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The Tupolev Tu-22M (Russian: Туполев Ту-22М; NATO reporting name: Backfire) is a supersonic, variable-sweep wing, long-range strategic and maritime strike bomber developed by the Tupolev Design Bureau. According to some sources, the bomber was believed to be designated Tu-26 at one time. During the Cold War, the Tu-22M was operated by the Soviet Air Forces (VVS) in a missile carrier strategic bombing role, and by the Soviet Naval Aviation (Aviacija Vojenno-Morskogo Flota, AVMF) in a long-range maritime anti-shipping role.[2] Significant numbers remain in service with the Russian Air Force, and as of 2014 more than 100 Tu-22Ms are in use.[3]

Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-22M-3 taking off from Soltsy-2.jpg
A Russian Air Force Tu-22M3
Role Strategic bomber/Maritime strike
Manufacturer Tupolev
First flight 30 August 1969
Introduction 1972
Status In service
Primary users Russian Aerospace Forces
Soviet Air Forces (historical)
Ukrainian Air Force (historical)
Produced 1967–1997[1]
Number built 497
Developed from Tupolev Tu-22

Contents

DevelopmentEdit

 
A painting depicting the loading of Raduga Kh-15 missiles on a Tu-22M rotary launcher. The bomber depicted is an early Tu-22M2, with distinctive air intakes.
 
OBP-15T Targeting bombsight[4]
 
Cockpit

In 1962, with the introduction of the Tu-22, it became increasingly clear that the aircraft was inadequate in its role as a bomber. In addition to widespread unserviceability and maintenance issues, the Tu-22's handling characteristics proved to be dangerous. Its landing speed was some 100 km/h (60 mph) greater than previous bombers and it had a tendency to pitch up and strike its tail upon landing. It was difficult to fly, and had poor all-round visibility.[5] In 1962, Tupolev commenced work on major update of the Tu-22. Initially, the bureau planned to add a variable-sweep wing and uprated engines into the updated design. The design was tested at TsAGI's wind tunnels at Zhukovsky.[5]

During this time, Sukhoi, traditionally a designer of fighter aircraft, developed the T-4, a four-engine titanium aircraft with canards. A response to the XB-70, it was to have a cruise speed of 3,200 km/h (2,000 mph), requiring a massive research effort in order to develop the requisite technologies. Not to be outdone, Tupolev, whose expertise is with bombers, offered the Soviet Air Force (Voyenno-Vozdushnye Sily, VVS) a massively updated version of the Tu-22.[6]

Compared to the T-4, it was an evolutionary design, and thus its appeal laid in its simplicity and low cost. However, the Soviet government was skeptical about the need to approve the development of a replacement aircraft so soon after the Tu-22 had just entered service.[7] The Air Force and Tupolev, in order to save face with regards to the Tu-22's operational deficiencies and to stave off criticisms from the ICBM lobby, agreed to pass off the design as an update of the Tu-22 in their discussions with the government. The aircraft was designated Tu-22M, given the OKB code "Aircraft 45", and an internal designation of "AM". Their effort was successful as the government approved the design on 28 November 1967, and decreed the development of the aircraft's main weapon, the Kh-22.[8] The T-4 itself would make its first flight in 1972, but was later cancelled.[6]

US intelligence had been aware of the existence of the aircraft since 1969, and the first satellite photograph of the bomber would be taken in 1970. The existence of the aircraft was a shock to US intelligence as Nikita Khrushchev, who had been the Soviet premier up to 1964, was adamant that ICBMs would render the bomber obsolete.[9]

As in the case of its contemporaries, the MiG-23 and Su-17 projects, the advantages of variable-sweep wing (or "swing wing") seemed attractive, allowing a combination of short take-off performance, efficient cruising, and good high-speed, low-level flight. The result was a new swing wing aircraft named Samolyot 145 (Aeroplane 145), derived from the Tupolev Tu-22, with some features borrowed from the abortive Tu-98. The Tu-22M was based on the Tu-22's weapon system and used its Kh-22 missile. The Tu-22M designation was used to help get approval for the bomber within the Soviet military and government system.[10]

The Tu-22M designation was used by the Soviet Union during the SALT II arms control negotiations, creating the impression that it was a modification of the Tu-22. Some suggested that the designation was deliberately deceptive, and intended to hide the Tu-22M's performance. Other sources suggest the "deception" was internal to make it easier to get budgets approved. According to some sources, the Backfire-B/C production variants were believed to be designated Tu-26 by Russia, although this is disputed by many others. The US State and Defense Departments have used the Tu-22M designation for the Backfire.[11]

Production of all Tu-22M variants totalled 497 including pre-production aircraft.[2]

ModernizationEdit

An initial attempt at modernizing the Tu-22M, Adaptation-45.03M, based around modernising the aircraft's radar, began in 1990, but was abandoned before reaching production.[12] In 2007, work began on a new radar for the Tu-22M, the NV-45, which was first flown on a Tu-22M in 2008, with four more repaired Tu-22Ms refitted with NV-45 radars in 2014–2015.[13]

A contract for a full mid-life upgrade, the Tu-22M3M was signed in September 2014. The aircraft is to receive a further modified NV-45M radar, together with new navigation equipment and a modified flight control system. A new self-defense electronic radar suite is fitted, replacing the tail gun of the existing Tu-22M3. Much of the new avionics are shared with the upgraded Tu-160M2.[14][15] Armament is planned to be enhanced by adding the new Kh-32 missile, a heavily modified version of the current Kh-22, the subsonic Kh-SD, the hypersonic Kh-MT, or the Kh-47M2 Kinzhal missiles.[13][16] Deliveries of the Tu-22M3M are expected to begin in 2021.[12]

A separate, simpler, upgrade program (SVP-24-22) is being carried out by the company Gefest & T, based on avionics developed for the Sukhoi Su-24 attack aircraft, including a new computer, a new navigation system and digital processing for the aircraft's radar. The upgrade is claimed to greatly increase navigation accuracy and bomb delivery. A SVP-24-22-equipped Tu-22M underwent trials in 2009, and the program has been ordered into production, with deliveries from 2012.[13]

Operational historyEdit

Soviet UnionEdit

 
Soviet Tu-22M Backfire-B bomber aircraft is escorted by an F-14A Tomcat aircraft.

The two prototypes Tu-22M(0) were delivered to Long Range Aviation's 42nd Combat Training Centre at Dyagilevo (air base), near Ryazan, in February 1973. The aircraft began practice sorties in March. Within 20 days of the aircraft's delivery, the air and ground crew at the air base had received their type ratings; this was helped by their earlier training at Tupolev, the Gromov Flight Research Institute and the Kazan plant.[17] In June that year, the aircraft were demonstrated to Soviet government officials, destroying tanks and armoured personnel carriers.[17]

The Tu-22M was first unveiled in 1980 during the aircraft's participation in a major Warsaw Pact exercise. During the exercise, naval Tu-22M2s conducted anti-ship operations by mining parts of the Baltic Sea to simulate an amphibious landing. The exercise was extensively covered by the press and TV media.[18][19] In June 1981, four Tu-22Ms were intercepted and photographed by Norwegian aircraft flying over the Norwegian Sea.[20]

The first simulated attack by the Tu-22M against a NATO carrier group occurred between 30 September and 1 October 1982. Eight aircraft locked onto the U.S. task forces of USS Enterprise and USS Midway which were operating in the North Pacific. They came within 120 mi (200 km) of the task forces. The reaction of the U.S. Navy was thought to have been restrained during this event so as to allow the observation of the Tu-22M's tactics.[21] The bomber also made attempts to test Japan's air defense boundary on several occasions.

The Tu-22M was first used in combat in Afghanistan. It was deployed December 1987 to January 1988, during which the aircraft flew strike missions in support of the Soviet Army's attempt to relieve the Mujahideens' siege against the city of Khost. Two squadrons of aircraft from the 185th GvBAP based at Poltava were deployed to Maryy-2 air base in Turkmenistan. Capable of dropping large tonnages of conventional ordnance, the aircraft bombed enemy forts, bases and material supplies.[22] In October 1988, the aircraft was again deployed against the Mujahideen. Sixteen Tu-22M3s were used to provide cover to Soviet forces that were pulling out of the country. The Tu-22Ms were tasked with destroying paths of access to Soviet forces, attacking enemy forces at night to prevent regrouping, and to attack incoming supplies from Iran and Pakistan. Working alongside 30 newly arrived MiG-27s, the aircraft also flew missions aimed at relieving the besieged city of Kandahar.[23][24] The aircraft had its last Afghan operation in January 1989 at Salang pass.[25]

The Tu-22M suffered from widespread maintenance issues during its service with the Soviet forces. These stemmed from poor manufacturing quality. The engines and airframes in particular had low service lives.[26] The Air Force at one point sought to prosecute Tupolev for allegedly rushing the inadequate designs of the Tu-22M and the Tu-160 into service.[27] This was compounded by the government bureaucracy, which hampered the provision of spare parts to allow the servicing of the Tu-22M. With some aircraft grounded for up to six months, the mission-capable rate of the aircraft in August 1991 was around 30–40%.[26][28]

RussiaEdit

At the time of the dissolution of the Soviet Union, 370 remained in Commonwealth of Independent States service. Production ended in 1993.

The Russian Federation used the Tu-22M3 in combat in Chechnya during 1995, performing strikes near Grozny.[2]

In August 2007, the Tu-22M and the Tu-95 began conducting long-range patrolling, for the first time since 1992.[29][30]

The Russian military acknowledged the loss of a Tu-22MR recon aircraft to Georgian air defences early in the 2008 South Ossetia war.[31][32] One of its crew members was captured (Major Vyacheslav Malkov), two others were killed and the crew commander, Lt. Col. Aleksandr Koventsov, was missing in action[33] as late as November 2011.[34]

 
Tupolev Tu-22M3 at Ryazan Dyagilevo

On Good Friday night, 29 March 2013, two Tu-22M3 bombers were flying in international airspace in a simulated attack on Sweden. The Swedish air defense failed to respond.[35][36] Two Tu-22Ms flew supersonic over the Baltic Sea on 24 March 2015.[37] Two Tu-22Ms approached Öland in international airspace on 21 May 2015. The Swedish Air Force sent two Saab JAS 39 Gripen fighters to mark their presence.[38] On 4 July 2015, two Tu-22Ms approached the Swedish island of Gotland without violating its airspace, followed by Swedish and other fighter aircraft.[39]

In 2014, Russian aerospace expert Piotr Butowski estimated there were seven squadrons of Tu-22Ms in service, each with approximately 10 aircraft, stationed at three airbases; 40 at Belaya airbase in southeastern Siberia, 28 at Shaykovka airbase southwest of Moscow, and 10 at Dyagilevo airbase in Ryazan southeast of Moscow which serves as the training unit for the bomber. With the deletion of the aircraft's in-flight refueling capability due to the START I treaty, the Tu-22M's internal fuel capacity limits its operational range (combat radius unrefueled: 4,000–5,000 km (DIA), 3,360–3,960 km (CIA) estimate)[40] from its home bases to only around Russia's immediate sphere of influence.[41]

On 17 November 2015, as part of its air campaign in Syria, Russia used 12 Tu-22M3 bombers to hit targets in Syria, along with cruise missiles fired from the Mediterranean and Tu-95 and Tu-160 strategic bombers.[42][43] 22–31 January 2016, Tu-22M3s reportedly conducted 42 sorties performing airstrikes in the vicinity of Deir ez-Zor city.[44][45] On the morning of 12 July 2016, six Tu-22M3 bombers carried out a concentrated attack using high-explosive ammunition on Daesh targets east of Palmyra, Al-Sukhnah and Arak.[46] On 14 July, six Tu-22M3 bombers having taken off from their base airfields in Russia delivered another massive strike on the newly detected IS facilities in the areas east of Palmyra, as well as in Al-Sukhnah, Arak and the T-3 oil pumping station in the province of Homs.[47] New raids were conducted on 21 July,[48] 8 August,[49] 11 August,[50] 14 August[51] 2016.

On 16 August 2016, the bombers began to fly missions in Syria using Iran's Hamedan Airbase.[52]

Since late January 2017, six Tu-22M3s resumed airstrikes in the area of Deir ez-zor to prevent capture of the city by jihadists and again in late 2017 to support government offensive.[53][54][55]

ExportEdit

 
Closeup of the proprietary refuelling probe on the Tu-22M's nose

The Tupolev company has sought export customers for the Tu-22M since 1992, with possible customers including Iran, India and the People's Republic of China, but no sales have apparently been made. Unlike the Tu-22 bomber, Tu-22Ms were not exported to Middle East countries that were threatened by the US military presence in the region.[56] During 2001, India signed a lease-to-buy contract for four Tu-22M aircraft for maritime reconnaissance and strike purposes. At the time, the aircraft were expected to be delivered with Raduga Kh-22 cruise missiles.[57][58][59] The aircraft were not delivered to India.[citation needed]

In January 2013, reports emerged that China had signed a purchase agreement for the production and delivery of 36 Tu-22M3s, under the Chinese designation of H-10, with many components to be manufactured domestically in China under a technology transfer agreement with Russia and Tupolev.[60] Sales of the Russian-built Raduga Kh-22 long-range anti-ship missile and the fleet's intended use as a maritime strike platform have also been speculated upon.[61] Rosoboronexport has reportedly denied any sales or negotiations with China regarding the Tu-22M.[62]

VariantsEdit

 
Earliest Tu-22M(0) modification
 
Tu-22M2 modification
 
A Ukrainian Air Force Tu-22M3 at SIAD 2002 Air Show, Bratislava, Slovakia
Tu-22M(0)
Earliest pre-production variant, 9 were produced.
Tu-22M1
Pilot-production aircraft, 9 were produced in 1971 and 1972. Its NATO reporting name was Backfire-A.
Tu-22M2
The first major production version, entering production in 1972, was the Tu-22M2 (NATO: Backfire-B), with longer wings and an extensively redesigned, area ruled fuselage (raising the crew complement to four), twin NK-22 engines (215 kN thrust each) with F-4 Phantom II-style intake ramps, and new undercarriage with the main landing gear in the wing glove rather than in large pods. 211 Tu-22M2 were built from 1972 into 1983.[63] The Tu-22M2 had a top speed of Mach 1.65 and was armed most commonly with long-range cruise missiles/anti-ship missiles, typically one or two Raduga Kh-22 anti-shipping missiles.[63] Some Tu-22M2s were later reequipped with more powerful NK-23 engines and redesignated Tu-22M2Ye.
Tu-22M3
The later Tu-22M3 (NATO: Backfire-C), which first flew in 1977, introduced into operation in 1983[63] and officially entered service in 1989,[64] had new NK-25 engines with substantially more power, wedge-shaped intake ramps similar to the MiG-25, wings with greater maximum sweep and a recontoured nose housing a new Almaz PNA (Planeta Nositel, izdeliye 030A) navigation/attack (NATO ‘Down Beat’)[65] radar and NK-45 nav/attack system, which provides much-improved low-altitude flight. The aerodynamic changes increased its top speed to Mach 2.05 and its range by one third compared to the Tu-22M2.[63] It has a revised tail turret with a single cannon, and provision for an internal rotary launcher for the Raduga Kh-15 missile, similar to the American AGM-69 SRAM. It was nicknamed Troika ('Trio' or third) in Russian service. 268 were built until 1993.[66][67][63]
As built, the Tu-22M included the provision for a retractable probe in the upper part of the nose for aerial refueling. The probe was reportedly removed as a result of the SALT negotiations, because with refueling it was considered an intercontinental range strategic bomber.[68] The probe can be reinstated if needed.[2][69]
Tu-22M3s used to attack targets in Syria underwent modernization, during which the SVP-24-22 specialized computing subsystems were installed on them, significantly increased the accuracy of the bombing.[70]
Tu-22M4
The development of the "Izdeliye 4510" began in 1983. Modernization with the installation of new engines NK-32 (from Tu-160) and with a change in engine air intakes. Modernization of avionics by installing a new PNK, radar "Overview" (from Tu-160), EW complex. Expansion of the range of weapons: 3 Kh-32 or 10 X-15 (with placement on 6 internal and 4 external points of suspension) or UPAB-1500 with a television guidance system. In 1990, a prototype was built at the Kazan aircraft factory. Works in this direction were discontinued in November 1991. The prototype aircraft No. 4504 is in the museum exposition of the AB Dyagilevo.[71]
Tu-22MR
Several Tu-22M3s, perhaps 12, were converted to Tu-22M3(R) or Tu-22MR standard with Shompol side looking airborne radar and other ELINT equipment.[2]
Tu-22DP
Tu-22DP (Dal'nego Perekhvata, long-range interception)/ DP-1 is a long-range interceptor project based on the Tu-22M2 (later on the basis of the Tu-22M3). R & D was conducted by the AN Tupolev Design Bureau together with GosNIIAS. It was assumed that the DP could carry and strike weapons.[71]
Tu-344
A canceled civilian supersonic aircraft based on the Tu-22M3, designed to carry 10–12 passengers. Developed by Tupolev Design Bureau (ANTK named after A. Tupolev) within the framework of conversion program in the second half of the 1990s.[72] The development of the aircraft began in the 1990s with the emergence of interest and demand for supersonic business jets (SBJ). Since the creation of an aircraft from scratch requires a large investment, Tupolev Design Bureau decided to create an SBJ-class aircraft based on Tu-22M3. However, the project proved to be unpromising at the time, as the aircraft was supposed to be used internationally, but did not meet international environmental standards of the day.[73][74]
Tu-22M3 SVP-24-22
Modernized Tu-22M3 of the Russian Air Force fitted with a new sighting and computing system SVP-24-22 Gefest, instead of the NK-45 Vachta-2 complex. The SVP-24-22 includes new more powerful onboard computer SV-24, UVV-MP-22 input-output device, flight information generation unit – BFI, aviation collimator indicator KAI-24, radio navigation system SRNS-24 with the A737 satellite receiver and the solid-state information storage device TBN-K-2 to save data of the navigation-targeting complex SVP-24 and of the flight recorder. 5 modernized aircraft entered service in 2015,[75][76][77] 2 in 2017,[78][79] 1 in 2018,[80] and 1 in 2019.[81]
Tu-22M3M
Tu-22M3 for the Russian Air Force with engines from Tu-160M2 (NK-32-02), 80 percent of avionics are replaced or upgraded,[82] including SVP-24-22 bombsights, a phased array NV-45 radar, GLONASS navigation system, modern digital glass cockpit and engine controls, electronic warfare countermeasures,[82][83], and the ability to use precision air-to-surface weapons. The Russian Ministry of Defense intends to upgrade up to 30 aircraft out of approximately 60 Tu-22M3s currently in service to the advanced Tu-22M3M variant.[84][85] Can carry 3 Kh-32[86] or 4 Kh-47M2 Kinzhal missiles.[16] Service life will be extended to 40–45 years.[87] On 16 August 2018, the first modernized aircraft was unveiled during a roll-out ceremony at the Kazan Aviation Plant.[88] It performed its maiden flight on 28 December 2018.[89]

OperatorsEdit

 
Tu-22M3 in Russian Air Force's service
  Russia

Former operatorsEdit

  Russia
  Soviet Union
  Ukraine
 
A Ukrainian Tu-22M3 is dismantled in 2002 through assistance provided by the Cooperative Threat Reduction Program implemented by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.

Accidents and incidentsEdit

  • On 9 August 2008, a Tu-22MR was shot down in South Ossettia by the Buk-M1 surface-to-air-missile system during the 5 day Russo-Georgian War. Three of the four crew members were killed.[103]
  • On 16 September 2017, a Tu-22M3 overran the runway at Shaykovka Air Base due to an aborted take off. The aircraft was written off. All four crew members survived without injury.[104]
  • On 22 January 2019, a Tu-22M3 crash-landed after a training flight while attempting to make a landing at the Olenya (air base) near the city of Olenegorsk in Russia's Murmansk region. Three of the four crew members died in the crash.[105] A video shows the aircraft making a hard landing, which instantly ruptured the airframe and detached the forward cockpit area.[106]

Specifications (Tu-22M3)Edit

 
Orthographic projection of the Tupolev Tu-22M
 
1 × 23 mm GSh-23 cannon in remotely controlled tail turret
 
18 × FAB-500 general-purpose bomb on two fuselage mounted pylons
 
A Raduga Kh-22 anti-ship missile under a Tu-22M3


Data from Frawley,[107] Donald,[108] Wilson[109]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 4 (pilot, co-pilot, navigator, weapon systems officer)
  • Length: 42.4 m (139 ft 4 in)
  • Wingspan: ** Spread (20° sweep): 34.28 m (112 ft 6 in)
    • Swept (65° sweep): 23.30 m (76 ft 6 in)
  • Height: 11.05 m (36 ft 3 in)
  • Wing area: ** Spread: 183.6 m² (1,976 ft²)
    • Swept: 175.8 m² (1,892 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 58,000 kg (128,000 lb)
  • Loaded weight: 112,000 kg (246,000 lb)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 124,000 kg (273,000 lb) ; 126,400 kg (278,700 lb) for rocket assisted TO
  • Fuel capacity: 54,000 kg (118,800 lb) internally
  • Powerplant: 2 × Kuznetsov NK-25 turbofans, 247.9 kN (55,100 lbf) each

Performance

Armament

  • Guns: 1 × 23-mm GSh-23 cannon in remotely controlled tail turret
  • Hardpoints: wing and fuselage pylons and internal weapons bay with a capacity of 24,000 kg (53,000 lb) of
  • Up to 3 × Kh-22/Kh-32 missiles in weapons bay and on wing pylons or
  • Up to 6 × Kh-15 missiles on a MKU-6-1 rotary launcher in its bomb bay, plus 4 × Raduga Kh-15 missiles on two underwing pylons for a total of 10 missiles per aircraft.
  • Up to 4 × Kh-47M2 Kinzhal[110]
  • Various sea mines[111] and freefall bombs – 69 × FAB-250 or 8 × FAB-1500 might be typical.

The Kh-55 (AS-15 Kent) long-range cruise missile was tested on the Tu-22M[112] but apparently not used in service.

Notable appearances in mediaEdit

See alsoEdit

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ Ту-22М (Ту-22М2/Ту-22МЗ) -дальний бомбардировщик [Tu-22 m (Tu-22 m 2/TU-22mz)-long-range bomber]. Oaokapo.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 31 July 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d e Goebel, Greg. "The Tupolev Tu-22 "Blinder" & Tu-22M 'Backfire'". Vectorsite.net. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012.[self-published source?]
  3. ^ Hoyle, Craig (26 September 2014). "Kings of the swingers: Top 13 swing-wing aircraft". Flightglobal.com. Archived from the original on 27 September 2014. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
  4. ^ Dr Carlo Kopp, AFAIAA, SMIEEE, PEng. "Tupolev Tu-22M3 Backfire C Bomber - Missile Carrier / Туполев Ту-22M3 Бомбардировщик-ракетоносец". Ausairpower.net. Archived from the original on 2019-01-26. Retrieved 2019-02-02.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. ^ a b Kandalov & Duffy 1996, p. 124.
  6. ^ a b Gordon, Rigmant & Komissarov 1999, p. 51.
  7. ^ Gordon, Rigmant & Komissarov 1999, pp. 51–52.
  8. ^ Gordon, Rigmant & Komissarov 1999, p. 52.
  9. ^ Kandalov & Duffy 1996, p. 158.
  10. ^ Eden, Paul, ed. Tupolev Tu-22/22M". Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft. London: Amber Books, 2004. ISBN 1-904687-84-9.
  11. ^ "Tu-22M BACKFIRE (TUPOLEV)". Fas.org. Archived from the original on 7 December 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  12. ^ a b Butowski 2019, p. 46
  13. ^ a b c Butowski 2019, p. 47
  14. ^ Butowski 2019, pp. 46–47
  15. ^ "Источник: проектирование новой версии Ту-22М3 завершено" [Source: the design of the new version of the Tu-22M3 completed]. TASS. 17 November 2017. Archived from the original on 23 January 2019. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  16. ^ a b "Бомбардировщики Ту-22М3 вооружат гиперзвуковыми ракетами "Кинжал"". Ria.ru. 2 July 2018. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  17. ^ a b Gordon, Rigmant & Komissarov 1999, p. 81.
  18. ^ Gordon, Rigmant & Komissarov 1999, p. 82.
  19. ^ "Military Exercises on Soviet-Bloc TV". New York Times. 14 September 1980. p. A5.
  20. ^ "Soviet planes photographed". The Globe and Mail. 15 June 1981. p. 14.
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  22. ^ Gordon, Rigmant & Komissarov 1999, pp. 83–84.
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  24. ^ Moseley, Ray (2 November 1988). "Soviets Add Missiles in Afghan War". Chicago Tribune. p. 16.
  25. ^ Gordon, Rigmant & Komissarov 1999, p. 84.
  26. ^ a b Velovich, Alexander (7–13 August 1991). "Spares deficit grounds Tu-22s" (PDF). Flight International. London, UK: Reed Business Information. 140 (4279): 17. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 August 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
  27. ^ Velovich, Alexander (6–12 November 1991). "Soviet AF wanted Tupolev prosecuted over Blackjack". Flight International. London, UK: Reed Business Information. 140 (4292): 21. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 3 August 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
  28. ^ "BACKFIRE BOMBERS IN CHINA" (PDF). Dtic.mil. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  29. ^ Kramer, Andrew E. "Russia Resumes Patrols by Nuclear Bombers". Archived 2017-06-26 at the Wayback Machine The New York Times, 17 August 2007. Retrieved: 17 July 2010.
  30. ^ Sekretarev, Ivan (18 August 2007). "Russia starts Soviet-style bomber patrols". Winnipeg Free Press. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 24 June 2015 – via HighBeam Research.
  31. ^ Генштаб признал потерю двух самолетов в Южной Осетии [The General staff acknowledged the loss of two aircraft in South Ossetia]. Lenta.ru (in Russian). 9 August 2008. Archived from the original on 11 August 2008. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
  32. ^ Chang, Felix K. (13 August 2008). "Russia Resurgent: An Initial Look at Russian Military Performance in Georgia". Archived from the original on 14 October 2008. Retrieved 7 October 2008.
  33. ^ Маленькая бедоносная война [Little bedonosnaâ war] (in Russian). Moskovskij Komsomolets. 7 August 2009. Archived from the original on 11 August 2009. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
  34. ^ "RUSSIA/GEORGIA – Remains handed over by Georgia not of downed Russian pilot – source". Wikileaks.org. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
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  42. ^ "Russian Warplanes Destroy 140 Terrorist Targets in Syria". Sputnik. 17 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
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External linksEdit