# List of planar symmetry groups

This article summarizes the classes of discrete symmetry groups of the Euclidean plane. The symmetry groups are named here by three naming schemes: International notation, orbifold notation, and Coxeter notation. There are three kinds of symmetry groups of the plane:

## Rosette groups

There are two families of discrete two-dimensional point groups, and they are specified with parameter n, which is the order of the group of the rotations in the group.

Family Intl
(orbifold)
Schön. Geo 
Coxeter
Order Examples
Cyclic symmetry n
(n•)
Cn n
[n]+

n
C1, [ ]+ (•)

C2, + (2•)

C3, + (3•)

C4, + (4•)

C5, + (5•)

C6, + (6•)
Dihedral symmetry nm
(*n•)
Dn n
[n]

2n
D1, [ ] (*•)

D2,  (*2•)

D3,  (*3•)

D4,  (*4•)

D5,  (*5•)

D6,  (*6•)

## Frieze groups

The 7 frieze groups, the two-dimensional line groups, with a direction of periodicity are given with five notational names. The Schönflies notation is given as infinite limits of 7 dihedral groups. The yellow regions represent the infinite fundamental domain in each.

[1,∞],
IUC
(orbifold)
Geo Schönflies Coxeter Fundamental
domain
Example
p1
(∞•)
p1 C [1,∞]+

p1m1
(*∞•)
p1 C∞v [1,∞]

[2,∞+],
IUC
(orbifold)
Geo Schönflies Coxeter Fundamental
domain
Example
p11g
(∞×)
p.g1 S2∞ [2+,∞+]

p11m
(∞*)
p. 1 C∞h [2,∞+]

[2,∞],
IUC
(orbifold)
Geo Schönflies Coxeter Fundamental
domain
Example
p2
(22∞)
p2 D [2,∞]+

p2mg
(2*∞)
p2g D∞d [2+,∞]

p2mm
(*22∞)
p2 D∞h [2,∞]

## Wallpaper groups

The 17 wallpaper groups, with finite fundamental domains, are given by International notation, orbifold notation, and Coxeter notation, classified by the 5 Bravais lattices in the plane: square, oblique (parallelogrammatic), hexagonal (equilateral triangular), rectangular (centered rhombic), and rhombic (centered rectangular).

The p1 and p2 groups, with no reflectional symmetry, are repeated in all classes. The related pure reflectional Coxeter group are given with all classes except oblique.

Square
[4,4],
IUC
(Orb.)
Geo
Coxeter Fundamental
domain
p1
(°)
p1

p2
(2222)
p2
[4,1+,4]+

[1+,4,4,1+]+

pgg
(22×)
pg2g
[4+,4+]

pmm
(*2222)
p2
[4,1+,4]

[1+,4,4,1+]

cmm
(2*22)
c2
[(4,4,2+)]

p4
(442)
p4
[4,4]+

p4g
(4*2)
pg4
[4+,4]

p4m
(*442)
p4
[4,4]

Rectangular
[∞h,2,∞v],
IUC
(Orb.)
Geo
Coxeter Fundamental
domain
p1
(°)
p1
[∞+,2,∞+]

p2
(2222)
p2
[∞,2,∞]+

pg(h)
(××)
pg1
h: [∞+,(2,∞)+]

pg(v)
(××)
pg1
v: [(∞,2)+,∞+]

pgm
(22*)
pg2
h: [(∞,2)+,∞]

pmg
(22*)
pg2
v: [∞,(2,∞)+]

pm(h)
(**)
p1
h: [∞+,2,∞]

pm(v)
(**)
p1
v: [∞,2,∞+]

pmm
(*2222)
p2
[∞,2,∞]

Rhombic
[∞h,2+,∞v],
IUC
(Orb.)
Geo
Coxeter Fundamental
domain
p1
(°)
p1
[∞+,2+,∞+]

p2
(2222)
p2
[∞,2+,∞]+

cm(h)
(*×)
c1
h: [∞+,2+,∞]

cm(v)
(*×)
c1
v: [∞,2+,∞+]

pgg
(22×)
pg2g
[((∞,2)+)]

cmm
(2*22)
c2
[∞,2+,∞]

 p1(°)p1 p2(2222)p2 [6,3]Δ cmm(2*22)c2 [6,3]⅄ p3(333)p3 [1+,6,3+]     [3]+    p3m1(*333)p3 [1+,6,3]     [3]    p31m(3*3)h3 [6,3+]      p6(632)p6 [6,3]+      p6m(*632)p6 [6,3]      ## Wallpaper subgroup relationships

Subgroup relationships among the 17 wallpaper group
o 2222 ×× ** 22× 22* *2222 2*22 442 4*2 *442 333 *333 3*3 632 *632
p1 p2 pg pm cm pgg pmg pmm cmm p4 p4g p4m p3 p3m1 p31m p6 p6m
o p1 2
2222 p2 2 2 2
×× pg 2 2
** pm 2 2 2 2
cm 2 2 2 3
22× pgg 4 2 2 3
22* pmg 4 2 2 2 4 2 3
*2222 pmm 4 2 4 2 4 4 2 2 2
2*22 cmm 4 2 4 4 2 2 2 2 4
442 p4 4 2 2
4*2 p4g 8 4 4 8 4 2 4 4 2 2 9
*442 p4m 8 4 8 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2
333 p3 3 3
*333 p3m1 6 6 6 3 2 4 3
3*3 p31m 6 6 6 3 2 3 4
632 p6 6 3 2 4
*632 p6m 12 6 12 12 6 6 6 6 3 4 2 2 2 3