Open main menu

Haplogroup L5 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) clade. It was previously known as L1e.

Haplogroup L5
Possible time of origin114,200-126,200 YBP[1]
Possible place of originEast Africa, Upper Nile Valley
DescendantsL5a, L5c
Defining mutations3423, 7972, 12432, 12950[2]



L5 is a small haplogroup centered in East Africa. The highest frequency is in Mbuti Pygmies from Eastern Central Africa at 15%.[3] It is present in relatively small frequencies in Tanzania (Sandawe and others), Kenya, Ethiopia, Sudan, Nubia, Egypt[4][Note 1] and Saudi Arabia.[5]

Haplogroup L5 has been observed among specimens at the island cemetery in Kulubnarti, Sudan, which date from the Early Christian period (AD 550-800).[6]



This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup L5 subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation[2] and subsequent published research.

  • Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA)
    • L1-6
      • L2-6
        • L5
          • L5a
            • L5a1
              • L5a1a
              • L5a1b
              • L5a1c
            • L5a2
          • L5c
            • L5c1
            • L5c2


  1. ^ Soares, P; Ermini, L; Thomson, N; Mormina, M; Rito, T; Röhl, A; Salas, A; Oppenheimer, S; MacAulay, V (2009). "Correcting for Purifying Selection: An Improved Human Mitochondrial Molecular Clock". American Journal of Human Genetics. 84 (6): 740–59. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.05.001. PMC 2694979. PMID 19500773.
  2. ^ a b van Oven, Mannis; Manfred Kayser (13 Oct 2008). "Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation". Human Mutation. 30 (2): E386–E394. doi:10.1002/humu.20921. PMID 18853457. Archived from the original on 4 December 2012. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
  3. ^ Sarah A. Tishkoff et al. 2007, History of Click-Speaking Populations of Africa Inferred from mtDNA and Y Chromosome Genetic Variation. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2007 24(10):2180-2195
  4. ^ Stevanovitch, A; A. Gilles; E. Bouzaid; R. Kefi; F. Paris; R. P. Gayraud; J. L. Spadoni; F. El-Chenawi; E. Béraud-Colomb (29 Jan 2004). "Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Diversity in a Sedentary Population from Egypt". Annals of Human Genetics. 68 (1): 23–39. doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2003.00057.x. PMID 14748828.
  5. ^ Abu-Amero et al. 2008 February. "Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula", BMC Evolutionary Biology. 8(45): 52.
  6. ^ Sirak, Kendra; Frenandes, Daniel; Novak, Mario; Van Gerven, Dennis; Pinhasi, Ron (2016). Abstract Book of the IUAES Inter-Congress 2016 - A community divided? Revealing the community genome(s) of Medieval Kulubnarti using next- generation sequencing. IUAES.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)


  1. ^ Sample UPE52 is subclade L5a.

External linksEdit

Phylogenetic tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  Mitochondrial Eve (L)    
L0 L1–6  
L1 L2   L3     L4 L5 L6
M N  
CZ D E G Q   O A S R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pre-JT   P   U