Dhu'l-Qi'dah, Dhu'l-Qa'dah, or alternatively Zulqida (Arabic: ذو القعدة, also transliterated Ḏū l-Qaʿdah, IPA: [ðʊlˈqɑʕda]) is the eleventh month in the Islamic calendar. It is one of the four sacred months in Islam during which warfare is prohibited, hence the name "Master of Truce".
The most correct and most traditionally widespread transliteration of the month according to the thirteenth century Syrian jurist al-Nawawi is Dhu'l Qa'dah. Al-Nawawi also mentions that a smaller group of linguists allow the transliteration Dhu'l-Qi'dah, however. In modern times, it is most commonly referred to as Dhu'l Qi'dah although this is neither linguistically nor historically the strongest position.
The Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar, and months begin when the first crescent of a new moon is sighted. Since the Islamic lunar calendar year is 11 to 12 days shorter than the tropical year, Dhu'l-Qi'dah migrates throughout the seasons. The estimated start and end dates for Dhu'l-Qi'dah, based on the Umm al-Qura calendar of Saudi Arabia, are:
|AH||First day (CE / AD)||Last day (CE / AD)|
|1437||4 August 2016||1 September 2016|
|1438||24 July 2017||22 August 2017|
|1439||14 July 2018||11 August 2018|
|1440||4 July 2019||1 August 2019|
|1441||22 June 2020||21 July 2020|
|1442||11 June 2021||10 July 2021|
|Dhu'l-Qi'dah dates between 2016 and 2021|
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- 5 AH, the Muslims took part in the Battle of the Trench
- 6 AH, Truce of Hudaubiyah
- 6 AH, Pledge of the Tree
- 7 AH, The first pilgrimage - the return to Mecca for the performance of Umrah by Muhammad and his Companions
- 1 Dhu'l-Qi'dah, Birth anniversary of Fātimah bint Mūsā
- 1 Dhu'l-Qi'dah, Treaty of Hudaybiyyah
- 8 Dhu'l-Qi'dah, Hajj was made incumbent upon Muslims in 8 A.H.
- 11 Dhu'l-Qi'dah, Birth anniversary of Ali al-Ridha, the eighth Twelver Imam
- 18 Dhu'l-Qi'dah, The event of Ghadir Khumm in 10 A.H.
- 23 Dhu'l-Qi'dah, martyrdom of Ali al-Ridha according to one tradition
- 25 Dhu'l-Qi'dah, Arabic: يوم دحو الارض, the day earth was laid beneath Ka'ba and birth date of Ibrahim and Jesus.
- 29 Dhu'l-Qi'dah, martyrdom of Muhammad al-Jawad, the ninth Twelver Imam
- Amr bin Shuaib reported from his grandfather that the Messenger of Allah said:[clarification needed]
In Dhu al-Qi'dah (Islamic month), there will be fight among the tribes, Muslim pilgrims will be looted and there will be a battle in Mina in which many people will be slain and blood will flow until it runs over the Jamaratul Aqba (one of the three stone pillars at Mina). The man they seek will flee and will be found between the Rukn (a corner of the Kaaba containing the Black Stone) and the Maqam of Prophet Abraham (near Ka'ba). He will be forced to accept people's Bay'ah (being chosen as a Leader/Caliph). The number of those offering Bay'ah will be the same as the number of the people of Badr (Muslim fighters who participated in the Battle of Badr at time of Prophet Mohammad). Then, the dweller of Heaven and the dweller of the Earth will be pleased with him.[note 1]
- Abu Hurairah said that the Prophet said:
There will be an Ayah (sign) in (the month of) Ramadan. Then, there will 'isabah (splitting into groups) in Shawwal. Then, there will be fighting in (the month of) Dhu al-Qi'dah. Then, the pilgrim will be robbed in (the month of) Dhu al-Hijjah. Then, the prohibitions will be violated in (the month of) al-Muharram. Then, there will be sound in (the month of) Safar, then the tribes will conflict with each other in the two months of Rabi' al-awwal & Rabi' al-thani. Then, the most amazing thing will happen between (the months of) Jumada and Rajab. Then, a well-fed she-camel will be better than a fortress (castle) sheltering a thousand (people).[note 2][not specific enough to verify]