Haplogroup C (mtDNA)

In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup C is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

Haplogroup C
World map of prehistoric human migrations.jpg
Possible time of origin25,300 (95% CI 20,300 <-> 31,200) years before present[citation needed]
Coalescence age17,600 (95% CI 15,500 <-> 19,900) years before present[citation needed]
Possible place of originCentral Asia
AncestorCZ
DescendantsC1, C4, C5, C7
Defining mutations489 10400 14783 15043[1]

OriginEdit

Haplogroup C is believed to have arisen somewhere between the Caspian Sea and Lake Baikal some 24,000 years BCE. It is a descendant of the haplogroup M.

DistributionEdit

 
Frequency distribution of mtDNA haplogroup C in Eurasia
 
Approximate geographical distribution of the C1 sub-clades.

Haplogroup C is found in Northeast Asia[2] (including Siberia) and the Americas. In Eurasia, Haplogroup C is especially frequent among populations of arctic Siberia, such as Nganasans, Dolgans, Yakuts, Evenks, Evens, Yukaghirs, and Koryaks.[3][4][5] Haplogroup C is one of five mtDNA haplogroups found in the indigenous peoples of the Americas,[2] the others being A, B, D, and X. The subclades C1b, C1c, C1d, and C4c are found in the first people of the Americas. C1a is found only in Asia.

In 2010, Icelandic researchers discovered C1e lineage in their home country, estimating an introduction date of year 1700 AD or earlier, indicating a possible introduction during the Viking expeditions to the Americas. A Native American origin for this C1e lineage is likely, but the researchers note that a European or Asian one cannot be ruled out.[6][7][8]

In 2014, a study discovered a new mtDNA subclade C1f from the remains of 3 people found in north-western Russia and dated to 7,500 years ago. It has not been detected in modern populations. The study proposed the hypothesis that the sister C1e and C1f subclades had split early from the most recent common ancestor of the C1 clade and had evolved independently. Subclade C1e had a northern European origin. Iceland was settled by the Vikings 1,130 years ago and they had raided heavily into western Russia, where the sister subclade C1f is now know to have resided. They proposed that both subclades were brought to Iceland through the Vikings, however C1e went extinct on mainland northern Europe due to population turnover and its small representation, and subclade C1f went extinct completely.[9]

In 2015, a study conducted in the Aconcagua mummy identified its mtDNA lineage belongs to the subclade C1bi, which contains 10 distinct mutations from C1b.[10]

Table of Frequencies by ethnic groupEdit

Population Frequency Count Source Subtypes
Evenks (Stony Tunguska) 0.769 39 Duggan 2013 C4a2=7, C4a1c=6, C4b1=5, C5d1=4, C4b=3, C4b3=3, C4a1c1a=1, C5b1b=1
Evenk 0.718 71 Starikovskaya 2005 C(xC1, C5)=41, C5=10
Yukaghir 0.670 100 Volodko 2008 C(xC1, C5)=54, C5=13
Evenk (East) 0.644 45 Derenko 2007 C(xC1, C5)=17, C5=12
Tofalar 0.621 58 Derenko 2003 C(xC1, C5)=31, C5=5
Evens (Sebjan) 0.556 18 Duggan 2013 C4b=6, C4a1c=3, C5b1b=1
Yukaghirs 0.550 20 Duggan 2013 C4a1c=4, C4b3a=2, C4b7=2, C4a2=1, C5a2=1, C5d1=1
Yukaghirs (Yakutia) 0.545 22 Fedorova 2013 C4b3a=5, C5d1=3, C4a1c=1, C4a2=1, C4b1=1, C5a2a=1
Evens (Tompo) 0.519 27 Duggan 2013 C4a1c=6, C4a2=3, C4b=2, C4b1=2, C5d1=1
Nganasans 0.513 39 Volodko 2008 C(xC1, C5)=12, C5=8
Tozhu Tuvans 0.479 48 Derenko 2003 C(xC1, C5)=16, C5=7
Evenks (Yakutia) 0.472 125 Fedorova 2013 C4b1=13, C4a1c=11, C4b9=9, C4a2=8, C4b=5, C5b1b=4, C5a2=3, C5d1=2, C4a1=1, C4a1d=1, C4b3a=1, C5a1=1
Tuvans 0.472 231 Derenko 2000 C(xC1, C5)=88, C5=21
Yakut 0.469 254 Derenko 1997 C(xC1, C5)=95, C5=24
Evens (Berezovka) 0.467 15 Duggan 2013 C4b3a=4, C4b=1, C4b1=1, C4b7=1
Evenk (West) 0.466 73 Derenko 2007 C(xC1, C5)=29, C5=5
Evenks (Taimyr) 0.458 24 Duggan 2013 C4a1c=5, C4b1=4, C4a1c1a=1, C4a2=1
Yakut (Central) 0.457 164 Fedorova 2013 C4a1c=16, C4a2=14, C5b1b=13, C4b1=8, C4a1d=7, C4b=4, C4b1a=3, C5a1=3, C4a1=2, C5b1a=2, C4b3a=1, C5a2=1, C7a1c=1
Evens (Yakutia) 0.457 105 Fedorova 2013 C4a1c=15, C5d1=11, C4a2=4, C4b3a=3, C4b1=2, C4b7=2, C4b9=2, C4b=2, C5a1=2, C7a1c=2, C4b1a=1, C4b2=1, C5a2a=1
Evenks (Nyukzha) 0.413 46 Fedorova 2013 C4a2=10, C4b1=3, C4a1c=2, C4a1d=1, C4b1a=1, C5a2=1, C7a1c=1
Yakut (Northern) 0.405 148 Fedorova 2013 C4a1c=17, C4b1=16, C4a2=11, C5b1a=4, C5b1b=4, C4b9=3, C4b=2, C5a1=2, C5d1=1
Koryaks 0.400 15 Duggan 2013 C4b=3, C5a2=3
Dolgans 0.390 154 Fedorova 2013 C4a1c=33, C4b1=9, C5b1b=5, C4b3a=3, C4a2=2, C4b1a=2, C5b1a=2, C4b8=1, C4b=1, C5d1=1, C7a1c=1
Even 0.377 191 Derenko 1997 C(xC1, C5)=50, C5=22
Koryak 0.368 182 Derenko 1997 C(xC1, C5)=39, C5=28
Yakut (Vilyuy) 0.360 111 Fedorova 2013 C4a1c=14, C4a2=10, C4b=5, C4b1=4, C4b1a=2, C5a2=2, C5b1b=2, C4a1=1
Evens (Kamchatka) 0.333 39 Duggan 2013 C4b1=6, C4b3a=3, C4a1c=2, C5a2=1, C5d1=1
Altai-Kizhi 0.322 90 Derenko 2007 C(xC1, C5)=21, C5=8
Chuvantsi 0.313 32 Volodko 2008 C(xC1, C5)=10
Oroqen 0.295 44 Kong 2003 C(xC1, C5)=9, C5=4
Teleut 0.283 53 Derenko 2007 C(xC1, C5)=11, C5=4
Evens (Sakkyryyr) 0.261 23 Duggan 2013 C4a1c=2, C4b=2, C4a1d=1, C4b1=1
Udegey 0.226 31 Duggan 2013 C4b1=6, C4a1d=1
Buryat 0.212 419 Derenko 2000 C(xC1, C5)=66, C1=3, C5=20
Khakassian 0.208 110 Derenko 2003 C(xC1, C5)=28, C5=2
Tubalar 0.194 72 Starikovskaya 2005 C(xC1, C5)=12, C5=2
Altaian 0.191 110 Derenko 2003 C(xC1, C5)=21
Evenks (Iengra) 0.190 21 Duggan 2013 C4a2=2, C4b1=1, C5a2=1
Udege 0.174 46 Starikovskaya 2005 C(xC1, C5)=8
Telenghit 0.169 71 Derenko 2007 C(xC1, C5)=10, C5=2
Mongolian 0.153 150 Kolman 1998 C(xC1, C5)=18, C1=2, C5=3
Negidal 0.152 33 Starikovskaya 2005 C(xC1, C5)=3, C5=2
Kyrgyz 0.140 200 Comas 1998 C(xC1, C5)=18, C1=1, C5=9
Ulch 0.138 87 Starikovskaya 2005 C(xC1, C5)=6, C1=1, C5=5
Turkmen 0.135 178 Malyarchuk 2002 C(xC1, C5)=14, C5=10
Chukchi 0.132 417 Starikovskaya 1998 C(xC1, C5)=27 C5=28
Kazakh (Xinjiang) 0.132 53 Yao 2004 C(xC1, C5)=5 C5=2
Itelmen 0.130 46 Shchurr 1999 C5=6
Shor 0.122 82 Derenko 2007 C(xC1, C5)=9 C5=1
Orok 0.115 61 Bermisheva 2005 C1=7
Nanai 0.094 85 Tamm 2007 C(xC1, C5)=5, C1=1, C5=2
Kazakh 0.086 511 Comas 1998 C(xC1, C5)=32, C1=4, C5=8
Mongolian (Inner Mongolia) 0.083 97 Kong 2004 C(xC1, C5)=5
Altaian (Kazakhstan) 0.082 98 Derenko 2009 C(xC1, C5)=8
Tajik 0.073 82 Derenko 2007 C(xC1, C5)=6
Daur 0.066 45 Kong 2003 C(xC1, C5)=2, C1=1
Uyghur (Xinjiang) 0.064 47 Yao 2004 C(xC1, C5)=3
Uzbek 0.061 130 Quintana-Murci 2004 C(xC1, C5)=6, C5=2
Han Chinese 0.045 1930 Horai 1996 C(xC1, C5)=72, C5=15
Thai 0.034 552 Matspalu 2004 C(xC1, C5)=19
Korean (mostly Ulsan) 0.030 1094 Jeon 2020 C=33
Korean 0.020 1297 Horai 1996 -
Eskimo 0.008 254 Starikovskaya 1998 C(xC1, C5)=2
Japanese 0.005 1312 Tanaka 2004 C(xC1, C5)=1, C1=4, C5=1
Ainu 0.000 51 Horai 1996 -
Nivkh 0.000 38 Duggan 2013 -
Nivkh 0.000 56 Starikovskaya 2005 -

SubcladesEdit

TreeEdit

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup C subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation[1] and subsequent published research.

  • CZ
    • C
      • C1
        • C1a
        • C1b
          • C1b*
          • C1b1
            • C1b1*
            • C1b1a
              • C1b1a* – Mexican American
              • C1b1a1 – Mexican American
            • C1b1b – Native American, Mexican American
          • C1b2
            • C1b2* – Peru, Paraguay
            • C1b2a – Peru
            • C1b2b – Colombia
            • C1b2c
              • C1b2c* – USA, Puerto Rico, Paraguay, Spain
              • C1b2c1 – Paraguay
          • C1b3
            • C1b3* – Peru
            • C1b3a
              • C1b3a* – Peru
              • C1b3a1 – Argentina
          • C1b4 – Ecuador, Peru, USA
          • C1b5
        • C1c
          • C1c1
          • C1c2
        • C1d
          • C1d2
            • C1d2a
        • C1e – Iceland
        • C1f – Scotland, Italy, Mesolithic NW Russia
        • C1g – Mesolithic NW Russia (Karelia)[16]
      • C2 – Pamiri Tajik (Gorno-Badakhshan, Tajikistan),[17] India (Hindu Marathi, etc.)
      • C4 – Russian,[18] Myanmar
        • C4a'b'c
          • C4a – China (Han from Beijing)
            • C4a1 – Iran (Azeri),[19] Bashkortostan,[20] Kyrgyz (Tashkurgan),[17] Sarikoli (Tashkurgan),[17] Wakhi (Tashkurgan),[17] Czech Republic, Denmark
              • C4a1a – Uyghur, Buryat,[18] Korea,[21] Denmark, Sweden, France, Scotland, Canada
                • C4a1a1 – Pole (Kashubia)[22]
                • C-T195C! – Ireland, Scotland, England, USA, Poland, Russian,[18] Turkey, India, Mongol (Inner Mongolia)
                  • C4a1a2 – China
                    • C4a1a2a – China (Han from Ili, Han from Hunan)
                  • C4a1a3 – Sweden, Altai Kizhi,[18] Evenk (Taimyr Peninsula)[4]
                    • C4a1a3a – Buryat,[18] Bargut[18]
                      • C4a1a3a1 – Nganasan (Vadei of Taimyr Peninsula),[3] Tofalar[11]
                    • C4a1a3b – Tubalar,[3] Bargut[18]
                    • C4a1a3c – Evenk (Taimyr Peninsula,[4] Stony Tunguska[4])
                    • C4a1a3d – Yakut[4]
                  • C4a1a4 – Buryat,[18] Kazakhstan
                    • C4a1a4a – Evenk (Okhotsk region),[3] Shor[18]
                • C4a1a5 – Teleut,[18] Ladakh
                • C4a1a6 – Buryat,[18] Bargut (Inner Mongolia)[18]
              • C4a1b – China
            • C4a2
              • C4a2a – Yakut[4]
                • C4a2a1 – Yakut,[12] Evenk (Stony Tunguska),[4] China, Korea
                  • C4a2a1a – Yukaghir,[3] Yakut[4]
                  • C4a2a1b – Yakut,[4] Evenk[24]
              • C4a2b – Tibet, Korea[21]
                • C4a2b1 – Wancho[23]
                • C4a2b2 – China (Han from Beijing)
                  • C4a2b2a – Tibet (Sherpa)[25]
              • C4a2c – Bargut (Inner Mongolia)[18]
                • C4a2c1 – India (Jenu Kuruba)[23]
                • C4a2c2 – Lepcha[23]
                  • C4a2c2a – Ladakh
          • C4b – Yukaghir,[3] Altai Kizhi,[18] Ukraine, Slovakia
            • C4b1 – Yukaghir,[3] Buryat[18]
              • C4b1a – Bargut (Inner Mongolia)[18]
              • C4b1b – Evenk (Stony Tunguska),[4] Buryat[18]
            • C4b2 – Koryak[4]
            • C4b3 – Yakut,[4] Altai Kizhi[18]
              • C4b3a – Yukaghir,[3] Even (Berezovka)[4]
                • C4b3a1 – Yukaghir[3]
              • C4b3b – Buryat,[24] Evenk (Stony Tunguska)[4]
            • C4b5 – Khamnigan,[18] Buryat[18]
            • C4b6 – Altai Kizhi,[18] Tubalar[3]
            • C4b7 – Yukaghir[3]
            • C4b8 – Yakut[4]
          • C4c – Ijka[26]
            • C4c1 – Sioux (Carson County of South Dakota),[27] Shuswap,[28] Canada, USA, France, Spain
              • C4c1a – Cherokee (Flint District of Oklahoma)[27]
              • C4c1b – Chippewa (Trempealeau in Wisconsin),[27] Ottawa or Chippewa (Sault Saint Marie, Chippewa County, Michigan),[27] Canada
            • C4c2 – Métis (Red River, Manitoba),[27] USA
        • C4-T152C! – England, Burusho,[13] Pamiri (Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region of Tajikistan),[17] Sarikoli (Tashkurgan),[17] Uyghur
          • C4-T16093C – Tibet, Kyrgyzstan[15]
            • C4d – Turkey, Tibet, Thailand (Khon Mueang from Chiang Mai Province[29]), Han from Beijing
          • C4e – Teleut,[18] Shor[18]
      • C5 – India
        • C5a – Azeri
          • C5a1 – Bargut (Inner Mongolia),[18] Buryat, Khamnigan,[18] Ulchi,[11] Even (Severo-Evensk District),[18] Altai Kizhi,[18] Yakut, Uyghur, Kazakhstan, Khanty
          • C5a2
            • C5a2a – Evenk (Iengra River basin),[4] Buryat,[18] Turkey
            • C5a2b – Yukaghir,[3] Koryak,[18] Chukchi
        • C5b – Poland[18]
          • C5b1 – Buryat,[18] Uyghur, Ladakh, Japan
            • C5b1a – Altai Kizhi,[18] Evenk (Central Siberia)[18]
            • C5b1b – Buryat,[18] Bulgaria
        • C5-T16093C – Japan (Aichi), Han (Beijing)
          • C5c – Tubalar,[3] Teleut,[18] Afghanistan, Persian (Iran),[19] Czech Republic
            • C5c-C16234T – Kurd (Iran),[19] Armenia, Turkey, Kuwait
              • C5c1 – Poland,[18] Sweden, Greece
                • C5c1a – Russian (Uzbekistan), Ukraine, Lithuania, Poland,[18] Slovakia, Austria, Germany, England, Scotland, Ireland, Italy, USA, Canada
          • C5d – China, Vietnam (Hmong)
      • C7 – South Korea (Seoul),[18] China,[31] Taiwan (Hakka), Thailand (Khon Mueang in Chiang Rai Province, Chiang Mai Province, and Lamphun Province[29]), Vietnam (Kinh, Tay, Jarai)
        • C7a – Han (Beijing, Yunnan, Denver, etc.),[32] Uyghur, Taiwan (Paiwan, Minnan), Lahu, Thailand (incl. Urak Lawoi, Lao Isan in Chaiyaphum Province, Khon Mueang in Lamphun Province, Khon Mueang in Lampang Province, Kaleun in Nakhon Phanom Province, Black Tai in Loei Province, Phuan in Suphan Buri Province[29]), Vietnam (Hani, Yao, Gelao)
        • C7-A16051G – Bargut (Inner Mongolia)[18]
          • C7b – Gallong,[23] Naxi, Ukraine, Moldova, Austria
        • C7c – Korea
        • C7d – Taiwan (Hakka), Vietnam (Vietnamese), Thailand (Khon Mueang in Mae Hong Son Province, Lao Isan in Roi Et Province), Cambodia (Kampong Cham)
        • C7e - Cambodia (Takéo), Thailand (Khmer in Surin Province)

Popular cultureEdit

In his popular book The Seven Daughters of Eve, Bryan Sykes named the originator of this mtDNA haplogroup Chochmingwu.

See alsoEdit

Phylogenetic tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  Mitochondrial Eve (L)    
L0 L1–6  
L1 L2   L3     L4 L5 L6
M N  
CZ D E G Q   O A S R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pre-JT   P   U
HV JT K
H V J T

ReferencesEdit

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  2. ^ a b Haplogroup C.
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