Mass media in the United States

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The Washington Post on Monday, July 21, 1969 stating "'The Eagle Has Landed'—Two Men Walk on the Moon".

Mass media in the United States consist of several types of media: television, radio, cinema, newspapers, magazines, and web sites. The U.S. also has a strong music industry. Many of the media are controlled by large for-profit corporations who reap revenue from advertising, subscriptions, and sale of copyrighted material. American media conglomerates tend to be leading global players, generating large revenues as well as large opposition in many parts of the world. With the passage of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, further deregulation and convergence are under way, leading to mega-mergers, further concentration of media ownership, and the emergence of multinational media conglomerates. These mergers enable tighter control of information.[1] Currently, five corporations control roughly 90% of the media.[2][3] Critics allege that localism, local news and other content at the community level, media spending and coverage of news, and diversity of ownership and views have suffered as a result of these processes of media concentration.[4]

Theories to explain the success of such companies include reliance on certain policies of the American federal government or a tendency to natural monopolies in the industry, in a corporate media bias.

The organization Reporters Without Borders compiles and publishes an annual ranking of countries based upon the organization's assessment of their press freedom records. In 2013–14 United States was ranked 46th out of 180 countries, a drop of thirteen points from the preceding year.[5][6] On the future of Spanish-language media in the U.S., Alberto Avendaño, ex-director of El Tiempo Latino/Washington Post, claimed that “Hispanic-American” news coverage in the English-language media is “absolutely pathetic,” but he was optimistic, since every month, Latinos come of age so a social and demographic shift is inevitable.

NewspapersEdit

After being widely successful in the 20th century, newspapers have declined in their influence and penetration into American households over the years. The U.S. does not have a national paper. The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, and USA Today are the most circulated newspapers in the United States and are sold in most U.S. cities.[7]

 
The New York Times Building

Although the Times' primary audience has always been the people of New York City, the New York Times has gradually become the dominant national "newspaper of record". Apart from its daily nationwide distribution, the term means that back issues are archived on microfilm by every decent-sized public library in the nation, and the Times' articles are often cited by both historians and judges as evidence that a major historical event occurred on a certain date. The Los Angeles Times and the Wall Street Journal are also newspapers of record to a lesser extent. Although USA Today has tried to establish itself as a national paper, it has been widely derided by the academic world as the "McPaper" and is not subscribed to (let alone archived) by most libraries.[citation needed]

Apart from the newspapers just mentioned, all major metropolitan areas have their own local newspapers. Typically, a metropolitan area will support at most one or two major newspapers, with many smaller publications targeted towards particular audiences. Although the cost of publishing has increased over the years, the price of newspapers has generally remained low, forcing newspapers to rely more on advertising revenue and on articles provided by a major news agency wire service, such as the Associated Press, Reuters or Bloomberg News[8] for their national and world coverage.

With very few exceptions, all the newspapers in the U.S. are privately owned, either by large chains such as Gannett or McClatchy, which own dozens or even hundreds of newspapers; by small chains that own a handful of papers; or in a situation that is increasingly rare, by individuals or families.

Most general-purpose newspapers are either being printed one time a week, usually on Thursday or Friday, or are printed daily. Weekly newspapers tend to have much smaller circulation and are more prevalent in rural communities or small towns. Major cities often have "alternative weeklies" to complement the mainstream daily paper(s), for example, New York City's Village Voice or Los Angeles' L.A. Weekly, to name two of the best-known. Major cities may also support a local business journal, trade papers relating to local industries, and papers for local ethnic and social groups.

Probably due to competition from other media, the number of daily newspapers in the U.S. has declined over the past half-century, according to Editor & Publisher, the trade journal of American newspapers. In particular, the number of evening newspapers has fallen by almost one-half since 1970, while the number of morning editions and Sunday editions has grown.

For comparison, in 1950, there were 1,772 daily papers (and 1,450 – or about 70 percent – of them were evening papers) while in 2000, there were 1,480 daily papers (and 766—or about half—of them were evening papers.)

Daily newspaper circulation is also slowly declining in America, partly due to the near-demise of two-newspaper towns, as the weaker newspapers in most cities have folded:

Year Circulation
1960 58.8 million
1970 62.1 million
1980 62.2 million
1990 62.3 million
2000 55.8 million

The primary source of newspaper income is advertising – in the form of "classifieds" or inserted advertising circulars – rather than circulation income. However, since the late 1990s, this revenue source has been directly challenged by Web sites like eBay (for sales of secondhand items), Monster.com (jobs), and Craigslist (everything).

Additionally, as investigative journalism declined at major daily newspapers in the 2000s, many reporters formed their own non-profit investigative newsrooms. Examples include ProPublica on the national level, Texas Tribune at the state level and Voice of OC at the local level.

The largest newspapers (by circulation) in the United States are USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times and the Los Angeles Times.

In August 2019 it was announced that New Media Investment Group had agreed to buy Gannett, and operations would continue under the Gannett rather than GateHouse name, at the Gannett headquarters but under New Media's CEO.[9][10] The acquisition of Gannett by New Media Investment Group was completed on November 19, 2019, making the combined company the largest newspaper publisher in the United States.[11] Immediately after the merger was finalized, all GateHouse Media URLs began redirecting to Gannett.com.

La Opinión is the most read newspaper website in the United States, reaching more than 6 million readers each month. It is the largest Spanish-language newspaper in the United States and the second-most read newspaper in Los Angeles (after The Los Angeles Times).

MagazinesEdit

 
The first issue of Time (March 3, 1923), featuring Speaker Joseph G. Cannon.

Thanks to the huge size of the English-speaking North American media market, the United States has a large magazine industry with hundreds of magazines serving almost every interest, as can be determined by glancing at any newsstand in any large American city. Most magazines are owned by one of the large media conglomerates or by one of their smaller regional brethren. The American Society of Magazine Editors sponsors the annual National Magazine Awards recognizing excellence.

The U.S. has three leading weekly news magazines: Time, Newsweek and U.S. News and World Report. Time and Newsweek are center-left while U.S. News and World Report tends to be center-right. Time is well known for naming a "Person of the Year" each year, while U.S. News publishes annual ratings of American colleges and universities.

The U.S. also has over a dozen major political magazines, including The Atlantic and The New Yorker among others. In entertainment the magazines Variety, The Hollywood Reporter, America Pioneer and L.A. Record are very popular.

Finally, besides the hundreds of specialized magazines that serve the diverse interests and hobbies of the American people, like Vanity Fair, Glamour, Vogue, Automobile and the Rolling Stone there are also dozens of magazines published by professional organizations for their members, such as Communications of the ACM (for computer science specialists) and the ABA Journal (for lawyers).

Two Mundos Magazine is a quarterly, bilingual (English/Spanish) lifestyle and entertainment magazine based in Miami.

It’s not a coordinated exodus for magazines in the United States but the transition from print’s primacy to digital’s that has started at the turn of the century.

RadioEdit

 
Fireside chat on government and capitalism (September 30, 1934)

American radio broadcasts in two bands: FM and AM. Some stations are only talk radio – featuring interviews and discussions – while music radio stations broadcast one particular type of music: Top 40, hip-hop, country, etc. Radio broadcast companies have become increasingly consolidated in recent years. National Public Radio is the nation's primary public radio network, but most radio stations are commercial and profit-oriented.

Talk radio as a political medium has also exploded in popularity during the 1990s, due to the 1987 repeal of the Fairness Doctrine, which meant that stations no longer had to "balance" their day by programming alternative points of view.[citation needed]

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1970 had limited the number of radio station one person or company could own to 1 AM and 1 FM locally, and 7 AM and 7 FM stations nationally. But due to extensive concentration of media ownership stemming from the Telecommunications Act of 1996, radio companies could own not more than 8 local stations per area market. Most stations are now owned by major radio companies such as iHeartMedia (formerly Clear Channel Communications), Cumulus Media, Townsquare Media and Entercom. See IBOC and HD Radio.

A new form of radio that is gaining popularity is satellite radio. The two biggest subscriptions based radio services are Sirius Satellite Radio and XM Satellite Radio, which have recently merged to form Sirius XM Radio. Unlike terrestrial radio music channels are commercial free and other channels feature minimal commercials. Satellite radio also is not regulated by the FCC.

During the advent of the internet in the 21st century, internet radio and digital streaming services have been emerged. Among popular brands are Pandora, Spotify and iHeartRadio. Although, the recording industry also sees Internet radio as a threat and has attempted to impose high royalty rates for the use of recorded music to discourage independent stations from playing popular songs. Spotify listeners can choose the songs they want to play, when they want to play them. ... Pandora is a way for users to discover new music that matches their tastes, while Spotify—even though it offers radio stations, too—is better suited to stream and share music that users already know and love.

Nielsen Audio, formerly known as Arbitron, is consumer research company that provides ratings (similar to the Nielsen ratings) for national and local radio stations in the United States.

Digital Audio Broadcasting goal is to replace FM broadcasting and become the future of radio. Some industry experts are wary of this new transmission method. ... However, this method of transmission could benefit internet radio stations that want to develop local coverage and keep up to speed with FM radio stations.

TelevisionEdit

 
Press photographers and film crews at Barack Obama rally, February 4, 2008

Ninety-nine percent of American households have at least one television and the majority of households have more than one.[citation needed] The four major broadcasters in the U.S. are the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), CBS (formerly the Columbia Broadcasting System), the American Broadcasting Company (ABC) and the Fox Broadcasting Company (Fox).[citation needed] On August 13, 2019, CBS and Viacom officially announced their intention to merge, with the combined company to be named ViacomCBS. The merger was completed on December 4, 2019.[12][13][14][15] The company will have 50% interest in The CW.

 
The five major U.S. broadcast network logos

Several Spanish language broadcast (as well as cable) networks exist, which are the most common form of non-English television broadcasts. These networks are not as widely distributed over-the-air as their English counterparts, available mostly in markets with sizeable Latino and Hispanic populations; several of these over-the-air networks are alternatively fed directly to cable, satellite and IPTV providers in markets without either the availability or the demand for a locally based owned-and-operated or affiliate station.

The largest of these networks, Univision, launched in 1986 as a successor to the Spanish International Network. Its major competition is Telemundo (est. 1986), a sister network of NBC (which acquired Telemundo in 2001). Founded: 2009 Estrella TV is another Spanish-language broadcast television network.

Public television has a far smaller role than in most other countries. However, a number of states, including West Virginia, Maryland, Kentucky, and South Carolina, among others, do have state-owned public broadcasting authorities which operate and fund all public television stations in their respective states. The income received from the government is insufficient to cover expenses and stations also rely on corporate sponsorships and viewer contributions.

DirecTV and Dish Network are the major satellite television providers, with 20 and 14 million customers respectively as of February 2014.[16] Meanwhile, the major cable television providers are Comcast with 22 million customers, Time Warner Cable with 11 million, and Cox Communications, Charter Communications, AT&T U-verse and Verizon FiOS with 5–6 million each.

Motion picturesEdit

 
Robert Rodriguez directed the 1992 action film El Mariachi, which was a commercial success after grossing $2 million against an initial budget of $7,000 (before studio production costs) and launched his own cable television channel, El Rey thanks to advances in technology.[17]

In the 20th century, the motion picture industry rose to become one of the most successful and powerful industries in the U.S. Along with other intellectual property industries, its relative importance to the American economy has strengthened as the importance of manufacturing and agriculture have decreased (due to globalization).[18]

Rise of the home video market (1980s–1990s)Edit

The 1980s and 1990s saw another significant development. The full acceptance of home video by studios opened a vast new business to exploit. Films such as Showgirls, The Secret of NIMH, and The Shawshank Redemption, which may have performed poorly in their theatrical run, were now able to find success in the video market. It also saw the first generation of filmmakers with access to videotapes emerge. Directors such as Quentin Tarantino and Paul Thomas Anderson had been able to view thousands of films and produced films with vast numbers of references and connections to previous works. Tarantino has had a number of collaborations with director Robert Rodriguez. Rodriguez directed the 1992 action film El Mariachi, which was a commercial success after grossing $2 million against an initial before-production budget of $7,000. In 2011, El Mariachi was inducted into the Library of Congress to be preserved as part of its National Film Registry for being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". The film is further immortalized by Guinness World Records as the lowest-budgeted film ever to gross $1 million at the box office.[19] This was possible thanks to the explosion of independent film and ever-decreasing costs for filmmaking, changed the landscape of American movie-making once again and led a renaissance of filmmaking among Hollywood's lower and middle-classes—those without access to studio financial resources. With the rise of the DVD in the 21st century, DVDs have quickly become even more profitable to studios and have led to an explosion of packaging extra scenes, extended versions, and commentary tracks with the films.[citation needed] It’s likely that Blu-ray sales fractionally impacted the decline of DVD sales later, but the fact that DVD sales still outpace Blu-ray sales in 2019 it shows was not the real culprit. Instead, a combination of the Great Recession, a rise in customers buying Video on demand and digital copies of films and the launch of streaming services is what has caused DVD sales to decline more than 86% in the last 13 years.

Increasingly we are seeing families with tablet computer in cars, on vacation, while visiting Grandma, at the beach, in the airport lounge. It is the biggest expansion of the motion picture audience since the introduction of home video.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, drive-in theaters reported an unexpected surge in attendance in several U.S. states as, unlike with indoor theaters unable to operate because of bans on mass gatherings, these were allowed to operate.

Video gamesEdit

 
A US Marine playing Top Gun

The United States has the largest video games presence in the world in terms of total industry employees.[20][21] In 2017, the U.S. game industry as a whole was worth US$18.4 billion and consisted of roughly 2457 companies that had a rough total of 220,000 people employed.[22][23] U.S. video game revenue is forecast to reach $230 billion by 2022,[24] making it the largest video game market in the world.[25] Over 150 million Americans play video games, with an average age of 35 and a gender breakdown of 59 percent male and 41 percent female.[26] The households that own these items play games most commonly on their Console or PC. 36% of U.S. gamers play on their smart phones.[27] 43% of video game consumers believe games give them the most value for their money compared to other common forms of entertainment such as movies, or music.[27] In 2011, the average American gamer spent an average of 13 hours per week playing video games.[28] In 2013, almost half of Americans who were gaming more than they did in 2010 spent less time playing board games, watching TV, going to the movies, and watching movies at home.[27] When Americans game, 62% do so with others online or in person, yet the other person is more likely to be a friend than a significant other or family member.[27] The most common reason parents play video games with their children is as a fun family activity, or because they are asked to. 52% of parents believe video games are a positive part of their child's life,and 71% of parents with children under 18 see gaming as beneficial to mental stimulation or education.[27]

InternetEdit

 
YouTube the most visited web site in 2019.

The Internet has provided a means for newspapers and other media organizations to deliver news and keep archives public. Revenue is generated through advertising or subscription payments. Aside from web portals and search engines like Google and Yahoo!, the most popular websites are YouTube, Wikipedia, Facebook, Twitter, Amazon, Yelp, IMDb, Reddit, Pinterest, eBay, TripAdvisor, Indeed, healthline, Webmd, Mapquest, Merriam-webster, zillow, Quora and Etsy.

Online streamingEdit

Nowadays, online streaming makes it possible to watch everything from live news and sports to classic movies to modern TV favorites in their own time, on any device. With the popularity of online streaming rising cable companies are having to extend offers to compete in this 655 billion dollar digital market.[29]

The Amazon Unbox and Crackle over-the-top video on demand streaming services launched in 2006, then Netflix and Hulu followed in 2007. CBS All Access and Tubi were unveiled in 2014, and YouTube Red in 2015. Disney+ and Apple TV+, launched in 2019. HBO Max and Peacock are scheduled to launch in 2020.

Virtual MVPDs are over-the-top live video streaming services that mirrored cable and TV Everywhere bundled services, priced at lower monthly rates than packages offered by traditional pay television system operators. Sling TV, PlayStation Vue and fuboTV were launched in 2015. DirecTV Now followed in 2016. and Philo in 2017. New York magazine has a Vulture’s streaming guide to the TV Shows and movies available for streaming on Netflix, Amazon, HBO, and Hulu. The term "streaming wars" was coined to discuss the new era of competition between video streaming services such as Netflix, Disney+, Apple TV+, Amazon Prime, HBO Max, etc.[30]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States. New York: Harper Perennial Modern Classics, 2005. p. 671 ISBN 0060838655
  2. ^ These 6 Corporations Control 90% Of The Media In America. Business Insider. 14 June 2012.
  3. ^ Frances Goldin, Debby Smith, Michael Smith (2014). Imagine: Living in a Socialist USA. Harper Perennial. ISBN 0062305573 p. 189:
    • "Twenty years ago, thirty corporations controlled 90 percent of the media. Today, it is a grand total of six mega-corporations – Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation, Disney, Viacom, Time Warner, CBS and Comcast. Besides accumulating their own profits, the media are daily trumpets for the rest of the corporate world's advertising."
  4. ^ Converging Media, Diverging Politics: A Political Economy of News Media in the United States and Canada. Edited by David Skinner, James R. Compton, and Michael Gasher, Rowman and Littlefield, 2005. Robert William Jensen, review essay of "Rich Media, Poor Democracy: Communication Politics in Dubious Times," published in The Texas Observer, September 17, 1999, archived here Archived December 4, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ "World Press Freedom Index 2014". Reporters Without Borders. Archived from the original on February 14, 2014. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
  6. ^ Stearns, Josh (11 February 2014). U.S. Plummets in Global Press Freedom Rankings. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
  7. ^ Stynes, Tess (October 28, 2014). "USA Today Remains Top Newspaper by Circulation". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
  8. ^ "High wires". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved April 10, 2016.
  9. ^ Darcy, Oliver. "USA Today owner Gannett merges with GateHouse Media to form massive newspaper company". CNN. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  10. ^ "New Media Investment Group to Acquire Gannett". www.businesswire.com. August 5, 2019. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  11. ^ Tracy, Marc (November 19, 2019). [nytimes.com/2019/11/19/business/media/gannett-gatehouse-merger.html "Gannett, Now Largest U.S. Newspaper Chain, Targets 'Inefficiencies'"] Check |url= value (help). The New York Times. New York Times. Retrieved November 19, 2019.
  12. ^ Gasparino, Charles; Moynihan, Lydia (August 13, 2019). "CBS, Viacom agree to merge, forming a $28B entertainment firm". Fox Business. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  13. ^ Szalai, George; Bond, Paul; Vlessing, Etan (August 13, 2019). "CBS, Viacom Strike Deal to Recombine". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  14. ^ "CBS and Viacom To Combine" (PDF). CBS. August 12, 2019.
  15. ^ "Viacom and CBS Corp. are officially back together again". CBS News. December 4, 2019.
  16. ^ Consumers wary of Comcast, Time Warner Cable merger – USA Today, 13 February 2014
  17. ^ Craig Hunter. "T2's Robert Patrick & More Join 'From Dusk Till Dawn: The Series'". Thehollywoodnews.com. Retrieved November 16, 2014.
  18. ^ Anderson, Kym (September 27, 2010). "Globalization's effects on world agricultural trade, 1960–2050". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 365 (1554): 3007–3021. doi:10.1098/rstb.2010.0131. ISSN 0962-8436. PMC 2935114. PMID 20713399.
  19. ^ Oscars 2015: The Guinness World Records alternative Academy Award
  20. ^ Cite error: The named reference networkworld1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  21. ^ "US still the gaming super power | GamesIndustry International". Gamesindustry.biz. December 11, 2012. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
  22. ^ Takahashi, Dean (February 14, 2017). "The U.S. game industry has 2,457 companies supporting 220,000 jobs". VentureBeat. Retrieved April 7, 2020.
  23. ^ Gough, Christina (August 12, 2019). "Video Game Industry - Statistics & Facts". Statista. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  24. ^ "Games software/hardware $165B+ in 2018, $230B+ in 5 years, record $2B+ investment last year | Digi Capital". Retrieved August 24, 2019.
  25. ^ Cite error: The named reference newzoo2014 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  26. ^ "Industry Facts". Entertainment Software Association.
  27. ^ a b c d e Cite error: The named reference :1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  28. ^ "Time spent gaming on the rise - NPD". GameSpot. Archived from the original on October 23, 2010. Retrieved May 3, 2011.
  29. ^ Bae, Sanghee (August 31, 2018). "The Factors Affecting the Korean EFL Learners' English Article Use". Language and Linguistics. 80: 63–98. doi:10.20865/20188003. ISSN 1225-4967.
  30. ^ "Streaming Wars". www.theverge.com. Retrieved December 1, 2019.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit