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List of regular polytopes and compounds

Example regular polytopes
Regular (2D) polygons
Convex Star
Regular pentagon.svg
{5}
Star polygon 5-2.svg
{5/2}
Regular (3D) polyhedra
Convex Star
Dodecahedron.png
{5,3}
Small stellated dodecahedron.png
{5/2,5}
Regular 2D tessellations
Euclidean Hyperbolic
Uniform tiling 44-t0.svg
{4,4}
Uniform tiling 54-t0.png
{5,4}
Regular 4D polytopes
Convex Star
Schlegel wireframe 120-cell.png
{5,3,3}
Ortho solid 010-uniform polychoron p53-t0.png
{5/2,5,3}
Regular 3D tessellations
Euclidean Hyperbolic
Cubic honeycomb.png
{4,3,4}
Hyperbolic orthogonal dodecahedral honeycomb.png
{5,3,4}

This page lists the regular polytopes and regular polytope compounds in Euclidean, spherical and hyperbolic spaces.

The Schläfli symbol describes every regular tessellation of an n-sphere, Euclidean and hyperbolic spaces. A Schläfli symbol describing an n-polytope equivalently describes a tessellation of an (n − 1)-sphere. In addition, the symmetry of a regular polytope or tessellation is expressed as a Coxeter group, which Coxeter expressed identically to the Schläfli symbol, except delimiting by square brackets, a notation that is called Coxeter notation. Another related symbol is the Coxeter-Dynkin diagram which represents a symmetry group with no rings, and the represents regular polytope or tessellation with a ring on the first node. For example, the cube has Schläfli symbol {4,3}, and with its octahedral symmetry, [4,3] or CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png, it is represented by Coxeter diagram CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png.

The regular polytopes are grouped by dimension and subgrouped by convex, nonconvex and infinite forms. Nonconvex forms use the same vertices as the convex forms, but have intersecting facets. Infinite forms tessellate a one-lower-dimensional Euclidean space.

Infinite forms can be extended to tessellate a hyperbolic space. Hyperbolic space is like normal space at a small scale, but parallel lines diverge at a distance. This allows vertex figures to have negative angle defects, like making a vertex with seven equilateral triangles and allowing it to lie flat. It cannot be done in a regular plane, but can be at the right scale of a hyperbolic plane.

A more general definition of regular polytopes which do not have simple Schläfli symbols includes regular skew polytopes and regular skew apeirotopes with nonplanar facets or vertex figures.

Contents

OverviewEdit

This table shows a summary of regular polytope counts by dimension.

Dim. Finite Euclidean Hyperbolic Compounds
Convex Star Skew Convex Compact Star Paracompact Convex Star
1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
2 1 1 0 0
3 5 4 ? 3 5 0
4 6 10 ? 1 4 0 11 26 20
5 3 0 ? 3 5 4 2 0 0
6 3 0 ? 1 0 0 5 0 0
7 3 0 ? 1 0 0 0 3 0
8 3 0 ? 1 0 0 0 6 0
9+ 3 0 ? 1 0 0 0 [a] 0
  1. ^ 1 if the number of dimensions is of the form 2k − 1; 2 if the number of dimensions is of the form 2k; 0 otherwise.

There are no Euclidean regular star tessellations in any number of dimensions.

One dimensionEdit

  A Coxeter diagram represent mirror "planes" as nodes, and puts a ring around a node if a point is not on the plane. A dion, { },   is a point p and its mirror image point p', and the line segment between them.

A one-dimensional polytope or 1-polytope is a closed line segment, bounded by its two endpoints. A 1-polytope is regular by definition and is represented by Schläfli symbol { },[1][2] or a Coxeter diagram with a single ringed node,  . Norman Johnson calls it a dion[3] and gives it the Schläfli symbol { }.

Although trivial as a polytope, it appears as the edges of polygons and other higher dimensional polytopes.[4] It is used in the definition of uniform prisms like Schläfli symbol { }×{p}, or Coxeter diagram       as a Cartesian product of a line segment and a regular polygon.[5]

Two dimensions (polygons)Edit

The two-dimensional polytopes are called polygons. Regular polygons are equilateral and cyclic. A p-gonal regular polygon is represented by Schläfli symbol {p}.

Usually only convex polygons are considered regular, but star polygons, like the pentagram, can also be considered regular. They use the same vertices as the convex forms, but connect in an alternate connectivity which passes around the circle more than once to complete.

Star polygons should be called nonconvex rather than concave because the intersecting edges do not generate new vertices and all the vertices exist on a circle boundary.

ConvexEdit

The Schläfli symbol {p} represents a regular p-gon.

Name Triangle
(2-simplex)
Square
(2-orthoplex)
(2-cube)
Pentagon
(2-pentagonal polytope)
Hexagon Heptagon Octagon
Schläfli {3} {4} {5} {6} {7} {8}
Symmetry D3, [3] D4, [4] D5, [5] D6, [6] D7, [7] D8, [8]
Coxeter                        
Image            
Name Nonagon
(Enneagon)
Decagon Hendecagon Dodecagon Tridecagon Tetradecagon
Schläfli {9} {10} {11} {12} {13} {14}
Symmetry D9, [9] D10, [10] D11, [11] D12, [12] D13, [13] D14, [14]
Dynkin                        
Image            
Name Pentadecagon Hexadecagon Heptadecagon Octadecagon Enneadecagon Icosagon ...p-gon
Schläfli {15} {16} {17} {18} {19} {20} {p}
Symmetry D15, [15] D16, [16] D17, [17] D18, [18] D19, [19] D20, [20] Dp, [p]
Dynkin                            
Image            

SphericalEdit

The regular digon {2} can be considered to be a degenerate regular polygon. It can be realized non-degenerately in some non-Euclidean spaces, such as on the surface of a sphere or torus.

Name Monogon Digon
Schläfli symbol {1} {2}
Symmetry D1, [ ] D2, [2]
Coxeter diagram   or        
Image    

StarsEdit

There exist infinitely many regular star polytopes in two dimensions, whose Schläfli symbols consist of rational numbers {n/m}. They are called star polygons and share the same vertex arrangements of the convex regular polygons.

In general, for any natural number n, there are n-pointed star regular polygonal stars with Schläfli symbols {n/m} for all m such that m < n/2 (strictly speaking {n/m}={n/(nm)}) and m and n are coprime (as such, all stellations of a polygon with a prime number of sides will be regular stars). Cases where m and n are not coprime are called compound polygons.

Name Pentagram Heptagrams Octagram Enneagrams Decagram ...n-grams
Schläfli {5/2} {7/2} {7/3} {8/3} {9/2} {9/4} {10/3} {p/q}
Symmetry D5, [5] D7, [7] D8, [8] D9, [9], D10, [10] Dp, [p]
Coxeter                                                
Image                
Regular star polygons up to 20 sides
 
{11/2}
 
{11/3}
 
{11/4}
 
{11/5}
 
{12/5}
 
{13/2}
 
{13/3}
 
{13/4}
 
{13/5}
 
{13/6}
 
{14/3}
 
{14/5}
 
{15/2}
 
{15/4}
 
{15/7}
 
{16/3}
 
{16/5}
 
{16/7}
 
{17/2}
 
{17/3}
 
{17/4}
 
{17/5}
 
{17/6}
 
{17/7}
 
{17/8}
 
{18/5}
 
{18/7}
 
{19/2}
 
{19/3}
 
{19/4}
 
{19/5}
 
{19/6}
 
{19/7}
 
{19/8}
 
{19/9}
 
{20/3}
 
{20/7}
 
{20/9}

Star polygons that can only exist as spherical tilings, similarly to the monogon and digon, may exist (for example: {3/2}, {5/3}, {5/4}, {7/4}, {9/5}), however these do not appear to have been studied in detail.

There also exist failed star polygons, such as the piangle, which do not cover the surface of a circle finitely many times.[6]

Skew polygonsEdit

In 3-dimensional space, a regular skew polygon is called an antiprismatic polygon, with the vertex arrangement of an antiprism, and a subset of edges, zig-zagging between top and bottom polygons.

Example regular skew zig-zag polygons
Hexagon Octagon Decagons
D3d, [2+,6] D4d, [2+,8] D5d, [2+,10]
{3}#{ } {4}#{ } {5}#{ } {5/2}#{ } {5/3}#{ }
         

In 4-dimensions a regular skew polygon can have vertices on a Clifford torus and related by a Clifford displacement. Unlike antiprismatic skew polygons, skew polygons on double rotations can include an odd-number of sides.

They can be seen in the Petrie polygons of the convex regular 4-polytopes, seen as regular plane polygons in the perimeter of Coxeter plane projection:

Pentagon Octagon Dodecagon Triacontagon
 
5-cell
 
16-cell
 
24-cell
 
600-cell

Three dimensions (polyhedra)Edit

In three dimensions, polytopes are called polyhedra:

A regular polyhedron with Schläfli symbol {p,q}, Coxeter diagrams      , has a regular face type {p}, and regular vertex figure {q}.

A vertex figure (of a polyhedron) is a polygon, seen by connecting those vertices which are one edge away from a given vertex. For regular polyhedra, this vertex figure is always a regular (and planar) polygon.

Existence of a regular polyhedron {p,q} is constrained by an inequality, related to the vertex figure's angle defect:

 

By enumerating the permutations, we find five convex forms, four star forms and three plane tilings, all with polygons {p} and {q} limited to: {3}, {4}, {5}, {5/2}, and {6}.

Beyond Euclidean space, there is an infinite set of regular hyperbolic tilings.

ConvexEdit

The convex regular polyhedra are called the 5 Platonic solids. The vertex figure is given with each vertex count. All these polyhedra have an Euler characteristic (χ) of 2.

Name Schläfli
{p,q}
Coxeter
     
Image
(solid)
Image
(sphere)
Faces
{p}
Edges Vertices
{q}
Symmetry Dual
Tetrahedron
(3-simplex)
{3,3}           4
{3}
6 4
{3}
Td
[3,3]
(*332)
(self)
Hexahedron
Cube
(3-cube)
{4,3}           6
{4}
12 8
{3}
Oh
[4,3]
(*432)
Octahedron
Octahedron
(3-orthoplex)
{3,4}           8
{3}
12 6
{4}
Oh
[4,3]
(*432)
Cube
Dodecahedron {5,3}           12
{5}
30 20
{3}
Ih
[5,3]
(*532)
Icosahedron
Icosahedron {3,5}           20
{3}
30 12
{5}
Ih
[5,3]
(*532)
Dodecahedron

SphericalEdit

In spherical geometry, regular spherical polyhedra (tilings of the sphere) exist that would otherwise be degenerate as polytopes. These are the hosohedra {2,n} and their dual dihedra {n,2}. Coxeter calls these cases "improper" tessellations.[7]

The first few cases (n from 2 to 6) are listed below.

Hosohedra
Name Schläfli
{2,p}
Coxeter
diagram
Image
(sphere)
Faces
{2}π/p
Edges Vertices
{p}
Symmetry Dual
Digonal hosohedron {2,2}         2
{2}π/2
2 2
{2}π/2
D2h
[2,2]
(*222)
Self
Trigonal hosohedron {2,3}         3
{2}π/3
3 2
{3}
D3h
[2,3]
(*322)
Trigonal dihedron
Square hosohedron {2,4}         4
{2}π/4
4 2
{4}
D4h
[2,4]
(*422)
Square dihedron
Pentagonal hosohedron {2,5}         5
{2}π/5
5 2
{5}
D5h
[2,5]
(*522)
Pentagonal dihedron
Hexagonal hosohedron {2,6}         6
{2}π/6
6 2
{6}
D6h
[2,6]
(*622)
Hexagonal dihedron
Dihedra
Name Schläfli
{p,2}
Coxeter
diagram
Image
(sphere)
Faces
{p}
Edges Vertices
{2}
Symmetry Dual
Digonal dihedron {2,2}         2
{2}π/2
2 2
{2}π/2
D2h
[2,2]
(*222)
Self
Trigonal dihedron {3,2}         2
{3}
3 3
{2}π/3
D3h
[3,2]
(*322)
Trigonal hosohedron
Square dihedron {4,2}         2
{4}
4 4
{2}π/4
D4h
[4,2]
(*422)
Square hosohedron
Pentagonal dihedron {5,2}         2
{5}
5 5
{2}π/5
D5h
[5,2]
(*522)
Pentagonal hosohedron
Hexagonal dihedron {6,2}         2
{6}
6 6
{2}π/6
D6h
[6,2]
(*622)
Hexagonal hosohedron

Star-dihedra and hosohedra {p/q,2} and {2,p/q} also exist for any star polygon {p/q}.

StarsEdit

The regular star polyhedra are called the Kepler–Poinsot polyhedra and there are four of them, based on the vertex arrangements of the dodecahedron {5,3} and icosahedron {3,5}:

As spherical tilings, these star forms overlap the sphere multiple times, called its density, being 3 or 7 for these forms. The tiling images show a single spherical polygon face in yellow.

Name Image
(skeletonic)
Image
(solid)
Image
(sphere)
Stellation
diagram
Schläfli
{p,q} and
Coxeter
Faces
{p}
Edges Vertices
{q}
verf.
χ Density Symmetry Dual
Small stellated dodecahedron         {5/2,5}
       
12
{5/2}
 
30 12
{5}
 
−6 3 Ih
[5,3]
(*532)
Great dodecahedron
Great dodecahedron         {5,5/2}
       
12
{5}
 
30 12
{5/2}
 
−6 3 Ih
[5,3]
(*532)
Small stellated dodecahedron
Great stellated dodecahedron         {5/2,3}
       
12
{5/2}
 
30 20
{3}
 
2 7 Ih
[5,3]
(*532)
Great icosahedron
Great icosahedron         {3,5/2}
       
20
{3}
 
30 12
{5/2}
 
2 7 Ih
[5,3]
(*532)
Great stellated dodecahedron

There are infinitely many failed star polyhedra. These are also spherical tilings with star polygons in their Schläfli symbols, but they do not cover a sphere finitely many times. Some examples are {5/2,4}, {5/2,9}, {7/2,3}, {5/2,5/2}, {7/2,7/3}, {4,5/2}, and {3,7/3}.

Skew polyhedraEdit

Regular skew polyhedra are generalizations to the set of regular polyhedron which include the possibility of nonplanar vertex figures.

For 4-dimensional skew polyhedra, Coxeter offered a modified Schläfli symbol {l,m|n} for these figures, with {l,m} implying the vertex figure, m l-gons around a vertex, and n-gonal holes. Their vertex figures are skew polygons, zig-zagging between two planes.

The regular skew polyhedra, represented by {l,m|n}, follow this equation:

2 sin(π/l) sin(π/m) = cos(π/n)

Four of them can be seen in 4-dimensions as a subset of faces of four regular 4-polytopes, sharing the same vertex arrangement and edge arrangement:

       
{4, 6 | 3} {6, 4 | 3} {4, 8 | 3} {8, 4 | 3}

Four dimensionsEdit

Regular 4-polytopes with Schläfli symbol   have cells of type  , faces of type  , edge figures  , and vertex figures  .

  • A vertex figure (of a 4-polytope) is a polyhedron, seen by the arrangement of neighboring vertices around a given vertex. For regular 4-polytopes, this vertex figure is a regular polyhedron.
  • An edge figure is a polygon, seen by the arrangement of faces around an edge. For regular 4-polytopes, this edge figure will always be a regular polygon.

The existence of a regular 4-polytope   is constrained by the existence of the regular polyhedra  . A suggested name for 4-polytopes is "polychoron".[8]

Each will exist in a space dependent upon this expression:

 
  : Hyperspherical 3-space honeycomb or 4-polytope
  : Euclidean 3-space honeycomb
  : Hyperbolic 3-space honeycomb

These constraints allow for 21 forms: 6 are convex, 10 are nonconvex, one is a Euclidean 3-space honeycomb, and 4 are hyperbolic honeycombs.

The Euler characteristic   for convex 4-polytopes is zero:  

ConvexEdit

The 6 convex regular 4-polytopes are shown in the table below. All these 4-polytopes have an Euler characteristic (χ) of 0.

Name
Schläfli
{p,q,r}
Coxeter
       
Cells
{p,q}
Faces
{p}
Edges
{r}
Vertices
{q,r}
Dual
{r,q,p}
5-cell
(4-simplex)
{3,3,3}         5
{3,3}
10
{3}
10
{3}
5
{3,3}
(self)
8-cell
(4-cube)
(Tesseract)
{4,3,3}         8
{4,3}
24
{4}
32
{3}
16
{3,3}
16-cell
16-cell
(4-orthoplex)
{3,3,4}         16
{3,3}
32
{3}
24
{4}
8
{3,4}
Tesseract
24-cell {3,4,3}         24
{3,4}
96
{3}
96
{3}
24
{4,3}
(self)
120-cell {5,3,3}         120
{5,3}
720
{5}
1200
{3}
600
{3,3}
600-cell
600-cell {3,3,5}         600
{3,3}
1200
{3}
720
{5}
120
{3,5}
120-cell
5-cell 8-cell 16-cell 24-cell 120-cell 600-cell
{3,3,3} {4,3,3} {3,3,4} {3,4,3} {5,3,3} {3,3,5}
Wireframe (Petrie polygon) skew orthographic projections
           
Solid orthographic projections
 
tetrahedral
envelope

(cell/vertex-centered)
 
cubic envelope
(cell-centered)
 
Cubic
envelope

(cell-centered)
 
cuboctahedral
envelope

(cell-centered)
 
truncated rhombic
triacontahedron
envelope

(cell-centered)
 
Pentakis
icosidodecahedral

envelope
(vertex-centered)
Wireframe Schlegel diagrams (Perspective projection)
 
(Cell-centered)
 
(Cell-centered)
 
(Cell-centered)
 
(Cell-centered)
 
(Cell-centered)
 
(Vertex-centered)
Wireframe stereographic projections (Hyperspherical)
           

SphericalEdit

Di-4-topes and hoso-4-topes exist as regular tessellations of the 3-sphere.

Regular di-4-topes (2 facets) include: {3,3,2}, {3,4,2}, {4,3,2}, {5,3,2}, {3,5,2}, {p,2,2}, and their hoso-4-tope duals (2 vertices): {2,3,3}, {2,4,3}, {2,3,4}, {2,3,5}, {2,5,3}, {2,2,p}. 4-polytopes of the form {2,p,2} are the same as {2,2,p}. There are also the cases {p,2,q} which have dihedral cells and hosohedral vertex figures.

Regular hoso-4-topes as 3-sphere honeycombs
Schläfli
{2,p,q}
Coxeter
       
Cells
{2,p}π/q
Faces
{2}π/p,π/q
Edges Vertices Vertex figure
{p,q}
Symmetry Dual
{2,3,3}         4
{2,3}π/3
 
6
{2}π/3,π/3
4 2 {3,3}
 
[2,3,3] {3,3,2}
{2,4,3}         6
{2,4}π/3
 
12
{2}π/4,π/3
8 2 {4,3}
 
[2,4,3] {3,4,2}
{2,3,4}         8
{2,3}π/4
 
12
{2}π/3,π/4
6 2 {3,4}
 
[2,4,3] {4,3,2}
{2,5,3}         12
{2,5}π/3
 
30
{2}π/5,π/3
20 2 {5,3}
 
[2,5,3] {3,5,2}
{2,3,5}         20
{2,3}π/5
 
30
{2}π/3,π/5
12 2 {3,5}
 
[2,5,3] {5,3,2}

StarsEdit

There are ten regular star 4-polytopes, which are called the Schläfli–Hess 4-polytopes. Their vertices are based on the convex 120-cell {5,3,3} and 600-cell {3,3,5}.

Ludwig Schläfli found four of them and skipped the last six because he would not allow forms that failed the Euler characteristic on cells or vertex figures (for zero-hole tori: F+V−E=2). Edmund Hess (1843–1903) completed the full list of ten in his German book Einleitung in die Lehre von der Kugelteilung mit besonderer Berücksichtigung ihrer Anwendung auf die Theorie der Gleichflächigen und der gleicheckigen Polyeder (1883)[2].

There are 4 unique edge arrangements and 7 unique face arrangements from these 10 regular star 4-polytopes, shown as orthogonal projections:

Name
Wireframe Solid Schläfli
{p, q, r}
Coxeter
Cells
{p, q}
Faces
{p}
Edges
{r}
Vertices
{q, r}
Density χ Symmetry group Dual
{r, q,p}
Icosahedral 120-cell
(faceted 600-cell)
    {3,5,5/2}
         
120
{3,5}
 
1200
{3}
 
720
{5/2}
 
120
{5,5/2}
 
4 480 H4
[5,3,3]
Small stellated 120-cell
Small stellated 120-cell     {5/2,5,3}
         
120
{5/2,5}
 
720
{5/2}
 
1200
{3}
 
120
{5,3}
 
4 −480 H4
[5,3,3]
Icosahedral 120-cell
Great 120-cell     {5,5/2,5}
         
120
{5,5/2}
 
720
{5}
 
720
{5}
 
120
{5/2,5}
 
6 0 H4
[5,3,3]
Self-dual
Grand 120-cell     {5,3,5/2}
         
120
{5,3}
 
720
{5}
 
720
{5/2}
 
120
{3,5/2}
 
20 0 H4
[5,3,3]
Great stellated 120-cell
Great stellated 120-cell     {5/2,3,5}
         
120
{5/2,3}
 
720
{5/2}
 
720
{5}
 
120
{3,5}
 
20 0 H4
[5,3,3]
Grand 120-cell
Grand stellated 120-cell     {5/2,5,5/2}
           
120
{5/2,5}
 
720
{5/2}
 
720
{5/2}
 
120
{5,5/2}
 
66 0 H4
[5,3,3]
Self-dual
Great grand 120-cell     {5,5/2,3}
         
120
{5,5/2}
 
720
{5}
 
1200
{3}
 
120
{5/2,3}
 
76 −480 H4
[5,3,3]
Great icosahedral 120-cell
Great icosahedral 120-cell
(great faceted 600-cell)
    {3,5/2,5}
         
120
{3,5/2}
 
1200
{3}
 
720
{5}
 
120
{5/2,5}
 
76 480 H4
[5,3,3]
Great grand 120-cell
Grand 600-cell     {3,3,5/2}
         
600
{3,3}
 
1200
{3}
 
720
{5/2}
 
120
{3,5/2}
 
191 0 H4
[5,3,3]
Great grand stellated 120-cell
Great grand stellated 120-cell     {5/2,3,3}
         
120
{5/2,3}
 
720
{5/2}
 
1200
{3}
 
600
{3,3}
 
191 0 H4
[5,3,3]
Grand 600-cell

There are 4 failed potential regular star 4-polytopes permutations: {3,5/2,3}, {4,3,5/2}, {5/2,3,4}, {5/2,3,5/2}. Their cells and vertex figures exist, but they do not cover a hypersphere with a finite number of repetitions.

Five and more dimensionsEdit

In five dimensions, a regular polytope can be named as   where   is the 4-face type,   is the cell type,   is the face type, and   is the face figure,   is the edge figure, and   is the vertex figure.

A vertex figure (of a 5-polytope) is a 4-polytope, seen by the arrangement of neighboring vertices to each vertex.
An edge figure (of a 5-polytope) is a polyhedron, seen by the arrangement of faces around each edge.
A face figure (of a 5-polytope) is a polygon, seen by the arrangement of cells around each face.

A regular 5-polytope   exists only if   and   are regular 4-polytopes.

The space it fits in is based on the expression:

 
  : Spherical 4-space tessellation or 5-space polytope
  : Euclidean 4-space tessellation
  : hyperbolic 4-space tessellation

Enumeration of these constraints produce 3 convex polytopes, zero nonconvex polytopes, 3 4-space tessellations, and 5 hyperbolic 4-space tessellations. There are no non-convex regular polytopes in five dimensions or higher.

ConvexEdit

In dimensions 5 and higher, there are only three kinds of convex regular polytopes.[9]

Name Schläfli
Symbol
{p1,...,pn−1}
Coxeter k-faces Facet
type
Vertex
figure
Dual
n-simplex {3n−1}     ...       {3n−2} {3n−2} Self-dual
n-cube {4,3n−2}     ...       {4,3n−3} {3n−2} n-orthoplex
n-orthoplex {3n−2,4}     ...       {3n−2} {3n−3,4} n-cube

There are also improper cases where some numbers in the Schläfli symbol are 2. For example, {p,q,r,...2} is an improper regular spherical polytope whenever {p,q,r...} is a regular spherical polytope, and {2,...p,q,r} is an improper regular spherical polytope whenever {...p,q,r} is a regular spherical polytope. Such polytopes may also be used as facets, yielding forms such as {p,q,...2...y,z}.

5 dimensionsEdit

Name Schläfli
Symbol
{p,q,r,s}
Coxeter
Facets
{p,q,r}
Cells
{p,q}
Faces
{p}
Edges Vertices Face
figure
{s}
Edge
figure
{r,s}
Vertex
figure

{q,r,s}
5-simplex {3,3,3,3}
         
6
{3,3,3}
15
{3,3}
20
{3}
15 6 {3} {3,3} {3,3,3}
5-cube {4,3,3,3}
         
10
{4,3,3}
40
{4,3}
80
{4}
80 32 {3} {3,3} {3,3,3}
5-orthoplex {3,3,3,4}
         
32
{3,3,3}
80
{3,3}
80
{3}
40 10 {4} {3,4} {3,3,4}
 
5-simplex
 
5-cube
 
5-orthoplex

6 dimensionsEdit

Name Schläfli Vertices Edges Faces Cells 4-faces 5-faces χ
6-simplex {3,3,3,3,3} 7 21 35 35 21 7 0
6-cube {4,3,3,3,3} 64 192 240 160 60 12 0
6-orthoplex {3,3,3,3,4} 12 60 160 240 192 64 0
 
6-simplex
 
6-cube
 
6-orthoplex

7 dimensionsEdit

Name Schläfli Vertices Edges Faces Cells 4-faces 5-faces 6-faces χ
7-simplex {3,3,3,3,3,3} 8 28 56 70 56 28 8 2
7-cube {4,3,3,3,3,3} 128 448 672 560 280 84 14 2
7-orthoplex {3,3,3,3,3,4} 14 84 280 560 672 448 128 2
 
7-simplex
 
7-cube
 
7-orthoplex

8 dimensionsEdit

Name Schläfli Vertices Edges Faces Cells 4-faces 5-faces 6-faces 7-faces χ
8-simplex {3,3,3,3,3,3,3} 9 36 84 126 126 84 36 9 0
8-cube {4,3,3,3,3,3,3} 256 1024 1792 1792 1120 448 112 16 0
8-orthoplex {3,3,3,3,3,3,4} 16 112 448 1120 1792 1792 1024 256 0
 
8-simplex
 
8-cube
 
8-orthoplex

9 dimensionsEdit

Name Schläfli Vertices Edges Faces Cells 4-faces 5-faces 6-faces 7-faces 8-faces χ
9-simplex {38} 10 45 120 210 252 210 120 45 10 2
9-cube {4,37} 512 2304 4608 5376 4032 2016 672 144 18 2
9-orthoplex {37,4} 18 144 672 2016 4032 5376 4608 2304 512 2
 
9-simplex
 
9-cube
 
9-orthoplex

10 dimensionsEdit

Name Schläfli Vertices Edges Faces Cells 4-faces 5-faces 6-faces 7-faces 8-faces 9-faces χ
10-simplex {39} 11 55 165 330 462 462 330 165 55 11 0
10-cube {4,38} 1024 5120 11520 15360 13440 8064 3360 960 180 20 0
10-orthoplex {38,4} 20 180 960 3360 8064 13440 15360 11520 5120 1024 0
 
10-simplex
 
10-cube
 
10-orthoplex

...

Non-convexEdit

There are no non-convex regular polytopes in five dimensions or higher.

Regular projective polytopesEdit

A projective regular (n+1)-polytope exists when an original regular n-spherical tessellation, {p,q,...}, is centrally symmetric. Such a polytope is named hemi-{p,q,...}, and contain half as many elements. Coxeter gives a symbol {p,q,...}/2, while McMullen writes {p,q,...}h/2 with h as the coxeter number.[10]

Even-sided regular polygons have hemi-2n-gon projective polygons, {2p}/2.

There are 4 regular projective polyhedra related to 4 of 5 Platonic solids.

The hemi-cube and hemi-octahedron generalize as hemi-n-cubes and hemi-n-orthoplexes in any dimensions.

Regular projective polyhedraEdit

3-dimensional regular hemi-polytopes
Name Coxeter
McMullen
Image Faces Edges Vertices χ
Hemi-cube {4,3}/2
{4,3}3
  3 6 4 1
Hemi-octahedron {3,4}/2
{3,4}3
  4 6 3 1
Hemi-dodecahedron {5,3}/2
{5,3}5
  6 15 10 1
Hemi-icosahedron {3,5}/2
{3,5}5
  10 15 6 1

Regular projective 4-polytopesEdit

In 4-dimensions 5 of 6 convex regular 4-polytopes generate projective 4-polytopes. The 3 special cases are hemi-24-cell, hemi-600-cell, and hemi-120-cell.

4-dimensional regular hemi-polytopes
Name Coxeter
symbol
McMullen
Symbol
Cells Faces Edges Vertices χ
Hemi-tesseract {4,3,3}/2 {4,3,3}4 4 12 16 8 0
Hemi-16-cell {3,3,4}/2 {3,3,4}4 8 16 12 4 0
Hemi-24-cell {3,4,3}/2 {3,4,3}6 12 48 48 12 0
Hemi-120-cell {5,3,3}/2 {5,3,3}15 60 360 600 300 0
Hemi-600-cell {3,3,5}/2 {3,3,5}15 300 600 360 60 0

Regular projective 5-polytopesEdit

There are only 2 convex regular projective hemi-polytopes in dimensions 5 or higher.

Name Schläfli 4-faces Cells Faces Edges Vertices χ
hemi-penteract {4,3,3,3}/2 5 20 40 40 16 1
hemi-pentacross {3,3,3,4}/2 16 40 40 20 5 1

ApeirotopesEdit

An apeirotope or infinite polytope is a polytope which has infinitely many facets. An n-apeirotope is an infinite n-polytope: a 2-apeirotope or apeirotope, is an infinite polygon, a 3-apeirotope, or apeirohedron, is an infinite polyhedron, etc.

There are two main geometric classes of apeirotope:[11]

  • Regular honeycombs in n dimensions, which completely fill an n-dimensional space.
  • Regular skew apeirotopes, comprising an n-dimensional manifold in a higher space.

One dimension (apeirogons)Edit

The straight apeirogon is a regular tessellation of the line, subdviding it into infinitely many equal segments. It has infinitely many vertices and edges. Its Schläfli symbol is {∞}, and Coxeter diagram    .

... ...

Apeirogons in the hyperbolic plane, most notably the regular apeirogon, {∞}, can have a curvature just like finite polygons of the Euclidean plane, with the vertices circumscribed by horocycles or hypercycles rather than circles.

Regular apeirogons that are scaled to converge at infinity have the symbol {∞} and exist on horocycles, while more generally they can exist on hypercycles.

{∞} {πi/λ}
 
Apeirogon on horocycle
 
Apeirogon on hypercycle

Above are two regular hyperbolic apeirogons in the Poincaré disk model, the right one shows perpendicular reflection lines of divergent fundamental domains, separated by length λ.

Skew apeirogonsEdit

A skew apeirogon in two dimensions forms a zig-zag line in the plane. If the zig-zag is even and symmetrical, then the apeirogon is regular.

Skew apeirogons can be constructed in any number of dimensions. In three dimensions, a regular skew apeirogon traces out a helical spiral and may be either left- or right-handed.

2-dimensions 3-dimensions
 
Zig-zag apeirogon
 
Helix apeirogon

Two dimensions (apeirohedra)Edit

Euclidean tilingsEdit

There are three regular tessellations of the plane. All three have an Euler characteristic (χ) of 0.

Name Square tiling
(quadrille)
Triangular tiling
(deltille)
Hexagonal tiling
(hextille)
Symmetry p4m, [4,4], (*442) p6m, [6,3], (*632)
Schläfli {p,q} {4,4} {3,6} {6,3}
Coxeter diagram                  
Image      

There are two improper regular tilings: {∞,2}, an apeirogonal dihedron, made from two apeirogons, each filling half the plane; and secondly, its dual, {2,∞}, an apeirogonal hosohedron, seen as an infinite set of parallel lines.

 
{∞,2},      
 
{2,∞},      

Euclidean star-tilingsEdit

There are no regular plane tilings of star polygons. There are many enumerations that fit in the plane (1/p + 1/q = 1/2), like {8/3,8}, {10/3,5}, {5/2,10}, {12/5,12}, etc., but none repeat periodically.

Hyperbolic tilingsEdit

Tessellations of hyperbolic 2-space are hyperbolic tilings. There are infinitely many regular tilings in H2. As stated above, every positive integer pair {p,q} such that 1/p + 1/q < 1/2 gives a hyperbolic tiling. In fact, for the general Schwarz triangle (pqr) the same holds true for 1/p + 1/q + 1/r < 1.

There are a number of different ways to display the hyperbolic plane, including the Poincaré disc model which maps the plane into a circle, as shown below. It should be recognized that all of the polygon faces in the tilings below are equal-sized and only appear to get smaller near the edges due to the projection applied, very similar to the effect of a camera fisheye lens.

There are infinitely many flat regular 3-apeirotopes (apeirohedra) as regular tilings of the hyperbolic plane, of the form {p,q}, with p+q<pq/2. (previously listed above as tessellations)

  • {3,7}, {3,8}, {3,9} ... {3,∞}
  • {4,5}, {4,6}, {4,7} ... {4,∞}
  • {5,4}, {5,5}, {5,6} ... {5,∞}
  • {6,4}, {6,5}, {6,6} ... {6,∞}
  • {7,3}, {7,4}, {7,5} ... {7,∞}
  • {8,3}, {8,4}, {8,5} ... {8,∞}
  • {9,3}, {9,4}, {9,5} ... {9,∞}
  • ...
  • {∞,3}, {∞,4}, {∞,5} ... {∞,∞}

A sampling:

Hyperbolic star-tilingsEdit

There are 2 infinite forms of hyperbolic tilings whose faces or vertex figures are star polygons: {m/2, m} and their duals {m, m/2} with m = 7, 9, 11, .... The {m/2, m} tilings are stellations of the {m, 3} tilings while the {m, m/2} dual tilings are facetings of the {3, m} tilings and greatenings of the {m, 3} tilings.

The patterns {m/2, m} and {m, m/2} continue for odd m < 7 as polyhedra: when m = 5, we obtain the small stellated dodecahedron and great dodecahedron, and when m = 3, the case degenerates to a tetrahedron. The other two Kepler–Poinsot polyhedra (the great stellated dodecahedron and great icosahedron) do not have regular hyperbolic tiling analogues. If m is even, depending on how we choose to define {m/2}, we can either obtain degenerate double covers of other tilings or compound tilings.

Name Schläfli Coxeter diagram Image Face type
{p}
Vertex figure
{q}
Density Symmetry Dual
Order-7 heptagrammic tiling {7/2,7}           {7/2}
 
{7}
 
3 *732
[7,3]
Heptagrammic-order heptagonal tiling
Heptagrammic-order heptagonal tiling {7,7/2}           {7}
 
{7/2}
 
3 *732
[7,3]
Order-7 heptagrammic tiling
Order-9 enneagrammic tiling {9/2,9}           {9/2}
 
{9}
 
3 *932
[9,3]
Enneagrammic-order enneagonal tiling
Enneagrammic-order enneagonal tiling {9,9/2}           {9}
 
{9/2}
 
3 *932
[9,3]
Order-9 enneagrammic tiling
Order-11 hendecagrammic tiling {11/2,11}           {11/2}
 
{11}
 
3 *11.3.2
[11,3]
Hendecagrammic-order hendecagonal tiling
Hendecagrammic-order hendecagonal tiling {11,11/2}           {11}
 
{11/2}
 
3 *11.3.2
[11,3]
Order-11 hendecagrammic tiling
Order-p p-grammic tiling {p/2,p}           {p/2} {p} 3 *p32
[p,3]
p-grammic-order p-gonal tiling
p-grammic-order p-gonal tiling {p,p/2}           {p} {p/2} 3 *p32
[p,3]
Order-p p-grammic tiling

Skew apeirohedra in Euclidean 3-spaceEdit

There are three regular skew apeirohedra in Euclidean 3-space, with regular skew polygon vertex figures.[12][13][14] They share the same vertex arrangement and edge arrangement of 3 convex uniform honeycombs.

  • 6 squares around each vertex: {4,6|4}
  • 4 hexagons around each vertex: {6,4|4}
  • 6 hexagons around each vertex: {6,6|3}
 
12 "pure" apeirohedra in Euclidean 3-space based on the structure of the cubic honeycomb, {4,3,4}.[15] A π petrie dual operator replaces faces with petrie polygons; δ is a dual operator reverses vertices and faces; φk is a kth facetting operator; η is a halving operator, and σ skewing halving operator.
Regular skew polyhedra
 
{4,6|4}
 
{6,4|4}
 
{6,6|3}

There are thirty regular apeirohedra in Euclidean 3-space.[16] These include those listed above, as well as 8 other "pure" apeirohedra, all related to the cubic honeycomb, {4,3,4}, with others having skew polygon faces: {6,6}4, {4,6}4, {6,4}6, {∞,3}a, {∞,3}b, {∞,4}.*3, {∞,4}6,4, {∞,6}4,4, and {∞,6}6,3.

Skew apeirohedra in hyperbolic 3-spaceEdit

There are 31 regular skew apeirohedra in hyperbolic 3-space:[17]

  • 14 are compact: {8,10|3}, {10,8|3}, {10,4|3}, {4,10|3}, {6,4|5}, {4,6|5}, {10,6|3}, {6,10|3}, {8,8|3}, {6,6|4}, {10,10|3},{6,6|5}, {8,6|3}, and {6,8|3}.
  • 17 are paracompact: {12,10|3}, {10,12|3}, {12,4|3}, {4,12|3}, {6,4|6}, {4,6|6}, {8,4|4}, {4,8|4}, {12,6|3}, {6,12|3}, {12,12|3}, {6,6|6}, {8,6|4}, {6,8|4}, {12,8|3}, {8,12|3}, and {8,8|4}.

Three dimensions (4-apeirotopes)Edit

Tessellations of Euclidean 3-spaceEdit

 
Edge framework of cubic honeycomb, {4,3,4}

There is only one non-degenerate regular tessellation of 3-space (honeycombs), {4, 3, 4}:[18]

Name Schläfli
{p,q,r}
Coxeter
       
Cell
type
{p,q}
Face
type
{p}
Edge
figure
{r}
Vertex
figure

{q,r}
χ Dual
Cubic honeycomb {4,3,4}         {4,3} {4} {4} {3,4} 0 Self-dual

Improper tessellations of Euclidean 3-spaceEdit

 
Regular {2,4,4} honeycomb, seen projected into a sphere.

There are six improper regular tessellations, pairs based on the three regular Euclidean tilings. Their cells and vertex figures are all regular hosohedra {2,n}, dihedra, {n,2}, and Euclidean tilings. These improper regular tilings are constructionally related to prismatic uniform honeycombs by truncation operations. They are higher-dimensional analogues of the order-2 apeirogonal tiling and apeirogonal hosohedron.

Schläfli
{p,q,r}
Coxeter
diagram
Cell
type
{p,q}
Face
type
{p}
Edge
figure
{r}
Vertex
figure

{q,r}
{2,4,4}         {2,4} {2} {4} {4,4}
{2,3,6}         {2,3} {2} {6} {3,6}
{2,6,3}         {2,6} {2} {3} {6,3}
{4,4,2}         {4,4} {4} {2} {4,2}
{3,6,2}         {3,6} {3} {2} {6,2}
{6,3,2}         {6,3} {6} {2} {3,2}

Tessellations of hyperbolic 3-spaceEdit

There are ten flat regular honeycombs of hyperbolic 3-space:[19] (previously listed above as tessellations)

  • 4 are compact: {3,5,3}, {4,3,5}, {5,3,4}, and {5,3,5}
  • while 6 are paracompact: {3,3,6}, {6,3,3}, {3,4,4}, {4,4,3}, {3,6,3}, {4,3,6}, {6,3,4}, {4,4,4}, {5,3,6}, {6,3,5}, and {6,3,6}.
4 compact regular honeycombs
 
{5,3,4}
 
{5,3,5}
 
{4,3,5}
 
{3,5,3}
4 of 11 paracompact regular honeycombs
 
{3,4,4}
 
{3,6,3}
 
{4,4,3}
 
{4,4,4}

Tessellations of hyperbolic 3-space can be called hyperbolic honeycombs. There are 15 hyperbolic honeycombs in H3, 4 compact and 11 paracompact.

4 compact regular honeycombs
Name Schläfli
Symbol
{p,q,r}
Coxeter
       
Cell
type
{p,q}
Face
type
{p}
Edge
figure
{r}
Vertex
figure

{q,r}
χ Dual
Icosahedral honeycomb {3,5,3}         {3,5} {3} {3} {5,3} 0 Self-dual
Order-5 cubic honeycomb {4,3,5}         {4,3} {4} {5} {3,5} 0 {5,3,4}
Order-4 dodecahedral honeycomb {5,3,4}         {5,3} {5} {4} {3,4} 0 {4,3,5}
Order-5 dodecahedral honeycomb {5,3,5}         {5,3} {5} {5} {3,5} 0 Self-dual

There are also 11 paracompact H3 honeycombs (those with infinite (Euclidean) cells and/or vertex figures): {3,3,6}, {6,3,3}, {3,4,4}, {4,4,3}, {3,6,3}, {4,3,6}, {6,3,4}, {4,4,4}, {5,3,6}, {6,3,5}, and {6,3,6}.

11 paracompact regular honeycombs
Name Schläfli
Symbol
{p,q,r}
Coxeter
       
Cell
type
{p,q}
Face
type
{p}
Edge
figure
{r}
Vertex
figure

{q,r}
χ Dual
Order-6 tetrahedral honeycomb {3,3,6}         {3,3} {3} {6} {3,6} 0 {6,3,3}
Hexagonal tiling honeycomb {6,3,3}         {6,3} {6} {3} {3,3} 0 {3,3,6}
Order-4 octahedral honeycomb {3,4,4}         {3,4} {3} {4} {4,4} 0 {4,4,3}
Square tiling honeycomb {4,4,3}         {4,4} {4} {3} {4,3} 0 {3,3,4}
Triangular tiling honeycomb {3,6,3}         {3,6} {3} {3} {6,3} 0 Self-dual
Order-6 cubic honeycomb {4,3,6}         {4,3} {4} {4} {3,4} 0 {6,3,4}
Order-4 hexagonal tiling honeycomb {6,3,4}         {6,3} {6} {4} {3,4} 0 {4,3,6}
Order-4 square tiling honeycomb {4,4,4}         {4,4} {4} {4} {4,4} 0 {4,4,4}
Order-6 dodecahedral honeycomb {5,3,6}         {5,3} {5} {5} {3,5} 0 {6,3,5}
Order-5 hexagonal tiling honeycomb {6,3,5}         {6,3} {6} {5} {3,5} 0 {5,3,6}
Order-6 hexagonal tiling honeycomb {6,3,6}         {6,3} {6} {6} {3,6} 0 Self-dual

Noncompact solutions exist as Lorentzian Coxeter groups, and can be visualized with open domains in hyperbolic space (the fundamental tetrahedron having some parts inaccessible beyond infinity). All honeycombs which are not shown in the set of tables below and do not have 2 in their Schläfli symbol are noncompact.

Spherical (improper/Platonic)/Euclidean/hyperbolic(compact/paracompact/noncompact) honeycombs {p,3,r}
{p,3} \ r 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ... ∞
{2,3}
 
 
{2,3,2}
{2,3,3} {2,3,4} {2,3,5} {2,3,6} {2,3,7} {2,3,8} {2,3,∞}
{3,3}
 
 
{3,3,2}
 
{3,3,3}
 
{3,3,4}
 
{3,3,5}
 
{3,3,6}
 
{3,3,7}
 
{3,3,8}
 
{3,3,∞}
{4,3}
 
 
{4,3,2}
 
{4,3,3}
 
{4,3,4}
 
{4,3,5}
 
{4,3,6}
 
{4,3,7}
 
{4,3,8}
 
{4,3,∞}
{5,3}
 
 
{5,3,2}
 
{5,3,3}
 
{5,3,4}
 
{5,3,5}
 
{5,3,6}
 
{5,3,7}
 
{5,3,8}
 
{5,3,∞}
{6,3}
 
 
{6,3,2}
 
{6,3,3}
 
{6,3,4}
 
{6,3,5}
 
{6,3,6}
 
{6,3,7}
 
{6,3,8}
 
{6,3,∞}
{7,3}
 
{7,3,2}  
{7,3,3}
 
{7,3,4}
 
{7,3,5}
 
{7,3,6}
 
{7,3,7}
 
{7,3,8}
 
{7,3,∞}
{8,3}
 
{8,3,2}  
{8,3,3}
 
{8,3,4}
 
{8,3,5}
 
{8,3,6}
 
{8,3,7}
 
{8,3,8}
 
{8,3,∞}
... {∞,3}
 
{∞,3,2}  
{∞,3,3}
 
{∞,3,4}
 
{∞,3,5}
 
{∞,3,6}
 
{∞,3,7}
 
{∞,3,8}
 
{∞,3,∞}