Uniform k21 polytope

In geometry, a uniform k21 polytope is a polytope in k + 4 dimensions constructed from the En Coxeter group, and having only regular polytope facets. The family was named by their Coxeter symbol k21 by its bifurcating Coxeter–Dynkin diagram, with a single ring on the end of the k-node sequence.

Thorold Gosset discovered this family as a part of his 1900 enumeration of the regular and semiregular polytopes, and so they are sometimes called Gosset's semiregular figures. Gosset named them by their dimension from 5 to 9, for example the 5-ic semiregular figure.

Family membersEdit

The sequence as identified by Gosset ends as an infinite tessellation (space-filling honeycomb) in 8-space, called the E8 lattice. (A final form was not discovered by Gosset and is called the E9 lattice: 621. It is a tessellation of hyperbolic 9-space constructed of ∞ 9-simplex and ∞ 9-orthoplex facets with all vertices at infinity.)

The family starts uniquely as 6-polytopes. The triangular prism and rectified 5-cell are included at the beginning for completeness. The demipenteract also exists in the demihypercube family.

They are also sometimes named by their symmetry group, like E6 polytope, although there are many uniform polytopes within the E6 symmetry.

The complete family of Gosset semiregular polytopes are:

  1. triangular prism: −121 (2 triangles and 3 square faces)
  2. rectified 5-cell: 021, Tetroctahedric (5 tetrahedra and 5 octahedra cells)
  3. demipenteract: 121, 5-ic semiregular figure (16 5-cell and 10 16-cell facets)
  4. 2 21 polytope: 221, 6-ic semiregular figure (72 5-simplex and 27 5-orthoplex facets)
  5. 3 21 polytope: 321, 7-ic semiregular figure (576 6-simplex and 126 6-orthoplex facets)
  6. 4 21 polytope: 421, 8-ic semiregular figure (17280 7-simplex and 2160 7-orthoplex facets)
  7. 5 21 honeycomb: 521, 9-ic semiregular check tessellates Euclidean 8-space (∞ 8-simplex and ∞ 8-orthoplex facets)
  8. 6 21 honeycomb: 621, tessellates hyperbolic 9-space (∞ 9-simplex and ∞ 9-orthoplex facets)

Each polytope is constructed from (n − 1)-simplex and (n − 1)-orthoplex facets.

The orthoplex faces are constructed from the Coxeter group Dn−1 and have a Schläfli symbol of {31,n−1,1} rather than the regular {3n−2,4}. This construction is an implication of two "facet types". Half the facets around each orthoplex ridge are attached to another orthoplex, and the others are attached to a simplex. In contrast, every simplex ridge is attached to an orthoplex.

Each has a vertex figure as the previous form. For example, the rectified 5-cell has a vertex figure as a triangular prism.


Gosset semiregular figures
n-ic k21 Graph Name
Facets Elements
(n − 1)-simplex
(n − 1)-orthoplex
Vertices Edges Faces Cells 4-faces 5-faces 6-faces 7-faces
3-ic −121   Triangular prism
2 triangles
3 squares
6 9 5          
4-ic 021   Rectified 5-cell
5 tetrahedron
5 octahedron
10 30 30 10        
5-ic 121   Demipenteract
16 5-cell
10 16-cell
16 80 160 120 26      
6-ic 221   221 polytope
72 5-simplexes
27 5-orthoplexes
27 216 720 1080 648 99    
7-ic 321   321 polytope
576 6-simplexes
126 6-orthoplexes
56 756 4032 10080 12096 6048 702  
8-ic 421   421 polytope
17280 7-simplexes
2160 7-orthoplexes
240 6720 60480 241920 483840 483840 207360 19440
9-ic 521 521 honeycomb
10-ic 621 621 honeycomb

See alsoEdit


  • T. Gosset: On the Regular and Semi-Regular Figures in Space of n Dimensions, Messenger of Mathematics, Macmillan, 1900
  • Alicia Boole Stott Geometrical deduction of semiregular from regular polytopes and space fillings, Verhandelingen of the Koninklijke academy van Wetenschappen width unit Amsterdam, Eerste Sectie 11,1, Amsterdam, 1910
    • Stott, A. B. "Geometrical Deduction of Semiregular from Regular Polytopes and Space Fillings." Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akad. Wetenschappen Amsterdam 11, 3–24, 1910.
    • Alicia Boole Stott, "Geometrical deduction of semiregular from regular polytopes and space fillings," Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, (eerste sectie), Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 1–24 plus 3 plates, 1910.
    • Stott, A. B. 1910. "Geometrical Deduction of Semiregular from Regular Polytopes and Space Fillings." Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akad. Wetenschappen Amsterdam
  • Schoute, P. H., Analytical treatment of the polytopes regularly derived from the regular polytopes, Ver. der Koninklijke Akad. van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam (eerstie sectie), vol 11.5, 1913.
  • H. S. M. Coxeter: Regular and Semi-Regular Polytopes, Part I, Mathematische Zeitschrift, Springer, Berlin, 1940
  • N.W. Johnson: The Theory of Uniform Polytopes and Honeycombs, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Toronto, 1966
  • H.S.M. Coxeter: Regular and Semi-Regular Polytopes, Part II, Mathematische Zeitschrift, Springer, Berlin, 1985
  • H.S.M. Coxeter: Regular and Semi-Regular Polytopes, Part III, Mathematische Zeitschrift, Springer, Berlin, 1988
  • G.Blind and R.Blind, "The semi-regular polyhedra", Commentari Mathematici Helvetici 66 (1991) 150–154
  • John H. Conway, Heidi Burgiel, Chaim Goodman-Strass, The Symmetries of Things 2008, ISBN 978-1-56881-220-5 (Chapter 26. pp. 411–413: The Gosset Series: n21)

External linksEdit

Family An Bn I2(p) / Dn E6 / E7 / E8 / F4 / G2 Hn
Regular polygon Triangle Square p-gon Hexagon Pentagon
Uniform polyhedron Tetrahedron OctahedronCube Demicube DodecahedronIcosahedron
Uniform polychoron Pentachoron 16-cellTesseract Demitesseract 24-cell 120-cell600-cell
Uniform 5-polytope 5-simplex 5-orthoplex5-cube 5-demicube
Uniform 6-polytope 6-simplex 6-orthoplex6-cube 6-demicube 122221
Uniform 7-polytope 7-simplex 7-orthoplex7-cube 7-demicube 132231321
Uniform 8-polytope 8-simplex 8-orthoplex8-cube 8-demicube 142241421
Uniform 9-polytope 9-simplex 9-orthoplex9-cube 9-demicube
Uniform 10-polytope 10-simplex 10-orthoplex10-cube 10-demicube
Uniform n-polytope n-simplex n-orthoplexn-cube n-demicube 1k22k1k21 n-pentagonal polytope
Topics: Polytope familiesRegular polytopeList of regular polytopes and compounds
Space Family           /   /  
E2 Uniform tiling {3[3]} δ3 3 3 Hexagonal
E3 Uniform convex honeycomb {3[4]} δ4 4 4
E4 Uniform 4-honeycomb {3[5]} δ5 5 5 24-cell honeycomb
E5 Uniform 5-honeycomb {3[6]} δ6 6 6
E6 Uniform 6-honeycomb {3[7]} δ7 7 7 222
E7 Uniform 7-honeycomb {3[8]} δ8 8 8 133331
E8 Uniform 8-honeycomb {3[9]} δ9 9 9 152251521
E9 Uniform 9-honeycomb {3[10]} δ10 10 10
E10 Uniform 10-honeycomb {3[11]} δ11 11 11
En-1 Uniform (n-1)-honeycomb {3[n]} δn n n 1k22k1k21