Muharram       Safar(صَفَر‎)       Rabi'I
Medina, the city, to where Muhammad migrated from Mecca (Hegira)
Month number: 2
Number of days: 29-30 (depends on
actual observation
of the moon's crescent)
Significant day(s): Hijrah

Ṣafar (Arabic: صَفَر‎) is the second month of the lunar based Islamic calendar. The Arabic word ṣafar means "empty, vacate or void", corresponding to the pre-Islamic Arabian time period when people’s houses were empty, as they were out gathering food. Ṣafar also means "hiss, toot or whistle", even "whistling of the wind" as this was likely a windy time of the year.

Most of the Islamic months are named according to weather conditions of the time; however, since the calendar is lunar, the months shift about 11 days every year, meaning that the seasons do not necessarily correspond to the name of the month.


The Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar, and months begin when the first crescent of a new moon is sighted. Since the Islamic lunar calendar year is 11 to 12 days shorter than the solar year, Safar migrates throughout the seasons. The estimated start and end dates for Safar are as follows (based on the Umm al-Qura calendar of Saudi Arabia[1]):

Safar dates between 2017 and 2022
AH First day (CE/AD) Last day (CE/AD)
1439 21 October 2017 18 November 2017
1440 10 October 2018 08 November 2018
1441 30 September 2019 28 October 2019
1442 18 September 2020 16 October 2020
1443 08 September 2021 06 October 2021
1444 28 August 2022 26 September 2022

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