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The Antonov An-24 (Russian/Ukrainian: Антонов Ан-24) (NATO reporting name: Coke) is a 44-seat twin turboprop transport/passenger aircraft designed in 1957 in the Soviet Union by the Antonov Design Bureau and manufactured by Kiev, Irkutsk and Ulan-Ude Aviation Factories.
|Volga-Avia Antonov An-24|
|Role||Transport aircraft / Turboprop Regional airliner|
|National origin||Soviet Union|
|First flight||29 October 1959|
|Primary users||UTair Cargo|
|Number built||1,367 (including the Chinese Y-7)|
|Variants||Antonov An-26 |
|Developed into||Xian Y-7|
Design and developmentEdit
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It was designed to replace the veteran piston Ilyushin Il-14 transport on short to medium haul trips, optimised for operating from rough strips and unprepared airports in remote locations. The high-wing layout protects engines and blades from debris, the power-to-weight ratio is higher than that of many comparable aircraft and the machine is rugged, requiring minimal ground support equipment.
Due to its rugged airframe and good performance, the An-24 was adapted to perform many secondary missions such as ice reconnaissance and engine/propeller test-bed, as well as further development to produce the An-26 tactical transport, An-30 photo-mapping/survey aircraft and An-32 tactical transport with more powerful engines. Various projects were envisaged such as a four jet short/medium haul airliner and various iterations of powerplant.
The main production line was at the Kiev-Svyatoshino (now "Aviant") aircraft production plant which built 985, with 180 built at Ulan Ude and a further 197 An-24T tactical transport/freighters at Irkutsk. Production in the USSR was shut down by 1978.
Production continues at China's Xi'an Aircraft Industrial Corporation which makes licensed, reverse-engineered and redesigned aircraft as the Xian Y-7, and its derivatives. Manufacture of the Y-7, in civil form, has now been supplanted by the MA60 derivative with western engines and avionics, to improve performance and economy, and widen the export appeal.
|Total Production (Not including Chinese Y-7)||1979||1978||1977||1976||1975||1974||1973||1972||1971||1970||1969||1968||1967||1966||1965||1964||1963||1962||1961||1960||1959|
- Original design and prototypes. Twin-engined 44-seat transport aircraft.
- (first use) Airliner project powered by Kuznetsov NK-4 turboprops, discontinued when the NK-4 was cancelled.
- (second use) Production 50-seat airliners built at Kiev with the APU exhaust moved to the tip of the starboard nacelle.
- An-24ALK (Avtomatizeerovannaya [sistema] Lyotnovo Kontrolya – automatic flight check system)
- Several An-24s were converted for navaids calibration tasks, with one An-24LR 'Toros' re-designated An-24ALK after conversion. This aircraft was fitted with a photo-theodolite and powerful light sources for the optical sensors.
- A 1962 project for a Tactical transport with rear loading ramp and powered by Isotov TV2-117DS coupled turboprops.
- An-24AT-RD (RD – Reaktivnyye Dvigateli – jet engines)
- The An-24AT tactical transport project with two turbojet boosters pod-mounted under the outer wings and a wider loading ramp.
- An-24AT-U (Uskoriteli – boosters)
- A projected Tactical transport from 1966 with three or five PRD-63 (Porokhovoy Raketnyy Dvigatel – gunpowder rocket engine) JATO bottles, wider cargo ramp and provision for up to three brake parachutes.
- The second 50-seat airliner version with one extra window each side, single-slotted flaps replacing the double-slotted flaps and extended chord of the centre-section to compensate for the lower performance flaps. Some aircraft were delivered with four extra fuel bladders in the wing centre-section.
- A projected long-range airliner version of the An-24B with a single RU-19 booster jet engine in the starboard nacelle, stretched fuselage with seating for 60, strengthened structure and increased fuel capacity.
- An-24LL (Letyushchaya Laboratoriya – flying laboratory)
- The generic suffix LL can be applied to any test-bed, but in the An-24's case seems to refer to a single aircraft equipped for metrology (science of measurement), to be used for checking the airworthiness of production aircraft.
- An-24LP (LesoPozharnyy – forest fire fighter)
- Three An-24RV aircraft converted into fire bombers/cloud seeders by installing a tank in the cabin, optical smoke and flame detectors, provision for a thermal imager, racks for carrying flare dispensers and the ability to carry firefighters for para-dropping.
- An-24LR 'Toros' (Ice Hummock)(Ledovyy Razvedchik – ice reconnaissance)
- At least two An-24Bs converted to carry the 'Toros' SLAR (sideways looking airborne radar) either side of the lower fuselage, for ice reconnaissance, guiding icebreakers, convoys and other shipping.[note 1]
- An-24LR 'Nit' (Thread)
- One An-24B was converted to with 'Nit' SLAR in large pods along the lower fuselage sides.
- An-24PRT (Poiskovo-spasahtel'nyy Reaktivnyy [Uskoritel'] Transportnyy – SAR boosted transport)
- The production search and rescue aircraft based on the An-24RT, eleven built.
- An-24PS (Poiskovo-Spasahtel'nyy – SAR)
- A single An-24B aircraft converted for search and rescue duties, rejected after acceptance trials in favour of a derivative of the An-24RT.
- An-24RR ([samolyot] Radiotsionnyy Razvedchik – radiation reconnaissance [aircraft])
- Four aircraft converted as Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare reconnaissance versions of the An-24B, carrying RR8311-100 air sampling pods low on the forward fuselage and a sensor pod on a pylon on the port fuselage side.
- An-24RT (Reaktivnyy [Uskoritel'] Transportnyy – boosted transport)
- Similar to the AN-24T, fitted with an auxiliary turbojet engine.
- An-24RT (Retranslyator – relay installation)
- A few An-24T and An-24RT aircraft converted to Communications relay aircraft. Sometimes referred to as An-24Rt to differentiate from the An-24RT.
- An-24RV (Reaktivnyy [Uskoritel'] V – boosted V)
- Turbojet boosted export version, similar to the An-24V but fitted with a 1,985-lb (8830 N) thrust auxiliary turbojet engine in the starboard nacelle.
- An-24ShT (Shtabnoy Transportnyy – Staff/HQ transport)
- A tactical Airborne Command Post for use by commanders, also capable of forming ground-based communications and HQ.
- An-24T (Transportnyy – transport)
- (first use) Tactical transport version, rejected due to poor field performance during acceptance testing.
- An-24T (Transportnyy – transport)
- (second use) A tactical transport version with a ventral loading hatch, cargo winch and escape hatch aft of the nose landing gear.
- An-24T 'Troyanda' (Ukrainian – rose)
- From the 1960s the Soviet Union was faced with nuclear submarine threats that were virtually undetectable with the technology available. To assist in the development of advanced optical, chemical, sonic, infra-red and electromagnetic detection systems, several aircraft were built or modified as test-beds. One significant aircraft was the An-24T 'Troyanda' which was built new, for the development of sonobuoy and infra-red detection systems. As well as equipment inside the cabin, sensors could be mounted in large teardrop fairings either side of the lower forward fuselage, and extra equipment could be carried in extended wing centre-section fairings.
- An-24TV (Transportnyy V – transport V)
- The export cargo version of the An-24T.
- An-24USh (Uchebno-Shturmanskiy (samolyot) – Navigator training aircraft)
- Seven An-24Bs were converted to An-24USh navigator/air traffic controller trainers with five training stations and four standard rows of seats for trainees in waiting. Outwardly the USh was distinguishable by the bulged windows at each training station.
- The initial export version of the An-24B 50-seat airliner with the early narrow chord inner wings, double-slotted flaps, single ventral fin, powered by two 2,550 hp (1,902 kW) Ivchenko AI-24A turboprop engines.
- Export late production 50-seat mixed passenger, cargo and freight aircraft with extended chord inner wing, single-slotted flaps, twin ventral fins and powered by AI-24T(SrsII) engines.
- Tactical transport with cargo ramp.
- Survey/Photo-mapping aircraft.
- Designed to withstand adverse weather conditions better than the standard An-26.
- The initial designation of the An-24T production tactical transport, discarded shortly after production began.
- A mid-1960s project for a jet-powered An-24, with four Ivchenko AI-25 turbofan engines in podded pairs, pylon mounted forward of the wings. Not proceeded with due to competition from the Yak-40.
- Xian Y-7
- The Y-7 is a Chinese reverse-engineered version of the An-24/An-26 family.
- Upgraded and Westernised Y-7.
- In the early 1990s, North Korea installed N-019 Topaz pulse-Doppler radars on at least one of its An-24 aircraft in an attempt to achieve a rudimentary Airborne Early Warning capability.
- North Korea
- Korean People's Army Air Force - 1 (converted to a rudimentary airborne early warning aircraft)
Former military operatorsEdit
- The Afghan Air Force received six from 1975
- Algerian Air Force
- People's Air and Air Defence Force of Angola
- Armenian Air Force
- Azerbaijan Air Force
- Bangladeshi Air Force, none in service, all retired
- Belarus Air Force
- Bulgaria Air Force
- Royal Cambodian Air Force
- People's Republic of China
- Republic of the Congo
- Congolese Air Force
- Cuban Air Force
- Czech Republic
- Czech air force (before 2005)
- Czechoslovakian Air Force – No longer in service
- German Democratic Republic
- Air Forces of the National People's Army
- Egyptian Air Force
- Georgian Air Force
- Military of Guinea
- Military of Guinea-Bissau
- Equatorial Guinea
- Equatorial Guinea Air Force
- Hungarian Air Force, none in service, all retired in 1992
- Iranian Air Force
- Iraqi Air Force
- Military of Kazakhstan
- Air Force of Mali
- Moldovan Air Force
- Mongolian Air Force
- Military of Mozambique
- Nicaraguan Air Force
- Polish Air Force- 6 operated from 1966 to 1977; replaced with An-26
- Romanian Air Force – the last RoAF An-24 was retired in 2007.
- Slovak Air Force - the last SAF An-24 was retired in 2006.
- Somali Air Corps
- Soviet Union
- Sudanese Air Force
- Syrian Air Force
- Military of Turkmenistan
- Military of Uzbekistan
- Vietnam People's Air Force
- Yemen Air Force
As of July 2018, 86 An-24s were in airline service.
Following fatal incidents in July 2011 Russian President (now Prime Minister) Dmitry Medvedev proposed the accelerated decommissioning of AN-24s, which resulted in a ban for this type from scheduled flights inside Russia.
- Air Moldova (6) Used on flights to CIS And as charter aircraft
Currently (spring 2016), only Motor Sich Airlines runs scheduled passenger services with AN-24 aircraft.
Former civil operatorsEdit
Civil operators have included:
- People's Republic of China
- German Democratic Republic
- Air Guinee
- Union des Transports Africains (West Coast Airways)
- Lithuanian Airlines, 1991-1996
- North Korea
- Sri Lanka
- Soviet Union
- United Arab Emirates
|UGA – (Oopravleniye Grazhdahnskoy Aviahtsii
- Civil Aviation Directorate)
|OAO – (Otdel'nyy Aviaotryad – independent flight detachment)||LO – (Lyotnyy Otryad – flight squad) / (Aviaeskadril'ya – squadrons)||Home base||CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) Airline|
|Arkhangel'sk||2nd Arkhangel'sk||392nd||Arkhangel'sk-Vas'kovo||AVL Arkhangelsk Airlines|
|Azerbaijan||Baku||360th / 1st & 3rd squadrons||Baku-Bina||AZAL (no An-24s)|
|Belorussian||Gomel'||105th / 1st squadron||Gomel'||Gomelavia|
|1st Minsk||353rd||Minsk-Loshitsa (Minsk-1)||Belavia;Minsk-Avia|
|Central Regions||Belgorod||Belgorod||Belgorod Air Enterprise (no An-24s)|
|Ivanovo||Ivanovo-Yuzhnyy (Zhukovka)||IGAP (Ivanovo State Air Enterprise)|
|Kostroma||Kostroma||Kostroma Air Enterprise|
|Tambov||169th||Tambov-Donskoye||Aviata (Avalinii Tambova)|
|Tula||294th||Tula||Tula Air Enterprise|
|Vladimir||Vladimir||Vladimir Air Enterprise / Avialeso'okhrana|
|East Siberian||Bobaido||Bobaido||Bobaido Air Enterprise|
|Chita||136th / 1st Squadron||Chita||Chita Avia|
|Ust'-Ilimsk||Ust'-Ilimsk||Ust'-Ilimsk Air Enterprise|
|Ust'-Kut||Ust'-Kut||Ust'-Kut Air Enterprise|
|Ulan-Ude||138th||Ulan-Ude / Mukhino||Buryatia Airlines|
|Far Eastern||Sakhalin CAPA / Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk UAD||147th / 1st Squadron||Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk / Khomutvo||Sakhalinskiye Aviatrassy|
|1st Khabarovsk||289th||Khabarovsk||Dalavia Far East Airlines Khabarovsk|
|Gur'yev||156th||Gur'yev||Kazakhstan Airlines;Atyrau Air Ways|
|Tselinograd||239th||Tselinograd||Kazakhstan Airlines;Air Astana|
|Kirghiz||(dissolved by 1987)|
|Krasnoyarsk||Abakan||130th||Abakan||Khakassia Airlines (Abakan A.E.)|
|Latvian||Riga||106th / 2nd Squadron||Riga-Spilve||Latavio|
|Leningrad||Pskov||320th / 2nd Squadron||Pskov|
|Lithuanian||Vilnius||277th / 4th Squadron||Vilnius||Lithuanian Airlines|
|Chaunskoye||6th||Chaunskoye||Chaunskoye Air Enterprise|
|1st Magadan||185th / (1st or 3rd Squadron)||Magadan-Sokol||Kolyma-Avia|
|North Caucasian||Astrakhan'||110th||Astrakhan'-Narimanovo||Astrakhan' Airlines|
|Krasnodar||241st/ 3rd Squadron||Krasnodar||ALK Kuban Airlines|
|Stavropol'||Stavropol'||SAAK (Stavropol' Joint Stock AL)|
|Tajik||Leninabad||292nd / 2nd Squadron||Leninabad||Tajikistan Airlines|
|Training Establishments Directorate||KVLUGA (Kirovograd Civil Aviation Higher Flying School)||Kirovograd||Ukraine State Flight Academy|
|Turkmen||Ashkhabad||165th / 1st Squadron||Ashkhabad||Turkmenistan Airlines/Akhal|
|Krasnovodsk||360th / 1st Squadron||Krasnovodsk||Turkmenistan Airlines/Khazar|
|Mary Composite Independent Air Squadron||Mary|
|Tyumen'||Salekhard||Salekhard||Tyumen' Avia Trans|
|Ukrainian||Donetsk||Donetsk||Donbass – East Ukrainian Airlines|
|Kiev||86th / 2nd Squadron||Kiev-Zhulyany||Air Ukraine / Avialinïi Ukraïny|
|Simferopol||84th||Simferopol||Aviakompaniya Krym / Crimea AL|
|Kirov||Kirov||Kirov Air Enterprises (no An-24s)|
|Magnitogorsk||Magnitogorsk||Magnitogorsk Air Enterprise|
|1st Perm'||Perm'-Bolshoye Savino||Perm Airlines|
|1st Sverdlovsk||Sverdlovsk-Kol'tsovo||Ural Airlines [Yekaterinburg]|
|Volga||Cheboksary||Cheboksary||Cheboksary Air Enterprise|
|Cheboksary||Nizhnekamsk Independent air Squadron||Nizhnekamsk||Nizhnekamsk Air Enterprise|
|Gor'kiy||Gor'kiy-Strigino||Nizhegorodskie Airlines (sic)|
|TatarCAPA / 1st Kazan'||408th||Kazan'||Tatarstan Airlines|
|Orenburg||195th / 2nd Squadron||Orenburg-Tsentral'nyy||Orenburg Airlines|
|Penza||396th||Penza||Penza Air Enterprise|
|Ufa||415th||Ufa||BAL Bashkirian Airlines|
|Novosibirsk||6th(?)||Novosibirsk-Severnyy||2nd Novosibirsk Air Enterprise|
|Omsk||365th / 2nd Squadron||Omsk||Omsk-Avia|
|Mirny||Mirny||Almazy Rossii – Sakha (Alrosa)|
|GosNII GVF ("state scientific test institute for civil air fleet")||Moscow - Sheremetyevo-1|
Data from Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1976–77
- Crew: 3
- Capacity: 50 passengers
- Length: 23.53 m (77 ft 2 in)
- Wingspan: 29.20 m (95 ft 10 in)
- Height: 8.32 m (27 ft 4 in)
- Wing area: 74.98 m2 (807.1 sq ft)
- Aspect ratio: 11.7:1
- Empty weight: 13,300 kg (29,321 lb)
- Max takeoff weight: 21,000 kg (46,297 lb)
- Fuel capacity: 5,550 L (1,470 US gal; 1,220 imp gal)
- Powerplant: 2 × Ivchenko AI-24A turboprop engines, 1,900 kW (2,550 shp) each (eshp)
- Propellers: 4-bladed AV-72 constant-speed propellers, 3.90 m (12 ft 10 in) diameter
- Cruise speed: 450 km/h (280 mph, 240 kn) at 6,000 m (20,000 ft)
- Range: 2,400 km (1,500 mi, 1,300 nmi) with maximum fuel; 550 km (340 mi; 300 nmi) with maximum payload
- Service ceiling: 8,400 m (27,600 ft)
- Rate of climb: 1.91 m/s (375 ft/min)
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- The An-24 incident at Gambell, Alaska occurred 27 February 1974, when a Soviet Antonov An-24LR "Toros" (CCCP-47195) ice reconnaissance aircraft, low on fuel, carrying three crew members and twelve scientists, landed at Gambell Airport.
- Gordon, Yefim. Komissarov, Dmitry & Sergey. “Antonov's Turboprop Twins”. Hinkley. Midland. 2003. ISBN 1-85780-153-9
- Stroud 1968, pp. 78–79.
- "Антонов Ан-24". russianplanes.net. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
- Bermudez, J. "MiG-29 in KPAF Service", The KPA Journal, vol. 2 No. 4, April 2011, p. 2
- Hoyle Flight International 8–14 December 2015, p. 46.
- Hoyle Flight International 8–14 December 2015, p. 51.
- Marnix Sap, Carlo Brummer: Fortele Aeriene Romane in: Lotnictwo Nr. 4/2010 (in Polish)
- "World Airline Census 2018". Flightglobal.com. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
- Odynova, Alexandra (15 July 2011). "Medvedev's Impossible Airplane Ban". article. The Moscow Times. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- "Во исполнение поручения Президента Российской Федерации Минтрансом России рассматривается возможность вывода самолетов Ан-24 из эксплуатации на регулярных воздушных линиях". press release. The Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation. 11 July 2011. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- Taylor 1976, pp. 406–408.
- Gordon, Yefim. Komissarov, Dmitry & Sergey. Antonov's Turboprop Twins. Hinkley. Midland. 2003. ISBN 1-85780-153-9.
- Hoyle, Craig. "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International, Volume 188, No. 5517, 8–14 December 2015. pp. 26–53.
- Stroud, John. Soviet Transport Aircraft since 1945. London: Putnam, 1968. ISBN 0-370-00126-5.
- Taylor, John W. R. (ed.) Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1976–77. London: Jane's Yearbooks, 1976. ISBN 0-354-00538-3.
- Thisdell, Dan and Fafard, Antoine. "World Airliner Census". Flight International, Volume 190, No. 5550, 9–15 August 2016. pp. 20–43. ISSN 0015-3710
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