Newspaper of record

A newspaper of record is a major newspaper with large circulation whose editorial and news-gathering functions are considered authoritative. It may also refer to a newspaper that has been authorised, or maintained by a government, to publish public or legal notices, thus serving as a newspaper of public record.[1]

The New York Times Building in New York City, United States; some meanings of the term "newspaper of record" originated in reference to The New York Times.
The historic seat of the Corriere della Sera in Milan, Italy.
The headquarters of Le Figaro, France's centre-right newspaper of record, in Paris.

Newspapers of public recordEdit

A "newspaper of public record", sometimes referred to as a "Government gazette", refers to a publicly available newspaper that has been authorized by a government to publish public or legal notices.[2] It is often established by statute or official action and publication of notices within it, whether by the government or a private party, is usually considered sufficient to comply with legal requirements for public notice.[3]

In some jurisdictions, privately owned newspapers may register with the public authorities to publish public and legal notices, or be otherwise eligible to publish said notices (terms used may include "newspaper of general circulation" among others).[4][5][6] Likewise, a private newspaper may be designated by the courts for publication of legal notices, such as notices of fictitious business names, if certain judicial and statutory standards are met.[7][8] These are sometimes referred to as "legally adjudicated newspapers".[9]

Newspapers of record (by reputation)Edit

The second type of "newspaper of record" (also known as a "journal of record", or by the French term presse de référence) is not defined by any formal criteria and its characteristics can be variable. The category typically consists of those newspapers that are considered to meet higher standards of journalism than most print media, including editorial independence and attention to accuracy, and are usually renowned internationally.[10][11] Despite changes in society, such newspapers have historically tended to maintain a similar tone, coverage, style, and traditions.[10]

Origin of the termEdit

The term is believed to have originated among librarians, who began referring to The New York Times as the "newspaper of record" when, in 1913, it became the first U.S. newspaper to publish an index of the subjects covered in its pages.[12] In recognition of the usage, the Times held an essay contest in 1927 in which entrants had to demonstrate "The Value of The New York Times Index and Files as a Newspaper of Record". The Times, and other newspapers of its type, then sought to be chroniclers of events, acting as a record of the day's announcements, schedules, directories, proceedings, transcripts and appointments. The Times no longer considers itself a newspaper of record in the original, literal sense.[13]

Over time, historians began to rely on The New York Times and similar titles as a reliable archival record of significant past events and a gauge of societal opinions at the time of printing. The term "newspaper of record" thus evolved from its original literal sense to its currently understood meaning.[12]


Country Region Newspaper City of publication Founded Language Source(s)
  Argentina Latin America   La Nación Buenos Aires 1870 Spanish [14]
  Australia Oceania The Age Melbourne 1854 English [15]
  The Sydney Morning Herald Sydney 1831 [15][16]
  Austria Europe   Die Presse Vienna 1848
Staff split in 1864 to form Neue Freie Presse, aryanized by the Nazis in 1938 and closed in 1939, reestablished as Die Presse in 1946[17]

German [18]
  Bangladesh South Asia The Daily Star Dhaka 1991 English [19]
  Bolivia Latin America El Diario La Paz 1904 Spanish [20]
  Brazil Latin America O Estado de S. Paulo São Paulo 1875 Portuguese [21][22][23][24]
  Folha de S.Paulo São Paulo 1921 [23][24]
  O Globo Rio de Janeiro 1925 [23][24]
  Canada North America   Le Devoir Montreal 1910 French [25]
  The Globe and Mail Toronto 1844
Successor to The Globe (founded 1844), The Toronto Mail (1872) and Toronto Empire (1887); papers merged in 1895 and 1936
English [26][27][28][29][30][31][32]
  La Presse Montreal 1884 French [33][34]
  Chile Latin America   El Mercurio Santiago 1900
Spun off from El Mercurio de Valparaíso (founded 1827)
Spanish [35]
  Egypt Africa

Al-Ahram Cairo 1875 Arabic [36][37]
  Finland Europe   Helsingin Sanomat Helsinki 1889 Finnish [38]
  France Europe   Le Figaro Paris 1826
Le Figaro is France's oldest national newspaper still operating to this date.[39]
French [40][41]
  Libération 1973 [42]
  Le Monde 1944
Founded as a successor to the discredited collaborationist Le Temps (founded 1861).
  Germany Europe   Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung Frankfurt 1949
Considered a successor to the Frankfurter Zeitung (founded 1856), banned in 1943 by the Nazis
German [46][47]
  Der Spiegel Hamburg 1947 [48][49][50][51][52]
  Süddeutsche Zeitung Munich 1945
  Die Zeit Hamburg 1946
  Greece Europe   Kathimerini Athens 1919 Greek [54]
  Hong Kong, China East Asia   South China Morning Post Hong Kong 1903 English [55]
  India South Asia The Hindu Chennai 1878 English [56][57]
  The Times of India Mumbai 1838
Named The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce until mergers in 1860–1.
  Indonesia Southeast Asia   Kompas Jakarta 1965 Indonesian [60][61]
  Iran West Asia   Ettela'at Tehran 1926 Persian [62][63]
  Ireland Europe   The Irish Times Dublin 1859 English [64]
  Israel West Asia   Haaretz Tel Aviv 1919 Hebrew and English [65][66][67][68]
  Italy Europe   Corriere della Sera Milan 1876 Italian [69][70]
  la Repubblica Rome 1976
  La Stampa Turin 1867
  Jamaica North America The Gleaner Kingston 1834 English [71][72]
  Japan East Asia   The Asahi Shimbun Osaka 1879 Japanese [73]
  Mainichi Shimbun Tokyo 1872 [74]
  Kenya Africa Daily Nation Nairobi 1960
Originated as the Swahili Taifa in 1958.
English [75][76]
  Latvia Europe Diena Riga 1990 Latvian [77]
Latvijas Vēstnesis 1918

Founded as Pagaidu Valdības Vēstnesis in 1918, closed 1940–1991, current form since 1993

  Malaysia Southeast Asia   New Straits Times Kuala Lumpur 1965
Spun off from The Straits Times (founded 1845) upon Singapore's independence.
English [79]
  Netherlands Europe NRC Handelsblad Amsterdam 1970
Merger of Algemeen Handelsblad (founded 1828) and Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant (1844).
Dutch [80]
  De Volkskrant 1919 [81]
  New Zealand Oceania   The New Zealand Herald Auckland 1863 English [82]
  The Press Christchurch 1861 [citation needed]
  North Korea East Asia   Rodong Sinmun Pyongyang 1945 Korean [83]
  Norway Europe   Aftenposten Oslo 1860 Riksmål [84]
  Pakistan South Asia   Dawn Karachi 1941 English
  Panama Latin America La Prensa (Panama City) Panama City 1980 Spanish [85]
  Peru Latin America   El Comercio Lima 1839 Spanish [86]
  Philippines Southeast Asia Manila Bulletin Manila 1900 English [87][88]
  Philippine Daily Inquirer Makati 1985 English [89][90]
  The Philippine Star Manila 1986 English [87][88]
  Poland Europe   Rzeczpospolita Warsaw 1920

First dissolved in 1931 and revived in 1944, second dissolution in 1951, revived again in 1982

Polish [91]
  Portugal Europe Expresso Lisbon 1973 Portuguese [92][93]
  Jornal de Notícias Porto 1888
  Saudi Arabia West Asia   Al-Hayat London 1946

Founded as a Lebanese newspaper that shut down in 1978, refounded in 1988 under a new ownership.

Arabic [94]
  Serbia Europe   Danas Belgrade 1997 Serbian [95]
  Politika 1904 [96]
  Singapore Southeast Asia   The Straits Times Singapore 1845 English [79]
  South Korea East Asia   The Chosun Ilbo Seoul 1920
Suspended between 1940 and 1945 by the Japanese imperial authorities.
Korean [97]
  Spain Europe   El País Madrid 1976 Spanish [98]
  Sweden Europe   Dagens Nyheter Stockholm 1864 Swedish [99][100]
  Switzerland Europe   Neue Zürcher Zeitung Zurich 1780 German [101]
  Le Temps Lausanne 1998

Merger of Journal de Genève (founded 1826), Gazette de Lausanne (1798), and Nouveau Quotidien (1991).

French [102]
  Turkey West Asia   Hürriyet Istanbul 1948 Turkish [103]
  United Kingdom Europe   The Daily Telegraph London 1855 English [104]
  The Times 1785
Named The Daily Universal Register until 1788.
  United States North America   Los Angeles Times Los Angeles 1881 English [105]
  The New York Times New York City 1851 [106][107]
  The Wall Street Journal 1889 [108]
  The Washington Post Washington, D.C. 1877 [109][110]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Martin, Shannon E. (1998). Newspapers of Record in a Digital Age: From Hot Type to Hot Link. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. p. 1. ISBN 0-275-95960-0.
  2. ^ Martin, Shannon E. (1998). Newspapers of record in a digital age: from hot type to hot link. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. p. 5. ISBN 0-275-95960-0.
  3. ^ Black's Law Dictionary, 6th edn. West Publishing. 1990. ISBN 90-6544-631-1.
  4. ^ See, for example, L.N. 362 of 1997 of The Government of The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Gazette
  5. ^ For example, see Texas Local Government Code - Section 52.004. Official Newspaper
  6. ^ "City of McCleary, Official Newspaper".
  7. ^ See, e.g., "California Government Code, Sec. 6000 - 6008". California Legislative Information. California State Legislature. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  8. ^ "New York General Construction Law Section 60".
  9. ^ "Fictitious Names: Adjudicated Newspapers". County Clerk. County of Sonoma. Retrieved 4 October 2012.
  10. ^ a b Salles, Chloë (January 2010). "Media Coverage of the Internet: An Acculturation Strategy for Press of Record?" (PDF). Innovation Journalism. 7 (1): 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  11. ^ Martin, Shannon (1998). Newspapers of Record in a Digital Age: From Hot Type to Hot Link. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. pp. 6, 27, 31. ISBN 0275959600.
  12. ^ a b Martin, Shannon E. (1998). Newspapers of record in a digital age: from hot type to hot link. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. p. 7. ISBN 0-275-95960-0.
  13. ^ Okrent, Daniel. "The Public Editor — Paper of Record? No Way, No Reason, No Thanks". The New York TImes. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  14. ^ Vigón, Mercedes (12 July 2013). "Journalism ethics is 'personal and non-transferable'" (Interview). Interviewed by International Press Institute. Retrieved 10 April 2019. In spite of the readership crisis in the United States, The New York Times is a newspaper of record in many countries, as is Le Monde in France or La Nación in Argentina.
  15. ^ a b Simons, Margaret; Buller, Bradley (December 2013). "Journals of Record - Measure of Quality, or Dead Concept?" (PDF). Centre for Advancing Journalism, University of Melbourne. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
  16. ^ "What We're Reading". The New York Times. 14 October 2011. Archived from the original on 18 February 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
  17. ^ "Die Presse - Die Geschichte". Archived from the original on 6 February 2014.
  18. ^ "Die Presse". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 13 October 2013.
  19. ^ "The Daily Star". Retrieved 18 May 2014.[permanent dead link]
  20. ^ [1]
  21. ^ "O Estado de S. Paulo". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 10 October 2013. It is's newspaper of record. O Estado is sometimes called the "New York Times of Latin America" because of its grave editorial demeanour.
  22. ^ Fabricio, Roberto (16 April 1992). "Brazilian Officers Issue Manifesto". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved 10 October 2013. The statement, published on Tuesday by O Estado de Sao Paulo, Brazil`s newspaper of record, was datelined in Fortaleza, a mid-sized city in northeastern Brazil.
  23. ^ a b c Pomela, Marina. "Top 10 Printed Newspaper in Brazil". The Brazil Business. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
  24. ^ a b c "Maiores Jornais do Brasil" (in Portuguese). ANJ - Associação Nacional de Jornais. Archived from the original on 11 October 2015. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
  25. ^ "Les parlementaires québécois et Le Devoir dans le monde des médias". Communication, Vol. 29 No. 2 (2012).
  26. ^ "The Globe and Mail". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  27. ^ "Canadian Studies Resources - Canadian Studies Databases and Indexes". Michigan Canadian Studies Roundtable. 5 September 2006. Archived from the original on 8 July 2008.
  28. ^ "Globe and Mail to cut jobs". The Straits Times. Agence France-Presse. 11 January 2009. Archived from the original on 30 January 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
  29. ^ "What's behind the shake up at 'Canada's newspaper of record'?". 2 June 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
  30. ^ Buchanan, Carrie (March 2009). Gasher, Mike (ed.). "Sense of Place in the Daily Newspaper" (PDF). Aether: The Journal of Media Geography. 4: 62–84 [70]. Retrieved 14 October 2012. [T]he Toronto-based Globe and Mail has had the kind of success in Canada that the New York Times had enjoyed in the U.S., as the leading 'newspaper of record' with a national readership.
  31. ^ Jiwani, Yasmin (2009). "Helpless Maidens and Chivalrous Knights: Afghan Women in the Canadian Press". University of Toronto Quarterly. 2. 78 (2): 728–744. doi:10.3138/utq.78.2.728. This essay interrogates representations of Afghan women in the Globe and Mail, Canada's major English-language daily and newspaper of record.
  32. ^ Keil, Roger; S. Harris Ali (2011). Networked Disease: Emerging Infections in the Global City. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1444399110. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
  33. ^ "Where's Mario". Maclean's. 25 August 2008. Archived from the original on 26 January 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
  34. ^ "Endorsements, opinions flourish in Quebec". 10 October 2008. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
  35. ^ "El fenómeno de Bachelet pone en jaque a la derecha chilena". BBC Mundo. 7 November 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
  36. ^ Middle East Institute, 1950, p. 155.|quote=Al Ahram is... what The Times is to Englishmen and the New York Times to Americans
  37. ^ Perreault, Gregory (2011). "Islam is Everywhere": Coverage of Islam in the English Egyptian Press". Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly: 14. Retrieved 10 October 2013. This is significant because the state-run Al Ahram is considered the paper of record in Egypt
  38. ^ Muir; Worther, Simo; Hana (2013). Finland's Holocaust: Silences of History. ISBN 978-1137302649.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  39. ^ paidContent. "Le Figaro opts for freemium web model". the Guardian. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  40. ^ "Le Figaro". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 31 May 2015. ... one of the great newspapers of France and of the world.
  41. ^ "Le Monde, whose print edition comes out around lunchtime, was launched at the end of Nazi occupation of France in 1944 and took on the role of France's newspaper of record alongside the more conservative Le Figaro." - France's Le Monde newspaper editor quits after power struggle with staff, Reuters, 14 May 2014
  42. ^ "A capital crisis may bring down leftist French paper / Liberation, founded in 1968, has seen circulation plummet". San Francisco Chronicle. 27 October 2006. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  43. ^ "Le Monde | French newspaper". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 25 March 2018. ... one of the most important and widely respected newspapers in the world.
  44. ^ Fuller, Thomas (25 August 2003). "World of Le Monde looks set to expand". International Herald Tribune.
  45. ^ "France profile". BBC News. 12 January 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014. Le Monde - respected national daily, considered to be France's newspaper of record
  46. ^ "Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung | German newspaper". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
  47. ^ "German language reform resisted". The Washington Times. 29 May 2004.
  48. ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). 5 March 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 22 October 2020. Cite uses generic title (help)
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  50. ^ "Die Leitmedien". Archived from the original on 15 December 2010. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
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  52. ^ Abramsohn, Jennifer (11 April 2003). "Der Spiegel Mirrors Itself in English". DW. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
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  54. ^ "Greece - Post Report - e Diplomat". Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  55. ^ Lanchester, John (2008). Family Romance: A Love Story. 0143112953: Penguin. p. 140. The clippings are from the South China Morning Post, the paper of record in Hong KongCS1 maint: location (link)
  56. ^ Drèze, Jean; Sen, Amartya (21 February 1991). The Political Economy of Hunger: Volume 1: Entitlement and Well-being. Clarendon Press. ISBN 9780191544460.
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  58. ^ Corey Frost; Karen Weingarten; Doug Babington; Don LePan; Maureen Okun (30 May 2017). The Broadview Guide to Writing: A Handbook for Students (6th ed.). Broadview Press. pp. 27–. ISBN 978-1-55481-313-1. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  59. ^ Greg Barton; Paul Weller; Ihsan Yilmaz (18 December 2014). The Muslim World and Politics in Transition: Creative Contributions of the Gülen Movement. A&C Black. pp. 28–. ISBN 978-1-4411-5873-4. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
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