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The Russian Naval Aviation (Russian: Авиация Военно-морского флота России, tr. Aviatsiya Voenno-morskovo Flota Rossii) is the air arm of the Russian Navy, having superseded Soviet Naval Aviation. The Russian Navy is divided into four fleets and one flotilla: Northern Fleet, Pacific Ocean Fleet, Baltic Fleet, Black Sea Fleet, and Caspian Flotilla.

Авиация Военно-морского флота
Aviatsiya Voenno-morskovo Flota
Russian Naval Aviation
Flag of Russian Naval Aviation
Country Russian Federation
Branch Russian Navy
TypeNaval aviation
Size28,000 personnel (2014)[1]
Approx. 359+ aircraft[2][1]
Commanders
Current
commander
Major-General Igor Kozhin
Notable
commanders
Major-General Timur Apakidze
Insignia
RoundelRoundel of Russia.svg

The air forces of the largest and most important fleets, the Northern and Pacific fleets, operate long range Tu-142 anti-submarine warfare (ASW) aircraft, Il-38 medium-range ASW aircraft, and Ka-27 shipborne ASW and search-and-rescue (SAR) helicopters. Formations operating supersonic Tu-22M3 bombers were transferred to the Russian Air Force's Long Range Aviation in 2011.[3] The relatively small fleets, the Baltic and Black Sea, currently have only tactical Su-24 bombers and ASW helicopters in service. The small Caspian Flotilla operates An-26 and Mi-8 transports, Ka-27PS rescue helicopters, as well as some Ka-29 and Mi-24 armed helicopters. In 2011, the Russian Navy Deputy Commander-in-Chief for Naval Aviation and Air Defense/Commander, Naval Air and Air Defense Forces is Major General Igor Kozhin.

A Sukhoi Su-33 from the 279th Shipborne Fighter Aviation Regiment, on Admiral Kuznetsov's flight deck.
A Kamov Ka-29 assault transport helicopter, from 830th Independent Shipborne Anti-Submarine Helicopter Regiment.

Contents

Structure and OrganisationEdit

The 100th Shipborne Fighter Aviation Regiment (Military Unit Number 45782) was formed at Saki in the Crimea on 10 March 1986.[4] In January 1992 its personnel refused to take the oath of loyalty to Ukraine, which would have presumably made them part of the Ukrainian Navy or Ukrainian Air Force, and instead its personnel left for Russia, leaving their aircraft and equipment behind. The unit regrouped at Severomorsk-3 as part of the Northern Fleet. However, in February 1993 the regiment was disbanded and its personnel and equipment incorporated into the 279th Shipborne Fighter Aviation Regiment.

The 279th Independent Shipborne Assault Aviation Regiment was established in 1973.[5] In 1990 it became a Maritime Assault Aviation Regiment. On 22 February 1993 it was renamed the 279th Shipborne Fighter Aviation Regiment as it absorbed the remaining elements of the 100th Shipborne Fighter Aviation Regiment.

Structure in 2007Edit

This is the structure of the Russian Naval Aviation, as reproduced from the August 2007 issue of the Air Forces Monthly.[6] Given the new data from 2015-16 about the two shipborne fighter aviation regiments above, the 100th Shipborne Fighter Aviation Regiment, listed at Severomorsk-3 with the MiG-29K, has been removed from the Northern Fleet listing.

NAVAL HIGH COMMAND – Saint Petersburg

Northern Fleet Air Force – HQ Severomorsk

  • 924th Separate Guards Maritime Missile-Carrying Aviation Regiment (924-й ОГвМРАП) – HQ at Olenegorsk/Olenya - Tu-22M3;
  • 279th Separate Shipborne Fighter Aviation Regiment (279-й ОКИАП) – HQ at Severomorsk-3 - Su-33, Su-25UTG;
  • 73rd Separate ASW Long Range Aviation Squadron (73-я ОПЛАЭ ДД) – HQ at Kipelovo (Fedotovo) - Tu-142MK, Tu-142MR;
  • 403rd Separate Composite Aviation Regiment (403-й ОСАП) – HQ at Severomorsk-1 - Il-38, Tu-134, An-12, An-26;
  • 830th Separate Red Banner Shipborne ASW Helicopter Regiment (830-й ОКПЛВП)[8] - HQ at Severomorsk-1
    • 1st and 2nd Shipborne Helicopter Squadrons - Ka-27;
    • 3rd Assault Helicopter Squadron - Kamov Ka-29

Pacific Fleet Air Force – HQ Vladivostok

Baltic Fleet Air Force – HQ Kaliningrad

Black Sea Fleet Air Arm – HQ Sevastopol (status in 2010)[9][10]

  • 25th Separate ASW Helicopter Regiment (25-й ОКПЛВП) - HQ at Kacha, Crimea - ~20 helicopters of types Ka-27 and Mi-14
  • 917th Separate Composite Aviation Regiment (917-й ОСАП) - HQ at Kacha, Crimea - ~10x Antonov transport aircraft of types An-12, An-26, An-2, 4x Be-12; ~10x Mi-8
  • 43rd Separate Naval Attack Aviation Regiment (43-й ОМШАП) - HQ at Gvardeyskoe, Crimea - 18x Su-24M; 4x Su-24MR;

Structure after 2008–2011 reformsEdit

As a result of the 2008 Russian military reforms, the units of the Russian Naval Aviation were reorganized into 13 new Naval Air Bases. Each new naval air base consists of an HQ, support units and one or more aviation groups/wings (the former air bases). In a second stage, the air bases were merged into territorially integrated structures. Only the 279th Regiment retained its status. The planned transfer of Naval Aviation assets (Su-24, Su-27, Tu-22M3, MiG-31) to the Air Force has been delayed[11] due to their importance to the service, but was finally implemented by the end of 2011.

As of 2012, the only fixed wing strike and fighter aircraft of Russian Naval Aviation are the Su-33 fighters and Su-25UTG attack aircraft of the 279th Regiment (forming the Admiral Kuznetsov's carrier air wing), plus the Su-24 bombers based in the Crimea. This sole bomber unit remained part of Naval Aviation as an exception to satisfy treaty requirements governing Russian forces deployments on Ukrainian territory (these must be part of the Black Sea Fleet).[12] Buying brand new multirole Sukhoi Su-30SM for the Black Sea Fleet to replace Su-24 was in the planning stages and it has been completed as of December 2016.[13][14] Naval aviation also retains the anti-submarine aircraft of the forces (the Tu-142 and the Il-38) and the helicopter arm.

Given the new data from 2015-16 from Russian sources regarding the 100th Shipborne Fighter Aviation Regiment's disbandment in 1993, Air Force's Monthly's listing of both the 100th and 279th Regiments at the Severomorsk-3 NAB has been altered by removal of the 100 KIAP.

Naval air bases of the Russian Naval Aviation include:

Baltic Fleet air bases - HQ at Kaliningrad:

Black Sea Fleet air bases - HQ at Sevastopol:

  • Gvardiyskoye NAB
  • Kacha NAB
  • Novofedorivka NAB
  • Saki[15]
    • 43rd Independent Naval Attack Aviation Regiment (43rd OMShAP) (formerly at Gvardeiskoye) (Su-30SM, Su-24M/MR)[15]

Northern Fleet air bases - HQ at Severomorsk:

  • Kipelovo NAB
  • Olenegorsk NAB
  • Severomorsk-1 NAB
  • Severomorsk-2 NAB
  • Severomorsk-3 NAB
    • 279th Independent Shipborne Fighter Aviation Regiment (279th OKIAP)[4]
  • Monchegorsk NAB[15]
    • 98th Composite Aviation Regiment (98th SAP)

Pacific Fleet air bases - HQ at Vladivostok:

Actual structureEdit

The Soviet and its successor the Russian Naval Aviation follow the TOE of the Soviet (Russian Air Force respectively). This practice has been formally established with Order No. 0036 of the Navy Chief-of-Staff (issued on October 7 and implemented on December 15, 1947). Therefore, it followed air force unit convention (air army (air corps) - aviation division - aviation regiment) and its personnel held air force type ranks (generals, colonels, majors etc.). A major divergence from the practice in the NATO member states and the countries, which follow US air force traditions is that the Soviet Union, its Warsaw Pact and other Socialist allies (such as Vietnam, North Korea, Cuba etc.) kept flying units and the ground support units separate (radar, signals, engineer units) subordinated separately to higher command and control level. For example, an aviation regiment and the radar and signals battalion, the air field battalion and the other support units servicing the air field reported to their air division. Another difference is that Soviet military air arms did not bring aviation units of different branches (fighter, transport, helicopter) together. The only exceptions were Mixed Aviation Regiments (which performed liaison and transport tasks for armies, military districts etc. and had a fleet of An-24/ An-26 planes and Mi-8/ Mi-9 helicopters) or rarely air regiments, which flew one single type in different variants and tasks (for example a Tu-22 naval missile-carrying aviation regiment flying 1-2 missile-carrying aviation squadrons and a squadron of reconnaissance or EW variants).

The 2008 Russian military reform planned during the term of Anatoly Serdyukov changed that. The main organizational change in the Ground Forces was the transition from a 4-level operational chain of command (Military District — Army — Division — Regiment) to a 3-level one (Military District — Operational Command (Army) — Brigade). The Air Force transitioned correspondingly to Military District — Operational Command — Air Base chain of command. The air bases combined geographically closely located flying units of various arms with ground support units. As the naval aviation followed the air force organizational practice it too adopted the air base organization. The separate air commands of the fleets (Air Force of the Northern Fleet, Air Force of the Pacific Fleet, Air Force of the Baltic Fleet and Air Force of the Black Sea Fleet) were disbanded and naval aviation assets adopted a three level operational chain of command including Military District — Fleet — Air Base.

Concerning its inventory, it was decided that the naval aviation divest its heavy bombers and fighter aircraft (except for the Admiral Kuznetsov air wing), transferring them to the Air Force. The re-organization of the Air Force was later reverted on the grounds of being counter-productive. The four Air Forces and Air Defence Operational Commands (1st through 4th) were reverted to Air Forces and Air Defence Armies (6th, 14th, 11th and 4th respectively), one per military district each. With the establishment of the Northern Fleet Joint Strategic Command as a de facto fifth military district a new 45th Air Forces and Air Defence Army was formed under it. Its aviation units belong to the naval aviation unlike the other four air armies, which consist of air force units. The air force also started transforming its fighter aviation from air bases into fighter aviation regiments belonging to composite aviation divisions.

The naval aviation also reverted the decision to divest its fighter air arm (but not its bomber aircraft, which remain with the Air Force). MiG-31 were transferred back to the Navy and new Su-30SM heavy multirole fighters were ordered. These aircraft were grouped into fighter aviation regiments independent from the air bases. As of 2019 the naval aviation air bases consist of maritime patrol and ASW aircraft, transport aircraft, ASW helicopters, combat and assault helicopters, transport helicopters and UAVs. Naval aviation is following the air force in the resurrection of the air divisions as an operational level of command and control. It is yet undecided whether the naval aviation air bases will become air divisions, reforming their fixed wing, helicopter and UAV assets in aviation regiments and squadrons or new composite naval aviation divisions will be formed and the NAABs will be subordinated to them next to the fighter aviation regiments.

Naval aviation in 2019Edit

Naval High CommandEdit

Naval High Command (Главное командование Военно-Морского Флота) — Saint Petersburg

  • units directly subordinated to the NHC (часты центрального подчинения)[16]
    • Naval Aviation Central Signals Node (Центральный узел связи морской авиации ВМФ) (Domodedovo (Moscow))
    • Naval Aviation Training Center (Учебный центр морской авиации ВМФ) (Severomorsk-1) - basic theoretic training for naval aviators
    • 859th Center for Naval Aviation Combat Application [Training] and Re-qualification of Flying Personnel (859-й Центр боевого применения и переучивания летного состава морской авиации) (Yeysk Airfield) - Su-33, Su-30SM, MiG-29K/KUB, Su-25UTG, L-39ZA, Il-38N, Il-20, An-140-100, An-26, Ka-27PL, Ka-28, Ka-29
    • SAR Navy Support Aviation Squadron (Авиационная эскадрилья поисково-спасательного обеспечения ВМФ РФ) (Ostafyevo (Shcherbinka) Airfield): An-12PS, An-26, An-72, An-140-100.

Northern Fleet Air ForceEdit

The Northern Fleet was subordinated to the Western Military District, but with the re-vitalization of Russia's interests in the High Arctic it was decided to make it part of the core of a new, fifth, military district - the Northern Fleet Joint Strategic Command.

Northern Fleet Joint Strategic Command (Объединённое стратегическое командование «Северный флот») — Severomorsk

Baltic Fleet Air ForceEdit

Order of Lenin Western Military District (Западный военный округ (ЗВО)) — Saint Petersburg

  • Twice Red Banner Baltic Fleet Air Force (Дважды Краснознамённый Балтийский флот (ДКБФ)) — Kaliningrad
    • 4th Independent Novgorod-Klaipėda Guards Red Banner Maritime Attack Aviation Regiment "Air Force marshal Ivan Borzov" (4-й Отдельный гвардейский морской штурмовой Новгородско-Клайпедский Краснознаменный авиационный полк имени маршала авиации Ивана Борзова)[20] (Chernyakhovsk Air Field) - Su-30SM, Su-24M
    • 689th Independent Sandomirskiy, Order of Alexander Nevsky "Aviation Marshal Alexander Pokryshkin" Guards Fighter Aviation Regiment (689-й Отдельный гвардейский истребительный Сандомирский ордена Александра Невского авиационный полк имени маршала авиации А.И. Покрышкина (689-й ОГвИАП))[20] (Chkalovsk Air Field) - Sukhoi Su-27SM/UB, to convert to Su-35S some time after 2020.
    • 72nd Novgorod-Klaipėda Guards Red Banner "Aviation Marshal Ivan Borzov" Aviation Base (72-я гвардейская авиационная Новгородско-Клайпедская Краснознамённая имени маршала авиации И.И. Борзова база (72-я ГвАвБ МА))[21] (Chernyakhovsk Air Field)
      • (Former 398th) Independent Transport Aviation Squadron (398-я Отдельная транспортная авиационная эскадрилья (398-я ОТРАЭ)) (Khrabrovo Airport) - An-140-100, An-24, An-26
      • (Former 396th) Independent Shipborne ASW Helicopter Squadron (396-я Отдельная корабельная противолодочная вертолётная эскадрилья (396-я ОКПЛВЭ)) (Donskoye Air Field) - Ka-27PL/PS, Ka-29
      • (Former 125th) Independent Helicopter Squadron (125-я Отдельная вертолётная эскадрилья (125-я ОВЭ)) (Chkalovsk Air Field) - Mi-24, Mi-8
    • The former German hydroplane air station in Baltiysk on the Vistula Spit, which was used by the Baltic Fleet's Beriev amphibious planes until its abandonement in 1995 will be reconstructed to field a naval squadron of Beriev Be-200s.[22]

Black Sea Fleet Air ArmEdit

Red Banner and Order of Suvorov Southern Military District (Краснознамённый ордена Суворова Южный военный округ (ЮВО)) – Rostov-on-Don

  • Red Banner Black Sea Fleet (Краснознамённый Черноморский флот (КЧФ)) — Sevastopol
    • 43rd Independent Maritime Attack Aviation Regiment (43-й Отдельный морской штурмовой авиационный полк (43-й ОМШАП)) (Saki Air Field) - Su-30SM, Su-24M/MR
    • 318th Independent Composite Aviation Regiment (318-й отдельный смешанный авиационный полк (318-й ОСАП)) (Kacha Air Field) - Tu-134UB-L, An-12, An-26, An-2, Ka-27, Ka-29, Mi-8

Caspian FlotillaEdit

Red Banner and Order of Suvorov Southern Military District (Краснознамённый ордена Суворова Южный военный округ (ЮВО)) – Rostov-on-Don

  • Red Banner Caspian Flotilla (Краснознамённая Каспийская флотилия (ККФ)) — Astrakhan
  • The Caspian Flotilla does not field organic aviation assets

Pacific FleetEdit

Order of Lenin, Twice [awarded the] Red Banner and Order of Suvorov Eastern Military District (Ордена Ленина, дважды Краснознамённый, ордена Суворова Восточный военный округ) – Khabarovsk

  • Red Banner Pacific Fleet (Тихоокеанский флот (ТОФ)) — Vladivostok
    • Red Banner Northeastern Group of Troops and Forces (Войска и силы на Северо-востоке) – Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky
    • Primorskoye Combined Forces Formation (formerly Flotilla) (Приморское объединение разнородных сил Тихоокеанского флота) – Fokino
      • 7062nd Port Artur Red Banner Naval Aviation Air Base (7062-я Порт-Артурская Краснознаменная авиационная база морской авиации (7062-я АвБ МА)) (Nikolayevka Primorskya (Zolotaya Dolina) Air Field) - Il-38N, Il-22, Ka-27PL/PS, Mi-8
        • Independent Anti-Submarine Aviation Squadron (Отдельная противолодочная авиаэскадрилья (ОПЛАЭ)) (Mongohto (Sovetskaya Gavan/ Kamenny Ruchey) Air Field) - Tu-142M/MZ/MR
        • Independent Transport Aviation Squadron (Отдельная транспортная авиаэскадрилья (ОТРАЭ)) (Artyom (Vladivostok–Knevichi IAP) Airfield) - An-12PP(EW) / PS(SAR), An-26

EquipmentEdit

The Russian Naval Aviation maintains a large and varied fleet of fixed-wing and rotary aircraft, the most numerous of which is the Kamov Ka-27 anti-submarine helicopter that operates from various surface ships.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b International Institute for Strategic Studies: The Military Balance 2014, p.185
  2. ^ "World Air Forces 2015" (PDF). Flightglobal Insight. 2015. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  3. ^ air force monthly, January 2012
  4. ^ a b Michael Holm, 100 KIAP, Sources, and "Век в строю ВМФ авиация Военно-Морского Флота России (1910-2010)" by P.V. Levshov and D.E. Boltenkov; Tayfun, Saint Petersburg 2012, 768 pages. Excellent book with unit histories of every single naval aviation unit in existence between 1910 to 2010.
  5. ^ Holm
  6. ^ Air Force Monthly 2007
  7. ^ "ВООРУЖЕНИЯ, ВОЕННАЯ ТЕХНИКА, ВОЕННО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ СБОРНИК, СОВРЕМЕННОЕ СОСТОЯНИЕ, ИСТОРИЯ РАЗВИТИЯ ОПК, БАСТИОН ВТС, НЕВСКИЙ БАСТИОН, ЖУРНАЛ, СБОРНИК, ВПК, АРМИИ, ВЫСТАВКИ, САЛОНЫ, ВОЕННО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ, НОВОСТИ, ПОСЛЕДНИЕ НОВОСТИ, ВОЕННЫЕ НОВОСТИ, СОБЫТИЯ ФАКТЫ ВПК, НОВОСТИ ОПК, ОБОРОННАЯ ПРОМЫШЛЕННОСТЬ, МИНИСТРЕСТВО ОБОРОНЫ, СИЛОВЫХ СТРУКТУР, КРАСНАЯ АРМИЯ, СОВЕТСКАЯ АРМИЯ, РУССКАЯ АРМИЯ, ЗАРУБЕЖНЫЕ ВОЕННЫЕ НОВОСТИ, ВиВТ, ПВН, информация по военной технике, сайт по Военной технике". bastion-karpenko.ru. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  8. ^ "830-й отдельный корабельный противолодочный вертолетный Киркенесский краснознаменный полк ВВС СФ Краткая история. Мир авиации 2004 02". tech.wikireading.ru. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  9. ^ http://flot.com/news/navy/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=56395
  10. ^ "Black Sea Fleet to get 18 new warships and renew naval aviation till 2020". Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  11. ^ Moscow Defense Brief #2, 2011 p. 18-22
  12. ^ "Ударные самолеты морской авиации передадут ВВС до конца года".
  13. ^ "12 -30". Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  14. ^ http://bmpd.livejournal.com/2309685.html
  15. ^ a b c d e AirForces Monthly. Stamford, Lincolnshire, England: Key Publishing Ltd. December 2016. p. 86.
  16. ^ http://milkavkaz.com/index.php/voorujonnie-cili-racii/vmf/chasti-tcentralnogo-podchinenia- vmf
  17. ^ "СФ". milkavkaz.com. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  18. ^ Козаченко, Алексей Рамм, Алексей (5 February 2019). "Северная МиГрация: в Арктике будет создан истребительный авиаполк". Известия (in Russian). Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  19. ^ "2-й гвардейский истребительный Печенгский Краснознамённый авиационный полк им. Б.Ф.Сафонова (2-й ГвИАП СФ) | Красные соколы нашей Родины". www.airaces.ru. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  20. ^ a b bmpd (4 February 2019). "Восстановлен 689-й истребительный авиационный полк в Калининградской области". bmpd. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  21. ^ "Крылья Балтики крепнут" (in Russian). Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  22. ^ Костоглодов, Денис. "Минобороны планирует начать восстановление немецкого аэродрома на Балткосе в 2018 году". kgd.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  23. ^ Козаченко, Алексей Рамм, Алексей (21 February 2019). "Сядут на Камчатке: на Дальнем Востоке развернут авиаполк МиГ-31". Известия (in Russian). Retrieved 8 March 2019.

External linksEdit