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Haplogroup C (mtDNA)

In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup C is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

Haplogroup C
World map of prehistoric human migrations.jpg
Possible time of origin25,300 (95% CI 20,300 <-> 31,200) years before present[1]
Coalescence age17,600 (95% CI 15,500 <-> 19,900) years before present[1]
Possible place of originCentral Asia
DescendantsC1, C4, C5, C7
Defining mutations489 10400 14783 15043[2]


Haplogroup C is believed to have arisen somewhere between the Caspian Sea and Lake Baikal some 24,000 years BCE. It is a descendant of the haplogroup M.


Frequency distribution of mtDNA haplogroup C in Eurasia
Approximate geographical distribution of the C1 sub-clades.

Haplogroup C is found in Northeast Asia[3] (including Siberia) and the Americas. In Eurasia, Haplogroup C is especially frequent among populations of arctic Siberia, such as Yukaghirs and Nganasans.[4] Haplogroup C is one of five mtDNA haplogroups found in the indigenous peoples of the Americas,[3] the others being A, B, D, and X. The subclades C1b, C1c, C1d, and C4c are found in the first people of the Americas. C1a is found only in Asia.

In 2010, Icelandic researchers discovered C1e lineage in their home country, estimating an introduction date of year 1700 AD or earlier, indicating a possible introduction during the Viking expeditions to the Americas. A Native American origin for this C1e lineage is likely, but the researchers note that a European or Asian one cannot be ruled out.[5][6][7]

In 2014, a study discovered a new mtDNA subclade C1f from the remains of 3 people found in north-western Russia and dated to 7,500 years ago. It has not been detected in modern populations. The study proposed the hypothesis that the sister C1e and C1f subclades had split early from the most recent common ancestor of the C1 clade and had evolved independently. Subclade C1e had a northern European origin. Iceland was settled by the Vikings 1,130 years ago and they had raided heavily into western Russia, where the sister subclade C1f is now know to have resided. They proposed that both subclades were brought to Iceland through the Vikings, however C1e went extinct on mainland northern Europe due to population turnover and its small representation, and subclade C1f went extinct completely.[8]

In 2015, a study conducted in the Aconcagua mummy identified its mtDNA lineage belongs to the subclade C1bi, which contains 10 distinct mutations from C1b.[9]



This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup C subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation[2] and subsequent published research.

  • CZ
    • C
      • C1
        • C1a
        • C1b
          • C1b*
          • C1b1
            • C1b1*
            • C1b1a
              • C1b1a* - Mexican American
              • C1b1a1 - Mexican American
            • C1b1b - Native American, Mexican American
          • C1b2
            • C1b2* - Peru, Paraguay
            • C1b2a - Peru
            • C1b2b - Colombia
            • C1b2c
              • C1b2c* - USA, Puerto Rico, Paraguay, Spain
              • C1b2c1 - Paraguay
          • C1b3
            • C1b3* - Peru
            • C1b3a
              • C1b3a* - Peru
              • C1b3a1 - Argentina
          • C1b4 - Ecuador, Peru, USA
          • C1b5
        • C1c
          • C1c1
          • C1c2
        • C1d
          • C1d2
            • C1d2a
        • C1e - Iceland
        • C1f - Scotland, Italy, Mesolithic NW Russia
      • C2 - Pamiri Tajik (Gorno-Badakhshan, Tajikistan),[15] India (Hindu Marathi, etc.)
      • C4 - Russian,[16] Myanmar
        • C4a'b'c
          • C4a - China (Han from Beijing)
            • C4a1 - Iran (Azeri),[17] Bashkortostan,[18] Kyrgyz (Tashkurgan),[15] Sarikoli (Tashkurgan),[15] Wakhi (Tashkurgan),[15] Czech Republic, Denmark
              • C4a1a - Uyghur, Buryat,[16] Denmark, Sweden, France, Scotland, Canada
                • C4a1a1 - Pole (Kashubia)[19]
                • C-T195C! - Ireland, Scotland, England, USA, Poland, Russian,[16] Turkey, India, Mongol (Inner Mongolia)
                  • C4a1a2 - China
                    • C4a1a2a - China (Han from Ili, Han from Hunan)
                  • C4a1a3 - Sweden, Altai Kizhi,[16] Evenk (Taimyr Peninsula)[21]
                    • C4a1a3a - Buryat,[16] Bargut[16]
                      • C4a1a3a1 - Nganasan (Vadei of Taimyr Peninsula),[4] Tofalar[10]
                    • C4a1a3b - Tubalar,[4] Bargut[16]
                    • C4a1a3c - Evenk (Taimyr Peninsula,[21] Stony Tunguska[21])
                    • C4a1a3d - Yakut[21]
                  • C4a1a4 - Buryat,[16] Kazakhstan
                    • C4a1a4a - Evenk (Okhotsk region),[4] Shor[16]
                • C4a1a5 - Teleut,[16] Ladakh
                • C4a1a6 - Buryat,[16] Bargut (Inner Mongolia)[16]
              • C4a1b - China
            • C4a2
              • C4a2a - Yakut[21]
                • C4a2a1 - Yakut,[11] Evenk (Stony Tunguska),[21] China, Korea
              • C4a2b - Tibet
                • C4a2b1 - Wancho[20]
                • C4a2b2 - China (Han from Beijing)
                  • C4a2b2a - Tibet (Sherpa)[23]
              • C4a2c - Bargut (Inner Mongolia)[16]
                • C4a2c1 - India (Jenu Kuruba)[20]
                • C4a2c2 - Lepcha[20]
                  • C4a2c2a - Ladakh
          • C4b - Yukaghir,[4] Altai Kizhi,[16] Ukraine, Slovakia
            • C4b1 - Yukaghir,[4] Buryat[16]
              • C4b1a - Bargut (Inner Mongolia)[16]
              • C4b1b - Evenk (Stony Tunguska),[21] Buryat[16]
            • C4b2 - Koryak[21]
            • C4b3 - Yakut,[21] Altai Kizhi[16]
              • C4b3a - Yukaghir,[4] Even (Berezovka)[21]
                • C4b3a1 - Yukaghir[4]
              • C4b3b - Buryat,[22] Evenk (Stony Tunguska)[21]
            • C4b5 - Khamnigan,[16] Buryat[16]
            • C4b6 - Altai Kizhi,[16] Tubalar[4]
            • C4b7 - Yukaghir[4]
            • C4b8 - Yakut[21]
          • C4c - Ijka[24]
            • C4c1 - Sioux (Carson County of South Dakota),[25] Shuswap,[26] Canada, USA, France, Spain
              • C4c1a - Cherokee (Flint District of Oklahoma)[25]
              • C4c1b - Chippewa (Trempealeau in Wisconsin),[25] Ottawa or Chippewa (Sault Saint Marie, Chippewa County, Michigan),[25] Canada
            • C4c2 - Métis (Red River, Manitoba),[25] USA
        • C4-T152C! - England, Burusho,[12] Pamiri (Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region of Tajikistan),[15] Sarikoli (Tashkurgan),[15] Uyghur
          • C4-T16093C - Tibet, Kyrgyzstan[14]
            • C4d - Turkey, Tibet, Thailand (Khon Mueang from Chiang Mai Province[27]), Han from Beijing
          • C4e - Teleut,[16] Shor[16]
      • C5 - India
        • C5a - Azeri
          • C5a1 - Bargut (Inner Mongolia),[16] Buryat, Khamnigan,[16] Ulchi,[10] Even (Severo-Evensk District),[16] Altai Kizhi,[16] Yakut, Uyghur, Kazakhstan, Khanty
          • C5a2
        • C5b - Poland[16]
          • C5b1 - Buryat,[16] Uyghur, Ladakh, Japan
        • C5-T16093C - Japan (Aichi), Han (Beijing)
          • C5c - Tubalar,[4] Teleut,[16] Afghanistan, Persian (Iran),[17] Czech Republic
            • C5c-C16234T - Kurd (Iran),[17] Armenia, Turkey, Kuwait
              • C5c1 - Poland,[16] Sweden, Greece
                • C5c1a - Russian (Uzbekistan), Ukraine, Lithuania, Poland,[16] Slovakia, Austria, Germany, England, Scotland, Ireland, Italy, USA, Canada
          • C5d - China, Vietnam (Hmong)
      • C7 - South Korea (Seoul),[16] China,[29] Taiwan (Hakka), Thailand (Khon Mueang in Chiang Rai Province, Chiang Mai Province, and Lamphun Province[27]), Vietnam (Kinh, Tay, Jarai)
        • C7a - Han (Beijing, Yunnan, Denver, etc.),[30] Uyghur, Taiwan (Paiwan, Minnan), Lahu, Thailand (incl. Urak Lawoi, Lao Isan in Chaiyaphum Province, Khon Mueang in Lamphun Province, Khon Mueang in Lampang Province, Kaleun in Nakhon Phanom Province, Black Tai in Loei Province, Phuan in Suphan Buri Province[27]), Vietnam (Hani, Yao, Gelao)
          • C7a1 - Thailand (Mon in Kanchanaburi Province, Khon Mueang in Mae Hong Son Province, Khon Mueang in Chiang Rai Province[27]), Vietnam (Nung), Han (Denver, etc.), Taiwan (Makatao), Korea
            • C7a1a
              • C7a1a1 - Wancho,[20] Thailand (Mon in Lopburi Province[27])
              • C7a1a2 - Dirang Monpa[20]
            • C7a1c - Evenk (Central Siberia,[16] Nyukzha River basin,[21] Okhotsk region[4]), Uyghur, Han (Fengcheng,[31] Taixing, etc.), Taiwan, Vietnam
            • C7a1d - Wancho[20]
          • C7a2 - China,[32] Dai, Laos (Lao in Luang Prabang[27]), Thailand (Khon Mueang in Chiang Mai Province, Khon Mueang in Chiang Rai Province, Lao Isan in Roi Et Province, Phutai in Sakon Nakhon Province, Mon in Nakhon Ratchasima Province[27]), Myanmar (Yangon)
            • C7a2a - China (Shantou, etc.),[33] Taiwan (Hakka, Makatao, etc.)
        • C7-A16051G - Bargut (Inner Mongolia)[16]
          • C7b - Gallong,[20] Naxi, Ukraine, Moldova, Austria
        • C7c - Taiwan (Hakka), Thailand (Khon Mueang in Mae Hong Son Province, Lao Isan in Roi Et Province, Siamese in Central Thailand), Cambodia (Kampong Cham)
        • C7d - Thailand (Khmer in Surin Province), Cambodia (Takéo)

Popular cultureEdit

In his popular book The Seven Daughters of Eve, Bryan Sykes named the originator of this mtDNA haplogroup Chochmingwu.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference YFull was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ a b van Oven, Mannis; Manfred Kayser (13 Oct 2008). "Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation". Human Mutation. 30 (2): E386–E394. doi:10.1002/humu.20921. PMID 18853457. Archived from the original on 4 December 2012. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
  3. ^ a b Haplogroup C.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Volodko, Natalia V.; Starikovskaya, Elena B.; Mazunin, Ilya O.; et al. (2008). "Mitochondrial Genome Diversity in Arctic Siberians, with Particular Reference to the Evolutionary History of Beringia and Pleistocenic Peopling of the Americas". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 82: 1084–1100. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.03.019. PMC 2427195.
  5. ^ Sunna Ebenesersdóttir, Sigríður (2010). "A new subclade of mtDNA haplogroup C1 found in icelanders: Evidence of pre-columbian contact?". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 144: 92–99. doi:10.1002/ajpa.21419.
  6. ^ Vikings brought Amerindian to Iceland 1,000 years ago: study, November 17, 2010
  7. ^ First Americans 'reached Europe five centuries before Columbus voyages', 16 Nov 2010
  8. ^ Der Sarkissian, Clio; Brotherton, Paul; Balanovsky, Oleg; Templeton, Jennifer E. L.; Llamas, Bastien; Soubrier, Julien; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Khartanovich, Valery; Cooper, Alan; Haak, Wolfgang (2014). "Mitochondrial Genome Sequencing in Mesolithic North East Europe Unearths a New Sub-Clade within the Broadly Distributed Human Haplogroup C1". PLoS ONE. 9 (2): e87612. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0087612. PMC 3913659. PMID 24503968.
  9. ^ Gómez-Carballa & Catelli 2015.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Starikovskaya, E.B., Sukernik, R.I., Derbeneva, O.A., Volodko, N.V., Ruiz-Pesini, E., Torroni, A., Brown, M.D., Lott, M.T., Hosseini, S.H., Huoponen, K. and Wallace, D.C., "Mitochondrial DNA diversity in indigenous populations of the southern extent of Siberia, and the origins of Native American haplogroups." Annals of Human Genetics 69 (PT 1), 67-89 (2005).
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  14. ^ a b Nina Marchi, Tatyana Hegay, Philippe Mennecier, et al. (2017), "Sex-specific genetic diversity is shaped by cultural factors in Inner Asian human populations." American Journal of Physical Anthropology (2017).
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  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au Derenko,M., Malyarchuk,B., Grzybowski,T., Denisova,G., Rogalla,U., Perkova,M., Dambueva,I., and Zakharov,I., "Origin and post-glacial dispersal of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C and D in northern Asia." PLoS ONE 5 (12), E15214 (2010).
  17. ^ a b c Derenko M, Malyarchuk B, Bahmanimehr A, Denisova G, Perkova M, et al. (2013), "Complete Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in Iranians." PLoS ONE 8(11): e80673. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080673
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  19. ^ Mielnik-Sikorska M, Daca P, Malyarchuk B, Derenko M, Skonieczna K, et al. (2013), "The History of Slavs Inferred from Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequences." PLoS ONE 8(1): e54360. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054360
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  27. ^ a b c d e f g Wibhu Kutanan, Jatupol Kampuansai, Metawee Srikummool, Daoroong Kangwanpong, Silvia Ghirotto, Andrea Brunelli, and Mark Stoneking, "Complete mitochondrial genomes of Thai and Lao populations indicate an ancient origin of Austroasiatic groups and demic diffusion in the spread of Tai–Kadai languages." Hum Genet 2016 DOI 10.1007/s00439-016-1742-y.
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