A month is a unit of time, used with calendars, that is approximately as long as a natural orbital period of the Moon; the words month and Moon are cognates. The traditional concept arose with the cycle of Moon phases; such lunar months ("lunations") are synodic months and last approximately 29.53 days. From excavated tally sticks, researchers have deduced that people counted days in relation to the Moon's phases as early as the Paleolithic age. Synodic months, based on the Moon's orbital period with respect to the Earth-Sun line, are still the basis of many calendars today, and are used to divide the year.
Types of months in astronomyEdit
The following types of months are mainly of significance in astronomy, most of them (but not the distinction between sidereal and tropical months) first recognized in Babylonian lunar astronomy.
- The sidereal month is defined as the Moon's orbital period in a non-rotating frame of reference (which on average is equal to its rotation period in the same frame). It is about 27.32166 days (27 days, 7 hours, 43 minutes, 11.6 seconds). It is closely equal to the time it takes the Moon to pass twice a "fixed" star (different stars give different results because all have a very small proper motion and are not really fixed in position).
- A synodic month is the most familiar lunar cycle, defined as the time interval between two consecutive occurrences of a particular phase (such as new moon or full moon) as seen by an observer on Earth. The mean length of the synodic month is 29.53059 days (29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes, 2.8 seconds). Due to the eccentricity of the lunar orbit around Earth (and to a lesser degree, the Earth's elliptical orbit around the Sun), the length of a synodic month can vary by up to seven hours.
- The tropical month is the average time for the Moon to pass twice through the same equinox point of the sky. It is 27.32158 days, very slightly shorter than the sidereal month (27.32166) days, because of precession of the equinoxes.
- An anomalistic month is the average time the Moon takes to go from perigee to perigee—the point in the Moon's orbit when it is closest to Earth. An anomalistic month is about 27.55455 days on average.
- The draconic month, draconitic month, or nodal month is the period in which the Moon returns to the same node of its orbit; the nodes are the two points where the Moon's orbit crosses the plane of the Earth's orbit. Its duration is about 27.21222 days on average.
A synodic month is longer than a sidereal month because the Earth-Moon system is orbiting the Sun in the same direction as the Moon is orbiting the Earth. The Sun moves eastward with respect to the stars (as does the Moon) and it takes about 2.2 days longer for the Moon to return to the same apparent position with respect to the Sun.
An anomalistic month is longer than a sidereal month because the perigee moves in the same direction as the Moon is orbiting the Earth, one revolution in nine years. Therefore, the Moon takes a little longer to return to perigee than to return to the same star.
A draconic month is shorter than a sidereal month because the nodes move in the opposite direction as the Moon is orbiting the Earth, one revolution in 18.6 years. Therefore, the Moon returns to the same node slightly earlier than it returns to the same star.
At the simplest level, most well-known lunar calendars are based on the initial approximation that 2 lunations last 59 solar days: a 30-day full month followed by a 29-day hollow month—but this is only roughly accurate and eventually needs intercalation (correction). Additionally, the synodic month does not fit easily into the solar (or 'tropical') year, which makes accurate, rule-based 'lunisolar' calendars complicated. The most common solution to this problem is the Metonic cycle, which takes advantage of the fact that 235 lunations are approximately 19 tropical years (which add up to not quite 6,940 days). However, a Metonic calendar will drift against the seasons by about one day every 200 years. Metonic calendars include the calendar used in the Antikythera Mechanism about 2,000 years ago, and the Hebrew calendar.
The complexity required in an accurate lunisolar calendar may explain why solar calendars (which have months which no longer relate to the phase of the Moon, but are based only on the motion of the Sun relative to the equinoxes and solstices) have generally replaced lunar calendars for civil use in most societies. Conversely, exclusively lunar calendars such as the Islamic calendar, do not try to synchronise with the solar year. (Consequently, an Islamic year is shorter than a solar year and the Islamic New Year has a different Gregorian calendar date in each (solar) year.)
Months in various calendarsEdit
Beginning of the lunar monthEdit
However, the motion of the Moon in its orbit is very complicated and its period is not constant. The date and time of this actual observation depends on the exact geographical longitude as well as latitude, atmospheric conditions, the visual acuity of the observers, etc. Therefore, the beginning and lengths of months defined by observation cannot be accurately predicted.
Pingelapese, a language from Micronesia, also uses a lunar calendar. There are 12 months associated with their calendar. The moon first appears in March,[clarification needed] they name this month Kahlek. This system has been used for hundreds of years and throughout many generations. This calendar is cyclical and relies on the position and shape of the moon.
Roman calendar was reformed several times, the last three enduring reforms during historical times. The last three reformed Roman calendars are called the Julian, Augustan, and Gregorian; all had the same number of days in their months. Despite other attempts, the names of the months after the Augustan calendar reform have persisted, and the number of days in each month (except February) have remained constant since before the Julian reform. The Gregorian calendar, like the Roman calendars before it, has twelve months, whose Anglicized names are:
Order Name Number
1 January 31 2 February 28
29 in leap years
3 March 31 4 April 30 5 May 31 6 June 30 7 July
31 8 August
31 9 September 30 10 October 31 11 November 30 12 December 31
The famous mnemonic Thirty days hath September is a common way of teaching the lengths of the months in the English-speaking world. The knuckles of the four fingers of one's hand and the spaces between them can be used to remember the lengths of the months. By making a fist, each month will be listed as one proceeds across the hand. All months landing on a knuckle are 31 days long and those landing between them are 30 days long, with variable February being the remembered exception. When the knuckle of the index finger is reached (July), go over to the first knuckle on the other fist, held next to the first (or go back to the first knuckle) and continue with August. This physical mnemonic has been taught to primary school students for many decades, if not centuries.
This cyclical pattern of month lengths matches the musical keyboard alternation of wide white keys (31 days) and narrow black keys (30 days). The note F corresponds to January, and the diabolis in musica note F♯ corresponds to February, the exceptional 28–29 day month.
The mean month-length in the Gregorian calendar is 30.436875 days.
Any five consecutive months, that do not include February, contain 153 days.
Calends, nones, and idesEdit
Months in the pre-Julian Roman calendar included:
- Intercalaris an intercalary month occasionally embedded into February, to realign the calendar.
- Quintilis, later renamed to Julius in honour of Julius Caesar.
- Sextilis, later renamed to Augustus in honour of Augustus.
The Romans divided their months into three parts, which they called the calends, the nones, and the ides. Their system is somewhat intricate. The ides occur on the thirteenth day in eight of the months, but in March, May, July, and October, they occur on the fifteenth. The nones always occur 8 days (one Roman ‘week’) before the ides, i.e., on the fifth or the seventh. The calends are always the first day of the month,[a] and before Julius Caesar's reform fell sixteen days (two Roman weeks) after the ides (except the ides of February and the intercalary month).
Relations between dates, weekdays, and months in the Gregorian calendarEdit
Within a month, the following dates fall on the same day of the week:
- 01, 08, 15, 22, and 29 (e.g., in January 2021, all these dates fell on a Friday)
- 02, 09, 16, 23, and 30 (e.g., in January 2021, all these dates fell on a Saturday)
- 03, 10, 17, 24, and 31 (e.g., in January 2021, all these dates fell on a Sunday)
- 04, 11, 18, and 25 (e.g., in January 2021, all these dates fell on a Monday)
- 05, 12, 19, and 26 (e.g., in January 2021, all these dates fell on a Tuesday)
- 06, 13, 20, and 27 (e.g., in January 2021, all these dates fell on a Wednesday)
- 07, 14, 21, and 28 (e.g., in January 2021, all these dates fell on a Thursday)
Some months have the same date/weekday structure.
In a non-leap year:
- January/October (e.g., in 2021, they began/begin on a Friday)
- February/March/November (e.g., in 2021, they began/begin on a Monday )
- April/July (e.g., in 2021, they began/begin on a Thursday)
- September/December (e.g., in 2021, they begin on a Wednesday)
- January 1 and December 31 fall on the same weekday (e.g. in 2021 on a Friday)
In a leap year:
- February/August (e.g. in 2020, they begin on a Saturday)
- March/November (e.g., in 2020, they begin on a Sunday)
- January/April/July (e.g., in 2020, they begin on a Wednesday)
- September/December (e.g., in 2020, they begin on a Tuesday)
- February 29 (the leap day) falls on the same weekday like February 1, 08, 15, 22, and August 1 (see above; e.g. in 2020 on a Saturday)
The Hebrew calendar has 12 or 13 months.
- Nisan, 30 days ניסן
- Iyar, 30 days אייר
- Sivan, 30 days סיון
- Tammuz, 29 days תמוז
- Av, 30 days אב
- Elul, 29 days אלול
- Tishri, 30 days תשרי
- Marcheshvan, 29/30 days מַרְחֶשְׁוָן
- Kislev, 30/29 days כסלו
- Tevet, 29 days טבת
- Shevat, 30 days שבט
- Adar 1, 30 days, intercalary month אדר א
- Adar 2, 29 days אדר ב
Adar 1 is only added 7 times in 19 years. In ordinary years, Adar 2 is simply called Adar.
There are also twelve months in the Islamic calendar. They are named as follows:
- Muharram (Restricted/sacred) محرّم
- Safar (Empty/Yellow) صفر
- Rabī' al-Awwal/Rabi' I (First Spring) ربيع الأول
- Rabī' ath-Thānī/Rabi' al-Aakhir/Rabi' II (Second spring or Last spring) ربيع الآخر أو ربيع الثاني
- Jumada al-Awwal/Jumaada I (First Freeze) جمادى الأول
- Jumada ath-Thānī or Jumādā al-Thānī/Jumādā II (Second Freeze or Last Freeze) جمادى الآخر أو جمادى الثاني
- Rajab (To Respect) رجب
- Sha'bān (To Spread and Distribute) شعبان
- Ramadān (Parched Thirst) رمضان
- Shawwāl (To Be Light and Vigorous) شوّال
- Dhu al-Qi'dah (The Master of Truce) ذو القعدة
- Dhu al-Hijjah (The Possessor of Hajj) ذو الحجة
See Islamic calendar for more information on the Islamic calendar.
|Gregorian month||Arabic month|
|January||يناير||كانون الثاني||Kanun Al-Thani|
|October||أكتوبر||تشرين الأول||Tishrin Al-Awwal|
|November||نوفمبر||تشرين الثاني||Tishrin Al-Thani|
|December||ديسمبر||كانون الأول||Kanun Al-Awwal|
The Hindu calendar has various systems of naming the months. The months in the lunar calendar are:
|Sanskrit name||Tamil name||Telugu name||Nepali name|
|1||Chaitra (चैत्र)||Chitirai (சித்திரை)||Chaithramu (చైత్రము)||Chaitra (चैत्र/चैत)|
|2||Vaiśākha (वैशाख)||Vaikasi (வைகாசி)||Vaisaakhamu (వైశాఖము)||Baisakh (बैशाख)|
|3||Jyeṣṭha (ज्येष्ठ)||Aani (ஆனி)||Jyeshttamu (జ్యేష్ఠము)||Jesth (जेष्ठ/जेठ)|
|4||Ashadha (आषाढ)||Aadi (ஆடி)||Aashaadhamu (ఆషాఢము)||Aasad (आषाढ/असार)|
|5||Śrāvaṇa (श्रावण)||Aavani (ஆவணி)||Sraavanamu (శ్రావణము)||Srawan (श्रावण/साउन)|
|6||Bhadrapada (भाद्रपद)||Purratasi (புரட்டாசி)||Bhaadhrapadamu (భాద్రపదము)||Bhadau (भाद्र|भदौ)|
|7||Āśvina (अश्विन)||Aiypasi (ஐப்பசி)||Aasveeyujamu (ఆశ్వయుజము)||Asoj (आश्विन/असोज)|
|8||Kārtika (कार्तिक)||Kaarthigai (கார்த்திகை)||Kaarthikamu (కార్తీకము)||Kartik (कार्तिक)|
|9||Mārgaśīrṣa (मार्गशीर्ष)||Maargazhi (மார்கழி)||Maargaseershamu (మార్గశిరము)||Mangsir (मार्ग/मंसिर)|
|10||Pauṣa (पौष)||Thai (தை)||Pushyamu (పుష్యము)||Push (पौष/पुष/पूस)|
|11||Māgha (माघ)||Maasi (மாசி)||Maaghamu (మాఘము)||Magh (माघ)|
|12||Phālguna (फाल्गुन)||Panguni (பங்குனி)||Phaalgunamu (ఫాల్గుణము)||Falgun (फाल्गुन/फागुन)|
These are also the names used in the Indian national calendar for the newly redefined months. Purushottam Maas or Adhik Maas (translit. adhika = 'extra', māsa = 'month') is an extra month in the Hindu calendar that is inserted to keep the lunar and solar calendars aligned. "Purushottam" is an epithet of Vishnu, to whom the month is dedicated.
The names in the solar calendar are just the names of the zodiac sign in which the sun travels. They are
The Baháʼí calendar is the calendar used by the Baháʼí Faith. It is a solar calendar with regular years of 365 days, and leap years of 366 days. Years are composed of 19 months of 19 days each (361 days), plus an extra period of "Intercalary Days" (4 in regular and 5 in leap years). The months are named after the attributes of God. Days of the year begin and end at sundown.
Iranian calendar (Persian calendar)Edit
- Farvardin (31 days, فروردین)
- Ordibehesht (31 days, اردیبهشت)
- Khordad (31 days, خرداد)
- Tir (31 days, تیر)
- Mordad (31 days, مرداد)
- Shahrivar (31 days, شهریور)
- Mehr (30 days, مهر)
- Aban (30 days, آبان)
- Azar (30 days, آذر)
- Dey (30 days, دی)
- Bahman (30 days, بهمن)
- Esfand (29 days- 30 days in leap year, اسفند)
Reformed Bengali calendarEdit
|No.||Name (Bengali)||Name (Sylheti)||Name (Rohingya)||Season||Days||Roman months|
|1||Boishakh (বৈশাখ)||Boishakh||Boicák||Grishmo (গ্রীষ্ম)||31||14 April – May|
|2||Joishtho (জ্যৈষ্ঠ)||Zoit||Zeth||Grishmo (গ্রীষ্ম)||31||May – June|
|3||Asharh (আষাঢ়)||Aaŗ||Acár||Borsha (বর্ষা)||31||June – July|
|4||Shrabon (শ্রাবণ)||Haon||Cón||Borsha (বর্ষা)||31||July – August|
|5||Bhadro (ভাদ্র)||Bhado||Bádo||Shorot (শরৎ)||31||August – September|
|6||Aashin (আশ্বিন)||Ashin||Acín||Shorot (শরৎ)||30||September – October|
|7||Kartik (কার্তিক)||Khati||Hati||Hemonto(হেমন্ত)||30||October – November|
|8||Ogrohayon (অগ্রহায়ণ)||Aghon||Óon||Hemonto(হেমন্ত)||30||November – December|
|9||Poush (পৌষ)||Phush||Fuc||Sheet (শীত)||30||December – January|
|10||Magh (মাঘ)||Magh (মাঘ)||Mak||Sheet (শীত)||30||January – February|
|11||Falgun (ফাল্গুন)||Fagun||Fóon||Boshonto (বসন্ত)||30 (31 in leap years)||February – March|
|12||Choitro (চৈত্র)||Soit||Soit||Boshonto (বসন্ত)||30||March – April|
|1||Chet||ਚੇਤ||31||14 March – 13 April|
|2||Vaisakh||ਵੈਸਾਖ||31||14 April – 14 May|
|3||Jeth||ਜੇਠ||31||15 May – 14 June|
|4||Harh||ਹਾੜ||31||15 June – 15 July|
|5||Sawan||ਸਾਵਣ||31||16 July – 15 August|
|6||Bhadon||ਭਾਦੋਂ||30||16 August – 14 September|
|7||Assu||ਅੱਸੂ||30||15 September – 14 October|
|8||Katak||ਕੱਤਕ||30||15 October – 13 November|
|9||Maghar||ਮੱਘਰ||30||14 November – 13 December|
|10||Poh||ਪੋਹ||30||14 December – 12 January|
|11||Magh||ਮਾਘ||30||13 January – 11 February|
|12||Phagun||ਫੱਗਣ||30/31||12 February – 13 March|
Like the Hindu calendar, the Khmer calendar consists of both a lunar calendar and a solar calendar. The solar is used more commonly than the lunar calendar. There are 12 months and the numbers of days follow the Julian and Gregorian calendar.
|Gregorian month||Meaning||Zodiac sign|
|January||មករា||Meăkăra||មករ meăkâ; "naga"||Capricorn|
|February||កុម្ភៈ||Kŏmpheăk||ក្អម k’âm; "clay pitcher"||Aquarius|
|March||មិនា/មីនា||Mĭnéa/Mina||ត្រី trei; "fish"||Pisces|
|April||មេសា||Mésa||ចៀម chiĕm; "sheep"||Aries|
|May||ឧសភា||Ŭsăphéa||គោឈ្មោល koŭ chhmoŭl; "bull"||Taurus|
|June||មិថុនា||Mĭthŏna||គូ ku; "couple"||Gemini|
|July||កក្កដា||Kăkăda||ក្ដាម kdam; "crab"||Cancer|
|August||សីហា||Seiha||សីហៈ seihă; "lion"||Leo|
|September||កញ្ញា||Kănha||ក្រមុំ krâmŭm; "maiden"||Virgo|
|October||តុលា||Tŏla||ជញ្ជីង chónhching; "scales"||Libra|
|November||វិច្ឆិកា||Vĭchhĕka||ខ្ទួយ khtuŏy; "scorpion"||Scorpio|
|December||ធ្នូ||Thnu||ធ្នូ thnu; "bow, arc"||Sagittarius|
The Khmer lunar calendar contains 12 months; however, the eighth month is repeated (as a "leap month") every two or three years, making 13 months instead of 12.
|English name||Thai name||Abbr.||Transcription||Sanskrit word||Zodiac sign|
|February||กุมภาพันธ์||ก.พ.||kumphaphan||kumbha "pitcher, water-pot"||Aquarius|
|March||มีนาคม||มี.ค.||minakhom||mīna "(a specific kind of) fish"||Pisces|
|June||มิถุนายน||มิ.ย.||mithunayon||mithuna "a pair"||Gemini|
|December||ธันวาคม||ธ.ค.||thanwakhom||dhanu "bow, arc"||Sagittarius|
The Tongan calendar is based on the cycles of the moon around the earth in one year. The months are:
- Liha Mu'a
- Liha Mui
- Vai Mu'a
- Vai Mui
- Faka'afu Mo'ui
- Faka'afu Mate
- Hilinga Kelekele
- Hilinga Mea'a
|Malayalam name||Transliteration||Concurrent Gregorian months||Sanskrit word and meaning||Zodiac sign|
|ധനു||dha-nu||December–January||dhanu "bow, arc"||Sagittarius|
|കുംഭം||kum-bha-m||February–March||kumbha "pitcher, water-pot"||Aquarius|
|മീനം||mee-na-m||March–April||mīna "(a specific kind of) fish"||Pisces|
|ഇടവം||i-Ta-va-m||May – June||vṛṣabha "bull"||Taurus|
|മിഥുനം||mi-thu-na-m||June–July||mithuna "a pair"||Gemini|
- Duruthu (දුරුතු)
- Navam (නවම්)
- Mædin (මැදින්)
- Bak (බක්)
- Vesak (වෙසක්)
- Poson (පොසොන්)
- Æsala (ඇසල)
- Nikini (නිකිණි)
- Binara (බිනර)
- Vap (වප්)
- Il (iL) (ඉල්)
- Unduvap (උඳුවප්)
The old Icelandic calendar is not in official use anymore, but some Icelandic holidays and annual feasts are still calculated from it. It has 12 months, broken down into two groups of six often termed "winter months" and "summer months". The calendar is peculiar in that the months always start on the same weekday rather than on the same date. Hence Þorri always starts on a Friday sometime between January 22 and January 28 (Old style: January 9 to January 15), Góa always starts on a Sunday between February 21 and February 27 (Old style: February 8 to February 14).
- Skammdegi ("Short days")
- Gormánuður (mid-October – mid-November, "slaughter month" or "Gór's month")
- Ýlir (mid-November – mid-December, "Yule month")
- Mörsugur (mid-December – mid-January, "fat sucking month")
- Þorri (mid-January – mid-February, "frozen snow month")
- Góa (mid-February – mid-March, "Góa's month, see Nór")
- Einmánuður (mid-March – mid-April, "lone" or "single month")
- Náttleysi ("Nightless days")
- Harpa (mid-April – mid-May, Harpa is a female name, probably a forgotten goddess, first day of Harpa is celebrated as Sumardagurinn fyrsti – first day of summer)
- Skerpla (mid-May – mid-June, another forgotten goddess)
- Sólmánuður (mid-June – mid-July, "sun month")
- Heyannir (mid-July – mid-August, "hay business month")
- Tvímánuður (mid-August – mid-September, "two" or "second month")
- Haustmánuður (mid-September – mid-October, "autumn month")
Old Georgian calendarEdit
|Month||Georgian Month Name||Transliteration||Georgian Other Names||Transliteration|
|January||აპნისი, აპანი||Apnisi, Apani|
|June||მარიალისა||Marialisa||თიბათვე, ივანობისთვე||Tibatve, Ivanobistve|
|July||თიბისა||Tibisa||მკათათვე, კვირიკობისთვე||Mkatatve, Kvirikobistve|
|November||ტირისკონი||Tiriskoni||გიორგობისთვე, ჭინკობისთვე||Giorgobistve, Chinkobistve|
*NOTE: New Year in ancient Georgia started from September.
Old Swedish calendarEdit
- Torsmånad (January, 'Torre's month' (ancient god))
- Göjemånad (February, 'Goe's month' (ancient goddess))
- Vårmånad (March, 'Spring month')
- Gräsmånad (April, 'Grass month')
- Blomstermånad (May, 'Bloom month')
- Sommarmånad (June, 'Summer month')
- Hömånad (July, 'Hay month')
- Skördemånad, Rötmånad (August, 'Harvest month' or 'Rot month')
- Höstmånad (September, 'Autumn month')
- Slaktmånad (October, 'Slaughter month')
- Vintermånad (November, 'Winter month')
- Julmånad (December, 'Christmas month')
Old English calendarEdit
Like the Old Norse calendar, the Anglo-Saxons had their own calendar before they were Christianized which reflected native traditions and deities. These months were attested by Bede in his works On Chronology and The Reckoning of Time written in the 8th century. His Old English month names are probably written as pronounced in Bede’s native Northumbrian dialect. The months were named after the moon; the new moon marking the end of an old month and start of a new month; the full moon occurring in the middle of the month, after which the whole month took its name.
Old English month names
from Bede’s The Reckoning of Time
1 Æfterra-ġēola mōnaþ “After-Yule month” January 2 Sol-mōnaþ “Sol month” February 3 Hrēð-mōnaþ “Hreth month” March 4 Ēostur-mōnaþ “Ēostur month” April 5 Ðrimilce-mōnaþ “Three-milkings month” May 6 Ærra-Liþa “Ere-Litha” June 7 Æftera-Liþa “After-Litha” July 8 Weōd-mōnaþ “Weed month” August 9 Hāliġ-mōnaþ or
“Holy month” or
September 10 Winter-fylleþ “Winter-filleth” October 11 Blōt-mōnaþ “Blót month” November 12 Ærra-ġēola mōnaþ “Ere-Yule” December
Old Hungarian calendarEdit
Nagyszombati kalendárium (in Latin: Calendarium Tyrnaviense) from 1579. Historically Hungary used a 12-month calendar that appears to have been zodiacal in nature but eventually came to correspond to the Gregorian months as shown below:
- Boldogasszony hava (January, 'month of the happy/blessed lady')
- Böjtelő hava (February, 'month of early fasting/Lent' or 'month before fasting/Lent')
- Böjtmás hava (March, 'second month of fasting/Lent')
- Szent György hava (April, 'Saint George's month')
- Pünkösd hava (May, 'Pentecost month')
- Szent Iván hava (June, 'Saint John [the Baptist]'s month')
- Szent Jakab hava (July, 'Saint James' month')
- Kisasszony hava (August, 'month of the Virgin')
- Szent Mihály hava (September, 'Saint Michael's month')
- Mindszent hava (October, 'all saints' month')
- Szent András hava (November, 'Saint Andrew's month')
- Karácsony hava (December, 'month of Yule/Christmas')
- Leden – derives from 'led' (ice)
- Únor – derives from 'nořit' (to dive, referring to the ice sinking into the water due to melting)
- Březen – derives from 'bříza' (birch)
- Duben – derives from 'dub' (oak)
- Květen – derives from 'květ' (flower)
- Červen – derives from 'červená' (red – for the color of apples and tomatoes)
- Červenec – is the second 'červen' (formerly known as 2nd červen)
- Srpen – derives from old Czech word 'sirpsti' (meaning to reflect, referring to the shine on the wheat)
- Září – means 'to shine'
- Říjen – derives from 'jelení říje', which refers to the estrous cycle of female elk
- Listopad – falling leaves
- Prosinec – derives from old Czech 'prosiněti', which means to shine through (refers to the sun light shining through the clouds)
Old Egyptian calendarEdit
The ancient civil Egyptian calendar had a year that was 365 days long and was divided into 12 months of 30 days each, plus 5 extra days (epagomenes) at the end of the year. The months were divided into 3 "weeks" of ten days each. Because the ancient Egyptian year was almost a quarter of a day shorter than the solar year and stellar events "wandered" through the calendar, it is referred to as Annus Vagus or "Wandering Year".
- K'aliiyee = Going North – referring to the Sun returning to its usual place in the sky
- Buxwlaks = Needles Blowing About – February is usually a very windy month in the Nass River Valley
- Xsaak = To Eat Oolichans – Oolichans are harvested during this month
- Mmaal = Canoes – The river has defrosted, hence canoes are used once more
- Yansa'alt = Leaves are Blooming – Warm weather has arrived and leaves on the trees begin to bloom
- Miso'o = Sockeye – majority of Sockeye Salmon runs begin this month
- Maa'y = Berries – berry picking season
- Wii Hoon = Great Salmon – referring to the abundance of Salmon that are now running
- Genuugwwikw = Trail of the Marmot – Marmots, Ermines and animals as such are hunted
- Xlaaxw = To Eat Trout – trout are mostly eaten this time of year
- Gwilatkw = To Blanket – The earth is "blanketed" with snow
- Luut'aa = Sit In – the Sun "sits" in one spot for a period of time
French Republican calendarEdit
This calendar was proposed during the French Revolution, and used by the French government for about twelve years from late 1793. There were twelve months of 30 days each, grouped into three ten-day weeks called décades. The five or six extra days needed to approximate the tropical year were placed after the months at the end of each year. A period of four years ending on a leap day was to be called a Franciade. It began at the autumn equinox:
Eastern Ojibwe calendarEdit
Ojibwe month names[b] are based on the key feature of the month. Consequently, months between various regions have different names based on the key feature of each month in their particular region. In the Eastern Ojibwe, this can be seen in when the sucker makes its run, which allows the Ojibwe to fish for them. Additionally, Rhodes also informs of not only the variability in the month names, but how in Eastern Ojibwe these names were originally applied to the lunar months the Ojibwe originally used, which was a lunisolar calendar, fixed by the date of Akiinaaniwan (typically December 27) that marks when sunrise is the latest in the Northern Hemisphere.
Original order in the Ojibwa year Starting at the first full moon after: January
in those places that have a sucker run during that time
n[a]mebin-giizis sucker moon1 Akiinaaniwan on December 27 n[a]meb[i]ni-giizis February [o]naab[a]ni-giizis Crust-on-the-snow moon2 January 25 March zii[n]z[i]baak[wa]doke-giizis Sugaring moon3 February 26 April
in those places that have a sucker run during that time
n[a]mebin-giizis sucker moon4 March 25 n[a]meb[i]ni-giizis April
in those places that do not have a sucker run during that time
waawaas[a]gone-giizis Flower moon May
in those places that have an April sucker run
in those places that have a January sucker run
g[i]tige-giizis Planting moon5 April 24 June
in those places that have an April sucker run
in those places that have a January sucker run
[o]deh[i]min-giizis Strawberry moon6 May 23 July miin-giizis Blueberry moon7 June 22 August [o]dat[a]gaag[o]min-giizis Blackberry moon8 July 20 September m[an]daamin-giizis Corn moon9 August 18 October b[i]naakwe-giizis Leaves-fall moon10 September 17 b[i]naakwii-giizis Harvest moon November g[a]shkadin-giizis Freeze-up moon11 October 16 December g[i]chi-b[i]boon-giizis Big-winter moon12 November 15 January
in those places that do not have a sucker run during that time
[o]shki-b[i]boon-gii[zi]soons Little new-winter moon13
only used if the new moon after g[i]chi-b[i]boon-giizis occurs before Akiinaaniwan on December 27.
|Look up month in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- More precisely, the calends were when the name of a month first began being used when referring to dates. Instead of counting the number of days elapsed, the Romans used a countdown to number their dates. See the article Roman calendar for a more detailed explanation.
- Due to Eastern Ojibwe is a vowel syncope dialect, the elided vowels (and the occasionally elided consonants) have been added back in the table below, shown in brackets.
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- Clagett, Marshall (1995). Ancient Egyptian Science: A Source Book. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. p. 28. ISBN 0-87169-214-7.
- Rhodes, Richard A., ed. (1993) . Eastern Ojibwa-Chippewa-Ottawa Dictionary. Trends in Linguistics. Berlin, DE; New York, NY: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3110137491.