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Yoshkar-Ola (Russian: Йошка́р-Ола́; Mari: Йошкар-Ола) is the capital city of the Mari El Republic, Russia. Its population is about a quarter million. Yoshkar-Ola means red city in Mari and was formerly known as Tsaryovokokshaysk (Царёвококшайск) before 1919, as Krasnokokshaysk (Краснококшайск) between 1919 and 1927 (both after the Malaya Kokshaga River, which runs through the city) and Charla (Чарла) (old Mari). Yoshkar-Ola was established as a military fortress in 1584, following the Russian conquest of the Mari region.

Йошкар-Ола (Russian)
Йошкар-Ола (Mari)
-  City[3]  -
Collage of Yoshkar-Ola (2009).png
Top: Wall clock display in the Yoshkar-Ola National Art Gallery; middle left: Yoshkar-Ola City Hall; middle right: Flower-style lantern in Obolensky-Nogotkov Square; bottom left: Monument to Obolensky-Nogotkov; bottom right: Monument to Tsar Cannon in the National Art Gallery
Map of Russia - Mari El Republic (2008-03).svg
Location of the Mari El Republic in Russia
Yoshkar-Ola is located in Mari El
Location of Yoshkar-Ola in the Mari El Republic
Coat of Arms of Yoshkar-Ola (Mariy-El).png
Flag of Yoshkar-Ola (Mariy-El).png
Coat of arms
AnthemSong About Yoshkar-Ola[1]
City DayAugust 6[2]
Administrative status (as of December 2013)
Federal subjectMari El Republic[3]
Administratively subordinated tocity of republic significance of Yoshkar-Ola[3]
Capital ofMari El Republic[4]
Administrative center ofcity of republic significance of Yoshkar-Ola[3]
Municipal status (as of October 2014)
Urban okrugYoshkar-Ola Urban Okrug[5]
Administrative center ofYoshkar-Ola Urban Okrug[5]
Head[6]Yevgeny Maslov (acting)[7]
Representative bodyCity Assembly[8]
Population (2010 Census)248,782 inhabitants[9]
Rank in 201074th
Time zoneMSK (UTC+03:00)[12]
City status since1781[10]
Previous namesTsaryovokokshaysk (until 1919),[citation needed]
Krasnokokshaysk (until 1927)[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[13]424000–424008, 424010, 424016, 424019, 424020, 424026, 424028, 424030–424034, 424036–424040, 424045, 424700, 424899, 424950, 424999
Dialing code(s)+7 8362[citation needed]
Yoshkar-Ola on Wikimedia Commons

It is currently one of the centers of the Finno-Ugric people and the administrative center of the Yoshkar-Ola city district.



Population: 248,782 (2010 Census);[9] 256,719 (2002 Census);[14] 241,601 (1989 Census).[15]


Yoshkar-Ola means red city in Mari. The current name is the third to have been given to the city. The city was known as Tsaryovokokshaysk (Царёвококшайск) before 1919 and as Krasnokokshaysk (Краснококшайск) between 1919 and 1927.[citation needed] These names were derived from the name of the Malaya Kokshaga River, which runs through the city. The city's old Mari name was Charla (Чарла).


Yoshkar-Ola was established as a military fortress in 1584, following the Russian conquest of the Mari region.

During the Soviet era, especially after World War II, the city was a regional industrial and transport center and grew to its current size. The collapse of the Soviet Union removed support for state enterprises, and led to the shutdown of most manufacturing activity in the area. Much of the city's economic activity was supported by shuttle traders who would transport (often counterfeit) goods from the bustling markets of Moscow to Yoshkar-Ola's bazaars. The sharp decline in living standards led to the emigration of specialized professionals to larger cities in Russia.

Yoshkar Ola

Administrative and municipal statusEdit

Yoshkar-Ola is the capital of the republic.[4] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with ten rural localities, incorporated as the city of republic significance of Yoshkar-Ola—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[3] As a municipal division, the city of republic significance of Yoshkar-Ola is incorporated as Yoshkar-Ola Urban Okrug.[5]


Yoshkar-Ola is linked to other cities and regions in Russia by a series of train and bus routes. The local train station is currently served by a daily train to and from the capital Moscow with other short-service trains running to and from Kazan. Moscow and various other nearby towns and regions can also be reached by buses departing from the local bus station. The Yoshkar-Ola Airport is also located 9 km north of the city and handles small aircraft Moscow-bound flights (Vnukovo International Airport) since April 2012. It is planned to expand the range of destinations in the near future.

Destinations within the city limits can be reached through a network of buses, trolleys, and route taxis, or marshrutkas. There are currently seven different bus routes, eleven different trolley routes, and seventeen marshrutka routes.[citation needed]

A train leaves Yoshkar-Ola every evening at 19:00 to Moscow, stopping at routes along the way.


Climate of Yoshkar-Ola is very similar to Nizhny Novgorod or Kirov. The city is situated in a temperate continental climate. The winters are long and cold with lots of snow, with average January temperatures from −10 to −15 °C (14 to 5 °F), and record low of about −48 °C (−54 °F). On the other hand, city enjoys very warm summers, marred by only occasional, brief intervals of sultry or rainy conditions with July as the hottest month, when average high is +25 °C (77 °F), and the temperatures may stay around +35 °C (95 °F) for weeks.


Yoshkar-Ola is home to 88 educational institutions, among them several institutions of higher education:

There are also 30 schools for primary students aged between 7 and 18 and 52 kindergartens. Additionally, Yoshkar-Ola has many private educational centers offering different qualifications and trainings in such disciplines as foreign languages, computer science and many others.


Twin towns and sister citiesEdit

External linksEdit



  1. ^ Official website of Yoshkar-Ola. Symbols of Yoshkar-Ola (in Russian)
  2. ^ Charter of Yoshkar-Ola, Article 6
  3. ^ a b c d e Law #22-Z
  4. ^ a b Constitution of the Mari El Republic, Article 16
  5. ^ a b c Law #15-Z
  6. ^ Charter of Yoshkar-Ola, Article 44
  7. ^ Official website of Yoshkar-Ola. Mayor of the City of Yoshkar-Ola (in Russian)
  8. ^ Charter of Yoshkar-Ola, Article 24
  9. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
  10. ^ a b Great Russian Encyclopedia, pp. 301–302
  11. ^ Charter of Yoshkar-Ola, Article 1
  12. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  13. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  14. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.
  15. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
  16. ^ 14th Kievsko-Zhitomirskaya order of Kutuzov Missile Division


  • 24 июня 1995 г. «Конституция Республики Марий Эл», в ред. Закона №21-З от 31 июля 2014 г. «О поправке 59 к Конституции Республики Марий Эл». Вступил в силу 7 июля 1995 г. (за исключением отдельных положений). Опубликован: "Марийская правда", 7 июля 1995 г. (June 24, 1995 Constitution of the Mari El Republic, as amended by the Law #21-Z of July 31, 2014 On Amendment 59 to the Constitution of the Mari El Republic. Effective as of July 7, 1995 (with the exception of several clauses).).
  • Городское Собрание муниципального образования "Город Йошкар-Ола". Решение №101-IV от 29 июня 2005 г. «Устав муниципального образования "Город Йошкар-Ола"», в ред. Решения №186-VI от 23 сентября 2015 г. «О внесении изменений и дополнений в Устав муниципального образования "Город Йошкар-Ола", принятый Решением городского Собрания муниципального образования "Город Йошкар-Ола" от 29 июня 2005 г. №101-IV». Вступил в силу 28 декабря 2005 г. Опубликован: "Йошкар-Ола" (спецвыпуск), 28 декабря 2005 г. (City Assembly of the Municipal Formation of the "City of Yoshkar-Ola". Decision #101-IV of June 29, 2005 Charter of the Municipal Formation of the "City of Yoshkar-Ola", as amended by the Decision #186-VI of September 23, 2015 On Amending and Supplementing the Charter of the Municipal Formation of the "City of Yoshkar-Ola", Adopted by the Decision #101-IV of June 29, 2005 by the City Assembly of the Municipal Formation of the "City of Yoshkar-Ola". Effective as of December 28, 2005.).
  • Государственное Собрание Республики Марий Эл. Закон №22-З от 3 мая 2006 г. «О порядке решения вопросов административно-территориального устройства (деления) Республики Марий Эл», в ред. Закона №50-З от 31 октября 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Республики Марий Эл». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Марийская правда", №81, 6 мая 2006 г. (State Assembly of the Mari El Republic. Law #22-Z of May 3, 2006 On the Procedures of the Administrative-Territorial Structure (Division) of the Mari El Republic, as amended by the Law #50-Z of October 31, 2014 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of the Mari El Republic. Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Государственный Совет Республики Марий Эл. Закон №15-З от 18 июня 2004 г. «О статусе, границах и составе муниципальных районов, городских округов в Республике Марий Эл», в ред. Закона №50-З от 31 октября 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Республики Марий Эл». Вступил в силу через 10 дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Марийская правда", №116, 24 июня 2004 г. (State Council of the Mari El Republic. Law #15-Z of June 18, 2004 On the Status, Borders, and Composition of the Municipal Districts, Urban Okrugs in the Mari El Republic, as amended by the Law #50-Z of October 31, 2014 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of the Mari El Republic. Effective as of after 10 days after the official publication.).
  • Большая Российская энциклопедия (Great Russian Encyclopedia): В 30 т. / Председатель науч.-ред. совета Ю. С. Осипов. Отв. ред С. Л. Кравец. Т. 12. Исландия — Канцеляризмы. — М.: Большая Российская энциклопедия, 2008. — 767 с.