Enneagram (geometry)

In geometry, an enneagram is a nine-pointed plane figure. It is sometimes called a nonagram or nonangle.[1]

Enneagon stellations.svg
Enneagrams shown as sequential stellations
Edges and vertices9
Symmetry groupDihedral (D9)
Internal angle (degrees)100° {9/2}
20° {9/4}

The name enneagram combines the numeral prefix, ennea-, with the Greek suffix -gram. The -gram suffix derives from γραμμῆς (grammēs) meaning a line.[2]

Regular enneagramEdit

A regular enneagram is a 9-sided star polygon. It is constructed using the same points as the regular enneagon, but the points are connected in fixed steps. Two forms of regular enneagram exist:

  • One form connects every second point and is represented by the Schläfli symbol {9/2}.
  • The other form connects every fourth point and is represented by the Schläfli symbol {9/4}.

There is also a star figure, {9/3} or 3{3}, made from the regular enneagon points but connected as a compound of three equilateral triangles.[3][4] (If the triangles are alternately interlaced, this results in a Brunnian link.) This star figure is sometimes known as the star of Goliath, after {6/2} or 2{3}, the star of David.[5]

Compound Regular star Regular
Regular star
Complete graph K9
{9/3} or 3{3}

Other enneagram figuresEdit

The final stellation of the icosahedron has 2-isogonal enneagram faces. It is a 9/4 wound star polyhedron, but the vertices are not equally spaced.
The Fourth Way teachings and the Enneagram of Personality use an irregular enneagram consisting of an equilateral triangle and an irregular hexagram based on 142857.
The Bahá'í nine-pointed star

The nine-pointed star or enneagram can also symbolize the nine gifts or fruits of the Holy Spirit.[6]

In popular cultureEdit

  • The heavy metal band Slipknot previously used the {9/3} star figure enneagram[7] and currently uses the {9/4} polygon as a symbol. The prior figure can be seen on the cover of All Hope Is Gone.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ http://chalkdustmagazine.com/blog/fractional-polygons/
  2. ^ γραμμή, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  3. ^ Grünbaum, B. and G.C. Shephard; Tilings and Patterns, New York: W. H. Freeman & Co., (1987), ISBN 0-7167-1193-1.
  4. ^ Grünbaum, B.; Polyhedra with Hollow Faces, Proc of NATO-ASI Conference on Polytopes ... etc. (Toronto 1993), ed T. Bisztriczky et al., Kluwer Academic (1994) pp. 43-70.
  5. ^ Weisstein, Eric W. "Nonagram". From MathWorld – A Wolfram Web Resource. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Nonagram.html
  6. ^ Our Christian Symbols by Friedrich Rest (1954), ISBN 0-8298-0099-9, page 13.
  7. ^ Slipknot Nonagram


External linksEdit