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Ṣafar (Arabic: صَفَر) also spelt as Safer in Turkish, is the second month of the lunar Islamic calendar. The Arabic word ṣafar means "travel, migration", corresponding to the pre-Islamic Arabian time period when muslims flee the oppression of Quraish in Mecca and travelled (most of the them barefooted)to Madina.
|Native name||صَفَر (Arabic)|
|Number of days||29 or 30 (depends on actual observation of the moon's crescent)|
Most of the Islamic months were named according to ancient Arabian weather conditions; however, since the calendar is lunar, the months shift by about 11 days every solar year, meaning that these conditions do not necessarily correspond to the name of the month.
The Islamic calendar is a purely lunar calendar, and its months begin when the first crescent of a new moon is sighted. Since the Islamic lunar year is 11 to 12 days shorter than the solar year, Safar migrates throughout the seasons. The estimated start and end dates for Safar are as follows (based on the Umm al-Qura calendar of Saudi Arabia):
|AH||First day (CE/AD)||Last day (CE/AD)|
|1442||18 September 2020||17 October 2020|
|1443||8 September 2021||6 October 2021|
|1444||28 August 2022||26 September 2022|
|1445||17 August 2023||15 September 2023|
|1446||5 August 2024||3 September 2024|
- 01 Safar 61 AH, prisoners of Karbalā entered Yazid's Palace in Syria
- 10 Safar 61 AH, death of Sakina bint Husayn, youngest daughter of Hussain ibn Ali and a prisoner of Karbalā
- 17 Safar 202 AH, martyrdom of Ali al-Ridha according to one tradition
- 18 Safar, Grand Magal pilgrimage is celebrated at Touba, Senegal, commemorating the departure of Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba
- 18, 19 and 20 Safar, Death Anniversary (urs) of Ali Hajveri is celebrated at Data Darbar, Lahore
- Every 20 or 21 Safar, Arba'een or Chehlum (the 40th day after Ashura)
- 27 Safar 1 AH, Migration was started (Hijrah) from Mecca to Medina by Muhammad with Abu Bakr
- 27 Safar 589 AH, death of Salahuddin al-Ayyubi
- 28 Safar 11 AH, Muhammad fell deathly ill
- 28 Safar 50 AH, Martyrdom of Imam Hasan ibn ‘Alī, grandson of Muhammad
- Yaşaroğlu, M.Kâmıl (2008). Safer - An article published in Turkish Encyclopedia of Islam (in Turkish). Vol. 35(Resuliler - Sak). Istanbul: TDV İslâm Ansiklopedisi. pp. 450–451. ISBN 978-97-53-89457-9. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
- Umm al-Qura calendar of Saudi Arabia