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Haplogroup L4 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. It is a small maternal clade primarily restricted to Africa.[2]

Haplogroup L4
Possible place of originEast Africa
AncestorL3'4
DescendantsL4a, L4b
Defining mutations5460, 16362[1]

Contents

OriginEdit

DistributionEdit

 
Projected spatial frequency distribution for haplogroup L4.
 
Schematic tree of mtDNA haplogroup L4. Ages (in ka) indicated are maximum likelihood estimates obtained for the whole-mtDNA genome.

L4 is important in East Africa and Horn of Africa. The highest frequencies are in Tanzania among the Hadza at 60-83% and Sandawe at 48%.[3]

SubcladesEdit

TreeEdit

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup L4 subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation[1] and subsequent published research.

Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA)

  • L1-6
    • L2-6
      • L2'3'4'6
        • L3'4'6
          • L3'4
            • L4
              • L4a (Formerly known as L7)
                • L4a1
                  • L4a1a
                • L4a2
              • L4b
                • L4b1
                • L4b2 (Formerly known as L3g or L4g)
                  • L4b2a
                    • L4b2a1
                    • L4b2a2
                      • L4b2a2a
                      • L4b2a2b
                  • L4b2b

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b van Oven, Mannis; Manfred Kayser (13 Oct 2008). "Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation". Human Mutation. 30 (2): E386–E394. doi:10.1002/humu.20921. PMID 18853457. Archived from the original on 4 December 2012. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
  2. ^ Haplogroups L4.
  3. ^ Tishkoff, S. et al. 2007, History of Click-Speaking Populations of Africa Inferred from mtDNA and Y Chromosome Genetic Variation. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2007 24(10):2180-2195

External linksEdit

Phylogenetic tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  Mitochondrial Eve (L)    
L0 L1–6  
L1 L2   L3     L4 L5 L6
M N  
CZ D E G Q   O A S R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pre-JT   P   U
HV JT K
H V J T