Severomorsk (Russian: Северомо́рск), previously known as Vayenga (Ваенга), is a closed town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. Severomorsk is the main administrative base of the Russian Northern Fleet. The town is located on the coast of the Barents Sea along the Kola Bay 25 kilometers (16 mi) northeast of Murmansk, the administrative centre of the oblast, to which it is connected by railway and a motorway.
View of the Kola Bay in Severomorsk
|Federal subject||Murmansk Oblast|
|Town status since||April 18, 1951|
|• Mayor||Alexander Abramov|
|• Total||60 km2 (20 sq mi)|
|Elevation||31 m (102 ft)|
| • Estimate |
|• Rank||319th in 2010|
|• Density||830/km2 (2,200/sq mi)|
|• Subordinated to||closed administrative-territorial formation of Severomorsk|
|• Capital of||closed administrative-territorial formation of Severomorsk|
|• Urban okrug||Severomorsk Urban Okrug|
|• Capital of||Severomorsk Urban Okrug|
|Time zone||UTC+3 (MSK )|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 81537|
|Twin towns||Tervola, Kemi, Sør-Varanger, Grozny|
It was previously known as Vayenga (until April 18, 1951).
The first settlement on the site of the modern city arose between 1896 and 1897. It was named Vayenga (Ваенга), after the river, the name of which itself comes from the Sami "vayongg", meaning "doe" or "reindeer". In 1917, only thirteen people lived in the settlement, who engaged in hunting, fishing and animal husbandry.
The founding of the Northern Fleet BaseEdit
In 1926, the Murmansk office of logging was founded, one of the artels of which was sent to Vayenga. A barracks, a dormitory, and a banya were built, and a telephone line was laid through the village. In 1933, the bay was chosen as one of the bases for the newly created Northern Fleet.  From 1934 and until the beginning of World War II, wooden and brick buildings, as well as military installations, were built in the settlement, and a naval aviation airfield was built in the neighbouring bay. From August 1941, all construction was suspended. The airfield was used by the British; namely No. 151 Wing RAF to protect the Arctic Convoys before their fighters were later handed over to the Soviet Air Forces.
After the end of the war, construction was resumed. Vayenga, taking into account the existing arrangement, was chosen as one of the main bases of the Northern Fleet. On September 1, 1947, staff and management of the Northern Fleet were relocated from Polyarny to Vayenga. Also in 1947, the first secondary school in the city was opened. The population of Vayenga was then 3,884. In 1948, Vayenga's village Soviet of deputies of workers was opened.
On April 18, 1951, Vayenga received town status and was renamed to Severomorsk, from the Russian "sever" (север), meaning "north", and "more" (море), meaning "sea". By the 1960s, the city was already thoroughly equipped. The city had its own bakery, sausage factory, and soft drink bottling plant, and a swimming pool was being built. On November 26, 1996, by the decree of the President of Russia, the city of Severomorsk, as a major naval base, was converted into a closed city. Settlements that have been merged into it include Safonovo, Roslyakovo, Safonovo-1, Severomorsk-3, and Shchukozero.
Geography and climateEdit
Severomorsk has a cold sea climate, with relatively mild winters and cool summers. The average temperature in January is -8 °C and 12 °C in July. The average precipitation is around 800 mm per year.
As of 2016, the population of Severomorsk has reached 50,905.
- The Monument to the Heroes of Severomorsk, the defenders of the Arctic. More commonly known as the "monument to Alyosha", it is considered to be the symbol of the city. It is a figure of a sailor with an automatic rifle in his hands. It is 15 meters tall and stands on a 10-meter tall pedestal in the form of a submarine. It was created by the sculptors Georgy and Yury Neroda, and the architects V. Dushkin and A. Shashkov. Installed on Maritime Square on June 10, 1973.
- The Monument to the Heroes of the artillery 221-A of the Red Banner Northern Fleet battery. One of the most famous monuments in the city, it is a 130mm ship weapon on a concrete pedestal. It was created by the architects A. Shashkov, T. Shashkova, A. Weisman, and E. Panteleymonov. Installed on North Hill on Maritime Square on November 6, 1961.
- The Monument to the aviators of Severomorsk, "Aircraft IL-4". The plane was found in the hills by a search party, was brought back to the city, and was then restored over the course of a year. It was created by the architects G. Yevdokimova and S. Bachurin, and the engineer A. Strashny. Installed on Courage Square on July 26, 1981.
- The Memorial to the citizens of Severomorsk who did not return from the war. A monument in the form of an MT-LB armoured vehicle, it is dedicated to the soldiers killed in action in Afghanistan and the North Caucasus region. Installed on Courage Square on 19 July 2013, next to the "Aircraft IL-4".
- The Monument to the "Torpedo boat TKA-12". In the Great Patriotic War, this boat was commanded by the twice Hero of the Soviet Union Alexander Shabalin. It was created by the architects V. Alekseev and V. Gopak, and the engineer A. Strashny. Installed on Courage Square on July 31, 1983.
- Bust of the twice Hero of the Soviet Union Boris Safonov. Created by the sculptor E. Kitaychuk and the architect A. Shashkov. Installed on Safonov Square in 1967.
- Bust of the Hero of the Russian Federation Timur Apakidze. Created by the local artists S. Abarina and P. Abarin, and the main engineer of the project, A. Rechits. Installed on Safonovo Square in July 2003.
- The Museum of Severomorsk's and the Navy's History. Opened by the Severomorsk administration in October 1996 on Safonov street.
- Museum "Submarine K-21". A branch of the Naval Museum of the Northern Fleet. Opened in July 1983 on Courage Square.
The representative bodies of the local self-government are the City Council of Deputies. The mayor of Severomorsk is Alexander Abramov.
Since 1991, the executive power has been headed by Vitaly Voloshin. In the spring of 2011, he was approved to the post of the Head of Administration of Severomorsk. Since April 16, 2013, the position is occupied by Irina Norina.
Administrative and municipal statusEdit
Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with the urban-type settlement of Safonovo and two rural localities, incorporated as the closed administrative-territorial formation of Severomorsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the closed administrative-territorial formation of Severomorsk is incorporated as Severomorsk Urban Okrug.
Most of Severomorsk's industry is related to food, particularly the Severmorsk Dairy Plant, and the Toni Bottling Plant. There are also construction and shipyard companies, and a developed infrastructure of housing and communal and consumer services, as well as trade.
On May 13, 1984, on the outskirts of Severomorsk, there was a major fire at a stockpile of naval missiles that resulted in numerous large explosions on May 17. The incident killed 200–300 people and destroyed at least one-third of the Northern Fleet's stockpile of surface-to-air missiles.
- Alexander Moiseenko, Ukrainian chess Grandmaster, born in Severomorsk in 1980.
- Boris Safonov, Soviet Naval Aviation fighter ace of World War II, served at Vaenga from 1940 until his death in 1942.
- Elena Vaenga (real name, Elena Vladimirovna Khrulyova), singer, songwriter and actress, born in Severomorsk in 1977.
- Lesya Yaroslavskaya, pop singer, born in Severomorsk in 1981.
- Law #96-01-ZMO
- Administrative-Territorial Division of Murmansk Oblast, pp. 54–58
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
- "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
- Law #530-01-ZMO
- "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
- Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
- "The history of the city of Severomorsk". severomorsk.murman.ru. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- Hill, Alexander (2007). "Russian and Soviet Naval Power and the Arctic from the XVI Century to the Beginning of the Great Patriotic War". The Journal of Slavic Military Studies. 20 (3).
- Including the cities and towns of Crimea, see Political status of Crimea
- "The population of the Russian Federation by municipality. Table "29. The cities' and towns' population by federal district and subject of the Russian Federation as of 1 January 2015". RAR archive (0.9 MB)".
- "Статистический сборник Численность, размещение и возрастно-половой состав населения Мурманской области. Итоги Всероссийской переписи населения. Том 1. 2012 / Федеральная служба государственной статистики, Территориальный орган Федеральной службы государственной статистики по Мурманской области. Мурманск, 2012 — 75 с." Archived from the original on December 22, 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Численность населения Мурманской области по полу на 14 октября 2010 года". Демоскоп Weekly. Retrieved April 28, 2013.
- "preliminary population at the beginning of 2016 and the average for 2015 in the murmansk oblast (by oblast, municipality, city, and urban township)".
- "Severomorsk Landmarks".
- "The opening of the MT-LB monument".
- "Soviets claim ignorance in munitions depot blast," New York Times News Service, June 23, 1984. Available online at: Google Newspapers.
- "Soviet northern fleet 'disabled'," Associated Press, July 10, 1984. Available online at: Google Newspapers.
- Wayne D. LeBaron, America's Nuclear Legacy: The Dark Age of Egalita (Commack, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 1998), page 193.
- GlobalSecurity.org: Severomorsk
- Derek Wood (July 14, 1984) "Soviets' northern fleet disabled... 'not viable' for six months," Jane's Defence Weekly, 2(1) : 3.
- Derek Wood (July 14, 1984) "Six explosions in the past seven months," Jane's Defence Weekly, 2(1) : 3.
- Mark Daly (August 18, 1984) "Goa and Goblet SAMs in Severomorsk explosion," Jane's Defence Weekly, 2(6) : 224.
- John Moore (August 18, 1984) "The aftermath of Severomorsk," Jane's Defence Weekly, 2(6) : 224.
- Мурманская областная Дума. Закон №96-01-ЗМО от 6 января 1998 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Мурманской области», в ред. Закона №1953-01-ЗМО от 24 декабря 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Мурманской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Мурманской области"». Опубликован: "Мурманский Вестник", №10, стр. 3, 16 января 1998 г. (Murmansk Oblast Duma. Law #96-01-ZMO of January 6, 1998 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Murmansk Oblast, as amended by the Law #1953-01-ZMO of December 24, 2015 On Amending the Law of Murmansk Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Murmansk Oblast". ).
- Мурманская областная Дума. Закон №530-01-ЗМО от 2 декабря 2004 г. «О наделении статусом городского округа закрытых административно-территориальных образований Мурманской области», в ред. Закона №1812-01-ЗМО от 19 декабря 2014 г. «Об упразднении населённого пункта Мурманской области и о внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Мурманской области». Вступил в силу 1 января 2005 г. Опубликован: "Мурманский Вестник", №234, стр. 3, 7 декабря 2004 г. (Murmansk Oblast Duma. Law #530-01-ZMO of December 2, 2004 On Granting Urban Okrug Status to the Closed Administrative-Territorial Formations of Murmansk Oblast, as amended by the Law #1812-01-ZMO of December 19, 2014 On Abolishing an Inhabited Locality in Murmansk Oblast and on Amending Various Legislative Acts of Murmansk Oblast. Effective as of January 1, 2005.).
- Архивный отдел Администрации Мурманской области. Государственный Архив Мурманской области. (1995). Административно-территориальное деление Мурманской области (1920–1993 гг.). Справочник. Мурманск: Мурманское издательско-полиграфическое предприятие "Север".
- Президиум Верховного Совета РСФСР. Указ №741/18 от 9 июля 1960 г. «Об упразднении Полярного района, объединении Североморского городского и Териберского районного советов и переименовании Териберского района Мурманской области». Опубликован: "Ведомости ВС РСФСР", №25, ст. 371, 1960. (Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR. Decree #741/18 of July 9, 1960 On the Abolition of Polyarny District, the Merger of Severomorsk Town Soviet and Teribersky District Soviet, and the Renaming of Teribersky District of Murmansk Oblast. ).
- Мурманская областная Дума. Закон №1812-01-ЗМО от 19 декабря 2014 г. «Об упразднении населённого пункта Мурманской области и о внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Мурманской области». Вступил в силу 1 января 2015 г. Опубликован: "Мурманский Вестник", №246–247, с. 56, 25 декабря 2014 г. (Murmansk Oblast Duma. Law #1812-01-ZMO of December 19, 2014 On Abolishing an Inhabited Locality in Murmansk Oblast and on Amending Various Legislative Acts of Murmansk Oblast. Effective as of January 1, 2015.).