifacts found in China.
Megalithic dolmens appear in Korean peninsula and Manchuria around 2000 BCE to 400 BCE. Around 900 BCE, burial practices become more elaborate, a reflection of increasing social stratification. Goindol, the dolmen tombs in Korea and Manchuria, comprising upright stones supporting a horizontal slab, are more numerous in Korea than in other parts of East Asia. Other new forms of burial are stone cists (underground burial chambers lined with stone) and earthenware jar coffins. The bronze objects, pottery, and jade ornaments recovered from dolmens and stone cists indicate that such tombs were reserved for the elite class.
Around the 6th century BCE, burnished red wares, made of a fine iron-rich clay and characterized by a smooth, lustrous surface, appear in dolmen tombs, as well as in domestic bowls and cups.
Around 300 BCE, iron technology was introduced into Korea from Yan state. Iron was produced locally in the southern part of the peninsula by the 2nd century BCE. According to Chinese accounts, iron from the lower Nakdong River in the southeast was valued throughout the peninsula and Japan.
In the book of Gogeumju(古今注) written by Cui Bao(崔豹) of the Western Jin period, poetry called Gonghuyin(箜篌引) or Gongmudohaga(公無渡河歌) is said to be of Gojoseon origin. The poetry is as follows:
公無渡河 "Don't cross the river, my love."
公竟渡河 "My love eventually crossed the river.'
墮河而死 "Now that my love is drowned,"
當奈公何 "There's nothing that I can do."
Proto–Three Kingdoms of KoreaEdit
Numerous small states and confederations arose from the remnants of Gojoseon, including Goguryeo, the Buyeo kingdom, Okjeo, and Dongye. Three of the Chinese commanderies fell to local resistance within a few decades, but the last, Nakrang, remained an important commercial and cultural outpost until it was destroyed by the expanding Goguryeo in 313 CE.
Jun of Gojoseon is said to have fled to the state of Jin in the southern Korean Peninsula. Jin developed into the Samhan confederacies, the beginnings of Baekje and Silla, continuing to absorb migration from the north. The Samhan confederacies were Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan. King Jun ruled Mahan, which was eventually annexed by Baekje. Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla gradually grew into the Three Kingdoms of Korea that dominated the entire peninsula by around the 4th century.
- Seth, Michael J. (2010). A History of Korea: From Antiquity to the Present. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 443. ISBN 978-0-7425-6717-7.
- "An extreme manifestation of nationalism and the family cult was the revival of interest in Tangun, the mythical founder of the first Korean state... Most textbooks and professional historians, however, treat him as a myth."
- "Although Kija may have truly existed as a historical figure, Tangun is more problematical."
- Schmid, Andre (2013). Korea Between Empires. Columbia University Press. p. 270. ISBN 978-0-231-50630-4.
- "Most [Korean historians] treat the [Tangun] myth as a later creation."
- "The Tangun myth became more popular with groups that wanted Korea to be independent; the Kija myth was more useful to those who wanted to show that Korea had a strong affinity to China."
- "If a choice is to be made between them, one is faced with the fact that the Tangun, with his supernatural origin, is more clearly a mythological figure than Kija."
- uriminzokkiri 우리민족끼리 official website of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
- Kim, Djun Kil (2014). The History of Korea, 2nd Edition. ABC-CLIO. p. 8. ISBN 9781610695824.
- Ebrey, Patricia Buckley; Walthall, Anne (2013). Pre-Modern East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History, Volume I: To 1800. Cengage Learning. p. 100. ISBN 9781285546230.
- "기자조선". terms.naver.com (in Korean). Retrieved 2021-05-02.
- Peterson & Margulies 2009, p. 6.
- "Timeline of Art and History, Korea, 1000 BC – 1 AD". Metropolitan Museum of Art.
- Barnes, Gina (2000). State Formation in Korea: Historical and Archaeological Perspectives. Richmond: Curzon. p. 10. ISBN 9780700713233.
- Barnes, Gina (2000). State Formation in Korea: Historical and Archaeological Perspectives. Richmond: Curzon. p. 11. ISBN 9780700713233.
- Samguk Yusa《삼국유사》(三國遺事)
- 고조선(古朝鮮). Encyclopædia Britannica( Korean) (in Korean).
- Barnes 2001, pp. 9–14.
- 서강 2002.
- Lee 1984.
- 국학원 제24회 학술회의 - 단기 연호 어떻게 볼 것인가 - 단기가 최초로 산정된 것은 《동국통감》으로 요임금 즉위 25년 무진년을 기준으로 삼았다. 《동국통감》〈외기〉 의 주석에는 다음과 같은 해석이 실려있다. - 古記云, 檀君與堯竝立於戊辰, 虞夏至商武丁八年乙未, 入阿斯達山爲神, 享壽千四百十八年. 此說可疑今按, 堯之立在上元甲子甲辰之歲, 而檀君之立在後二十五年戊辰, 則曰與堯竝立者非也. 이에 대한 한글 해석은 네이버 지식백과 국역 동국통감(국역:세종대왕기념사업회) 에서 확인할 수 있다.
- Yoon, N.-H. (윤내현), The Location and Transfer of Go-Chosun's Capital (고조선의 도읍 위치와 그 이동), 단군학연구, 7, 207–38 (2002)
- Guanzi(管子) > 桓公問管子曰 吾聞 海內玉幣有七筴 可 得以聞乎 管子對曰 陰山之礌礝 一筴也 燕之紫山白金 筴也 發朝鮮之文皮 筴也 : Records of trade between Gojoseon and Qi
- Barnes 2001, pp. 9–10.
- Shim, Jae-Hoon (2002). "A new understanding of Kija Chosŏn as a historical anachronism". Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. 62 (2): 271–305. doi:10.2307/4126600. JSTOR 4126600.
- "Daum 요청하신 페이지의 사용권한이 없습니다". status.daum.net.
- Kyung Moon hwang, "A History of Korea, An Episodic Narrative", 2010, p. 4
- "古朝鮮과 琵琶形銅劍의 問題". 단군학연구 (12): 5–30. June 16, 2005 – via www.dbpia.co.kr.
- "기자조선". terms.naver.com.
- Immigrants provided Gojoseon with the opportunity to learn and incorporate advanced technologies, but it is believed that they were only a minor influence (e.g. because the Proto-koreanic language was still used in Gojoseon). It is presumed that later Koreans claimed to be "Gija" for their relations with China and for their desire to be a part of Chinese civilization.
- This may explain why the Jinhan people claim that they are descendants of the Qin dynasty.
- Cited in Barnes, Gina (2014). State Formation in Korea: Historical and Archaeological Perspectives. New York: Routledge. pp. 10–13. ISBN 9780700713233.
- Karlsson, Anders (December 2009). Northern Territories and the Historical Understanding of Territory in Late Chosŏn. Working Papers in Korean Studies. School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. p. 3.
- Simons, G. L. (1999). Korea: The Search for Sovereignty. Palgrave MacMillan. p. 70.
- Walraven, Boudewijn (2001). The Parliament of Histories: New Religions, Collective Historiography, and the Nation. Korean Studies. 25. p. 158. doi:10.1353/ks.2001.0024. S2CID 145784087.
- Han, Young-woo (1992). The Establishment and Development of Nationalist History. Seoul Journal of Korean Studies. 5. pp. 69–70.
- Armstrong, Charles K. (1995). Centering the Periphery: Manchurian Exile(s) and the North Korean State (PDF). Korean Studies. 19. p. 3. doi:10.1353/ks.1995.0017. S2CID 154659765.
- Allen, Chizuko T. (November 1990). Northeast Asia Centered Around Korea: Ch'oe Namsŏn's View of History. The Journal of Asian Studies. 49. pp. 793–795. doi:10.2307/2058236. JSTOR 2058236.
- Pai, Hyung Il (2000). Constructing "Korean" Origins: A Critical Review of Archaeology, Historiography, and Racial Myth in Korean State Formation Theories. Harvard University Asia Center. p. 2.
- Schmid, Andre (1997). Rediscovering Manchuria: Sin Ch'aeho and the Politics of Territorial History in Korea. Journal of Asian Studies. 56. p. 32. doi:10.2307/2646342. JSTOR 2646342.
- Allen, Chizuko T. (November 1990). Northeast Asia Centered Around Korea: Ch'oe Namsŏn's View of History. The Journal of Asian Studies. 49. p. 800. doi:10.2307/2058236. JSTOR 2058236.
- Pai, Hyung Il (2000). Constructing "Korean" Origins: A Critical Review of Archaeology, Historiography, and Racial Myth in Korean State Formation Theories. Harvard University Asia Center. pp. 95–96.
- Pai, Hyung Il (2000). Constructing "Korean" Origins: A Critical Review of Archaeology, Historiography, and Racial Myth in Korean State Formation Theories. Harvard University Asia Center. p. 254.
- Kim, Seonmin (June 2007). Ginseng and Border Trespassing Between Qing China and Chosŏn Korea. Late Imperial China. 28. pp. 42–43. doi:10.1353/late.2007.0009. S2CID 143779357.
- Armstrong, Charles K. (1995). Centering the Periphery: Manchurian Exile(s) and the North Korean State (PDF). Korean Studies. 19. p. 2. doi:10.1353/ks.1995.0017. S2CID 154659765.
- Ch'oe, Yŏng-ho (May 1981). Reinterpreting Traditional History in North Korea. The Journal of Asian Studies. 40. pp. 503–505. doi:10.2307/2054553. JSTOR 2054553.
- Giza Joseon in korean wikipedia
- "Theory of Gija's Migration to Korea". Encyclopedia of Korean Culture.
- 고조선 (in Korean). Naver/Doosan Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 2012-07-01.
- Barnes, Gina (2000). State Formation in Korea: Historical and Archaeological Perspectives. Richmond: Curzon. pp. 9–10. ISBN 9780700713233.
- "Korea's Place in the Sun". The New York Times.
- Academy of Korean Studies, The Review of Korean Studies, vol. 10권,3–4, 2007, p. 222
- Lee Injae, Owen Miller, Park Jinhoon, Yi Hyun-Hae, Korean History in Maps, Cambridge University Press, 2014, p. 20
- Jae-eun Kang, The Land of Scholars: Two Thousand Years of Korean Confucianism, Homa & Sekey Books, 2006, pp. 28–31
- "North Korea - THE ORIGINS OF THE KOREAN NATION". www.country-data.com.
- Joussaume, Roger (1988). Dolmens for the dead : megalith-building throughout the world. London: Batsford. ISBN 0713453699. OCLC 15593505.
- "청동기문화". terms.naver.com.
- 김정배, 고조선 연구의 사적 고찰 (Historical Survey on Research of Kochosun), 단군학연구, 7, 185 - 206 (2002)
- The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Arts of Korea, Bronze Age Objects
- "A Tripolar Approach to East Asian History" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-07-04. Retrieved 2015-04-29.
- Holcombe, Charles (December 16, 2011). A History of East Asia: From the Origins of Civilization to the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521515955 – via Google Books.
- "The term was used again by a refugee from the Han dynasty named Wiman, set up a kingdom in Korea called Wiman Joseon around 200 BCE."
- "The earliest documented event in Korean history involves China. After an unsuccessful uprising against the first Han emperor Gaozu, the defeated rebels sought refuge beyond the imperial frontier and one of them Wiman, took control of Joseon, a Korean state in the north of the peninsula."
- Kim, Jinwung (2012). A History of Korea: From "Land of the Morning Calm" to States in Conflict. Indiana University Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0253000248.
- "For instance, Wiman, a refugee from the Yan dynasty, which then existed around present-day Beijing, led his band of more than 1,000 followers into exile in Old Joseon in the early second century BCE."
- "Retaliation by the Han then brought in refugees from Yan, the most notable of whom was a warlord, Weiman ('Wiman' in Korean), who, somewhere around 200 BCE, led his followers into the territory held by Joseon."
- Xu, Stella Yingzi (2007). That glorious ancient history of our nation. University of California, Los Angeles. p. 220. ISBN 9780549440369.
- "Here, Wiman was described as a "Gu Yanren 故燕人"or a person from former Yan. It is confusing because there were two entities named Yan around this period. The first was the Yan state, which was one of the seven states during the Warring States period, and the second was the vassal state of Yan of the Han dynasty."
- Barnes, Gina Lee (2001). State Formation in Korea: Historical and Archaeological Perspectives. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-7007-1323-3.
- Lee, Ki-Baik (1984). A New History of Korea. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-61575-5.
- Peterson, Mark; Margulies, Phillip (2009). A brief history of Korea. New York, NY: Facts On File. ISBN 9781438127385.
- 서, 의식; 강, 봉룡 (2002). 뿌리 깊은 한국사 샘이 깊은 이야기 1 : 고조선·삼국 [Deep-rooted Korean History 1 : Gojoseon·Three Kingdoms] (in Korean). 솔. ISBN 978-8981335366.