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Haplogroup R is a widely distributed human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. Haplogroup R is associated with the peopling of Eurasia after about 70,000 years ago, and is distributed in modern populations throughout the world outside of sub-Saharan Africa.[6]

Haplogroup R
Haplogroup R (mtDNA) & subclades.PNG
Possible time of origin 66,000 YBP [1]
Possible place of origin South Asia[2][3] Southeast Asia[4]
Ancestor N
Descendants R0, R1, R2'JT, R3, R5, R6'7, R8, R9, R11'B, R12'21, R14, R22, R23, R30, R31, P, U
Defining mutations 12705, 16223[5]

Haplogroup R is a descendant of the macro-haplogroup N. Among the R clade's descendant haplogroups are B, U (and thus K), F, R0 (and thus HV, H, and V), and JT (the ancestral haplogroup of J and T).

Contents

OriginEdit

As of June 2009, the most recent study dates the origin of haplogroup R to 66.8kya (thousand years ago) with a 95% confidence interval of 52.6–81kya.[1]

South Asia lies on the way of earliest dispersals from Africa and is therefore a valuable well of knowledge on early human migrations.[3] The analysis of the indigenous haplogroup R lineages in India points to a common first spread of the root haplotypes of M, N, and R along the southern route some 60–70 kya.[7]

Haplogroup R has wide diversity and antiquity among varied ethnic status and different language families in South Asia. In Indian western region among the various castes and southern region among the tribes show higher haplogroup diversity than the other regions, possibly suggesting their autochthonous status.[2] Larruga et al. (2017) found mtDNA R spread out to Eurasia and Australia from Southeast Asia core area.[6]

DistributionEdit

Haplogroup R and its descendants are distributed all over Australasia, Americas, Southeast Asia, South Asia, Central Asia, West Asia, East Asia, Europe, North Africa and Horn of Africa.

The basal R* clade is found among the Soqotri (1.2%), as well as in Northeast Africa (1.5%), the Middle East (0.8%), the Near East (0.8%), and the Arabian peninsula (0.3%).[8]

Haplogroup R has also been observed among ancient Egyptian mummies excavated at the Abusir el-Meleq archaeological site in Middle Egypt, which date from the Pre-Ptolemaic/late New Kingdom, Ptolemaic, and Roman periods.[9]

SubcladesEdit

TreeEdit

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup R subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation[5] and subsequent published research.

  • R
    • R0 (formerly pre-HV)
      • R0a
        • R0a1
        • R0a2
      • HV
        • HV0 (formerly pre-V)
          • HV0a
        • H
    • R1
      • R1a
        • R1a1
          • R1a1a
    • R2'JT
    • R5
      • R5a
        • R5a1
          • R5a1a
        • R5a2
          • R5a2a
          • R5a2b
            • R5a2b1
            • R5a2b2
            • R5a2b3
            • R5a2b4
    • R6'7
      • R6
        • R6a
          • R6a1
            • R6a1a
      • R7
        • R7a
          • R7a1
            • R7a1a
            • R7a1b
              • R7a1b1
              • R7a1b2
        • R7b
          • R7b1
            • R7b1a
    • R8
      • R8a
        • R8a1
          • R8a1a
            • R8a1a1
            • R8a1a2
            • R8a1a3
          • R8a1b
        • R8a2
      • R8b
        • R8b1
        • R8b2
    • (16304)
      • R9
        • R9b
          • R9b1
          • R9b2
        • R9c
        • F
        • R22
    • R11'B (16189)
      • R11
        • R11a
      • B
      • R24
    • R12'21
      • R12
      • R21
    • R14
    • R23
    • R30
      • R30a
      • R30b
        • R30b1
    • R31
      • R31a
        • R31a1
      • R31b
    • P
    • U

ReferencesEdit

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  2. ^ a b Maji, Suvendu; Krithika, S.; Vasul, T.S. (2008). "Distribution of Mitochondrial DNA Macrohaplogroup N in India with Special Reference to Haplogroup R and its Sub-Haplogroup U" (PDF). International Journal of Human Genetics. 8 (1–2): 85–96. 
  3. ^ a b c Karmin, Monika (2005). Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup R in India: dissecting the phylogenetic tree of South Asian-specific lineages (M.Sc. Thesis). University of Tartu. hdl:10062/567. OCLC 692161090. [page needed]
  4. ^ Larruga, Jose M (23 May 2017). "Carriers of mitochondrial DNA macrohaplogroup R colonized Eurasia and Australasia from a southeast Asia core area". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 17. doi:10.1186/s12862-017-0964-5. Retrieved 23 May 2017. 
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External linksEdit

Phylogenetic tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  Mitochondrial Eve (L)    
L0 L1–6  
L1 L2   L3     L4 L5 L6
M N  
CZ D E G Q   O A S R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pre-JT   P   U
HV JT K
H V J T