The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back (also known as Star Wars: Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back) is a 1980 American epic space-opera film directed by Irvin Kershner. Leigh Brackett and Lawrence Kasdan wrote the screenplay, with George Lucas writing the film's story and serving as executive producer. It was produced by Gary Kurtz for Lucasfilm and stars Mark Hamill, Harrison Ford, Carrie Fisher, Billy Dee Williams, Anthony Daniels, David Prowse, Kenny Baker, Peter Mayhew, and Frank Oz. It is the middle installment of the original Star Wars trilogy, and the fifth episode in the nine-part 'Skywalker saga' (albeit being the second released).
|The Empire Strikes Back|
Theatrical release poster by Roger Kastel
|Directed by||Irvin Kershner|
|Produced by||Gary Kurtz|
|Story by||George Lucas|
|Music by||John Williams|
|Distributed by||20th Century Fox|
|Box office||$538.4 million|
After the success of the original Star Wars film, Lucas hired Leigh Brackett to write the sequel, before personally outlining the saga as a whole and finishing the film's script himself. The story follows the Galactic Empire, under the leadership of the villainous Darth Vader and the mysterious Emperor, in pursuit of Luke Skywalker and the rest of the Rebel Alliance. While Vader relentlessly pursues Luke's friends—Han Solo, Princess Leia, and others—Luke studies the Force under Jedi Master Yoda. When Vader captures Luke's friends, Luke must decide whether to complete his training and become a Jedi Knight or to confront Vader and save them.
Following a difficult production, The Empire Strikes Back was released on May 21, 1980. It received mixed reviews from critics initially but has since grown in esteem, becoming the most critically acclaimed film in the Star Wars franchise; it is now widely regarded as one of the greatest films of all time. It became the highest-grossing film of 1980 and, to date, has earned more than $538 million worldwide from its original run and several re-releases. When adjusted for inflation, it is the second-highest-grossing sequel of all time and the 13th-highest-grossing film in North America. The film was followed by Return of the Jedi, which was released in 1983.
- 1 Plot
- 2 Cast
- 3 Production
- 4 Themes
- 5 Releases
- 6 Reception
- 7 Soundtrack
- 8 Other media
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Three years after the destruction of the Death Star, the Rebel Alliance, led by Princess Leia, has set up a new base on the ice planet of Hoth. The Imperial fleet, led by Darth Vader, continues to hunt for the new Rebel base by dispatching probe droids across the galaxy. Luke Skywalker is captured by a wampa while investigating one such probe, but manages to escape from the wampa's lair by using the Force and his lightsaber. Before Luke succumbs to hypothermic sleep, the Force spirit of his deceased mentor, Obi-Wan Kenobi, instructs him to go to Dagobah to train under Jedi Master Yoda. Han Solo locates Luke, and the two are rescued by a search party the next morning.
Meanwhile, the probe alerts the Imperial fleet to the Rebels' location. The Empire launches a large-scale attack using AT-AT walkers to capture the base, which forces the Rebels to evacuate. Han and Leia escape with C-3PO and Chewbacca on the Millennium Falcon, but the ship's hyperdrive malfunctions. They hide in an asteroid field, where Han and Leia grow closer amidst tension and briefly kiss. Several bounty hunters, summoned by Vader, assist in finding the Falcon. Meanwhile, Luke, travels with R2-D2 in his X-wing fighter to the swamp planet of Dagobah, where he crash-lands. He meets a diminutive creature who reveals himself to be Yoda; after conferring with Obi-Wan's spirit, Yoda reluctantly accepts Luke as his student. Luke learns more about the Force from Yoda, and the Jedi master lifts his X-wing out of the swamp.
After evading the Imperial fleet, Han's group travels to the floating Cloud City on the gas planet of Bespin, which is run by Han's old friend, Lando Calrissian. Unbeknownst to the group, the bounty hunter Boba Fett has tracked the Falcon. Shortly after their arrival, Lando betrays the group to Darth Vader, who plans to use the group as bait to lure out Luke, intending to capture him and turn him to the dark side. Luke experiences a premonition of Han and Leia in pain and, against the wishes of Yoda and Obi-Wan, abandons his training to go rescue them.
Intending to hold Luke in suspended animation by imprisoning him in carbonite, Vader selects Han to be frozen as a test subject. Han survives the process and is given to Fett, who plans to collect the bounty on him from Jabba the Hutt. Lando, experiencing a change of heart, frees Leia and Chewbacca, but they are too late to stop Fett from departing with Solo aboard. They fight their way back to the Falcon and flee the city. Meanwhile, Luke arrives and engages Vader in a lightsaber duel that leads them over the city's central air shaft. Vader severs Luke's right hand, disarming him, and tempts him to join the dark side. Luke accuses Vader of murdering his father, but Vader reveals that he is Luke's father. Disbelieving, Luke drops into the air shaft and is ejected beneath the floating city, where he hangs from an antenna. He reaches out telepathically to Leia, who senses him and persuades Lando and Chewie to turn back. After Luke is brought aboard, they are chased by TIE fighters towards Vader on his Star Destroyer, but R2-D2 reactivates the Falcon's hyperdrive, allowing them to escape.
Rejoined with the Rebel fleet, Luke's severed hand is replaced with a robotic hand. Lando and Chewbacca depart in the Falcon to save Han.
- Mark Hamill as Luke Skywalker, a pilot in the Rebel Alliance and Jedi in training
- Harrison Ford as Han Solo, a smuggler and captain of the Millennium Falcon
- Carrie Fisher as Leia Organa, a leader of the Rebel Alliance
- Billy Dee Williams as Lando Calrissian, the administrator of Cloud City and an old acquaintance of Han
- Anthony Daniels as C-3PO, a humanoid protocol droid in the Alliance
- David Prowse as Darth Vader, Luke's father, a powerful Sith lord and the second in command of the Galactic Empire
- James Earl Jones as the voice of Vader
- Peter Mayhew as Chewbacca, Han's loyal Wookiee friend and copilot
- Kenny Baker as R2-D2, an astromech droid in the Rebellion and C-3PO's counterpart[a]
- Frank Oz as Yoda, a wise, centuries-old Jedi Master, who is self-exiled on Dagobah. Oz was assisted by several other performers, including Kathryn Mullen, David Barclay, Wendy Froud, and Deep Roy.
- Jeremy Bulloch as Boba Fett, a bounty hunter hired by Vader. Jason Wingreen originally provided Fett's voice, but in 2004, Temuera Morrison, who played Jango Fett in Attack of the Clones, replaced Wingreen as Fett's voice.[b]
- Multiple actors have portrayed the Emperor, the evil ruler of the Galactic Empire and Vader's powerful Sith Master, who appears via hologram. Clive Revill originally provided his voice, while actress Marjorie Eaton portrayed him physically, wearing a mask.[c] Ultimately the actress and voice actor were replaced by Ian McDiarmid, who portrayed the character in later films, for the 2004 DVD edition and subsequent releases.[d]
- Alec Guinness appears as the Force spirit of Obi-Wan Kenobi, Luke's deceased mentor, who guides him to Yoda.
Denis Lawson reprises his role as Wedge Antilles from the first film. John Hollis plays Lobot, Lando's personal aide. Julian Glover appears as General Veers, a general who leads the Empire in the battle of Hoth. Kenneth Colley portrays Admiral Piett, the Empire's top admiral. Michael Sheard portrayed Admiral Ozzel, Vader's previous admiral. Michael Culver appears as Captain Needa, one of the Empire's captains who failed to catch the Millennium Falcon. John Ratzenberger portrays Major Derlin, one of the officers who leads the Rebels in the Battle of Hoth. Bruce Boa appears as General Rieekan, Princess Leia's military advisor on Hoth. Christopher Malcolm plays Rebel snowspeeder pilot Zev Senesca, who finds Skywalker and Solo on the surface of Hoth. and John Morton portrays Dak Ralter, Luke's gunner in the battle of Hoth who was killed by an AT-AT. Richard Oldfield portrayed Rebel pilot Hobbie Klivian.
Morris Bush portrays the bounty hunter Dengar, Alan Harris portrays the bounty hunter Bossk and Chris Parsons portrays the robotic bounty hunter 4-LOM.
While completing production on the original 1977 film, George Lucas hired Alan Dean Foster, the ghostwriter of the film's novelization, to write a sequel novel to be adapted as a low-budget film if Star Wars bombed at the box office. After the film's success, however, these plans were abandoned in favor of a full-scale sequel in the form of The Empire Strikes Back.
Star Wars exceeded expectations in terms of profit, had a revolutionary effect on the film industry, and had an unexpected resonance as a cultural phenomenon. Lucas hoped to become independent from the Hollywood film industry, choosing to finance the sequel himself with $33 million from loans and the previous film's earnings—going against the principles of many Hollywood producers never to invest one's own money. Now fully in command of his Star Wars enterprise, Lucas chose not to direct the sequel because of his other production roles, including overseeing his special effects company Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) and handling the financing. Lucas offered the role of director to Irvin Kershner, one of his former professors at the USC School of Cinematic Arts. Kershner was known for smaller-scale, character-driven films, but had more recently directed the true-life drama Raid on Entebbe (1977) and the thriller Eyes of Laura Mars (1978). Kershner initially turned Lucas down, citing his belief that a sequel would never meet the quality or originality of Star Wars. He called his agent, who immediately demanded that he take the job.
In 1977, Lucas wrote an initial 9-page treatment titled The Empire Strikes Back, which was partly inspired by Joseph Campbell's The Hero with a Thousand Faces. In it, Lucas developed a few key scenes that would make the film's final cut: Luke would study the Force under a Jedi master (then named Minch Yoda) before dueling Vader and ending up hanging from the bottom of a floating city, and a gambler acquaintance of Han's would betray him to Vader. As Ford had not agreed to appear in a third film, Han was written out of the film's ending by having him go off to secure funding for the Rebellion, but that story element was later modified.
In late November 1977, Lucas hired science-fiction author Leigh Brackett to write the film's screenplay. They held story conferences lasting until early December, and Brackett wrote her draft while Ralph McQuarrie began to paint concept art. Her treatment, delivered on February 21, 1978, is similar to the final film, except that Darth Vader does not reveal he is Luke's father, and Luke's father separately appears as a ghost to instruct him.
Lucas was disappointed with Brackett's draft, but before he could discuss it with her, learned that she was in the hospital; she died of cancer in mid-March. With no writer available, Lucas had to write the next draft himself. It was this draft in which Lucas first made use of the "Episode" numbering for the films; The Empire Strikes Back was distinguished Episode II. His disappointment with the first draft probably made Lucas consider different directions in which to take the story. He made use of a new plot twist: Darth Vader claims to be Luke's father. According to Lucas, he found this draft enjoyable to write, as opposed to the yearlong struggles writing the first film, and quickly wrote two more drafts, all in April 1978.
This plot twist of Vader being Luke's father had drastic effects on the series, which would include the audience's interpretation of the original film. Lucas outlined a new backstory: Anakin Skywalker had been Ben Kenobi's brilliant student, and had a child named Luke, but was swayed to the dark side by the Emperor (who was really a Sith Lord). Anakin battled Ben Kenobi on the site of a volcano and was horribly wounded, but was resurrected as Darth Vader. Meanwhile, Kenobi hid Luke on Tatooine while the Republic became the Empire and Vader systematically hunted down the Jedi.
With this new backstory in place, Lucas decided that The Empire Strikes Back would be the second film of two trilogies, designating it Episode V by the fifth draft. Lawrence Kasdan had just completed writing Raiders of the Lost Ark, and Lucas hired him to write the next drafts with additional input from director Irvin Kershner. Kasdan, Kershner, and producer Gary Kurtz saw the film as a more serious and adult film, which was helped by the new, darker storyline, and developed the series from the light adventure roots of the first film.
After the release of Star Wars, ILM grew from being a struggling company and moved to Marin County, California. The Empire Strikes Back provided the company with new challenges. Whereas Star Wars mostly featured space sequences, The Empire Strikes Back featured not only space dogfights but also an ice planet battle opening sequence and elements of cities that floated among the clouds. For the battle scenes on the ice planet Hoth, the initial intent was to use bluescreen to composite the Imperial walkers into still-shots from the original set. Instead, an artist (Michael Pangrazio) was hired to paint landscapes, resulting in the Imperial walkers being shot using stop motion animation in front of the landscape paintings. The original designs for the AT-ATs were, according to Phil Tippett, "big armored vehicles with wheels". Many believe the finished design was inspired by the Port of Oakland container cranes, but Lucas denied this.
In designing the Jedi Master Yoda, Stuart Freeborn used his own face as a model and added the wrinkles of Albert Einstein for the appearance of exceptional intelligence. Sets for Dagobah were built five feet above the stage floor, allowing puppeteers to crawl underneath and hold up the Yoda puppet. The setup presented communication problems for Frank Oz, who portrayed Yoda, as he was underneath the stage and unable to hear the crew and Mark Hamill above. Hamill later expressed his dismay at being the only human character on set for months; he felt like a trivial element on a set of animals, machines, and moving props. Kershner commended Hamill for his performance with the puppet.
Filming began in Norway, at the Hardangerjøkulen glacier near the town of Finse, on March 5, 1979. Like the filming of Star Wars, where the production in Tunisia coincided with the area's first major rainstorm in fifty years, the weather was against the film crew. While filming in Norway, they encountered the worst winter storm in fifty years. Temperatures dropped to −20 °F (−29 °C), and 5.5 metres (18 ft) of snow fell. On one occasion, the crew were unable to exit their hotel. They achieved a shot involving Luke's exit of the Wampa cave by opening the hotel's doors and filming Mark Hamill running out into the snow while the crew remained warm inside. Mark Hamill's face was scarred in a motor accident that occurred between filming of Star Wars and The Empire Strikes Back. Despite reports to the contrary, the scene in which Luke is knocked unconscious by the Wampa was not added specifically to explain this change to Hamill's face. Lucas admitted that the scene "helped" the situation, though he felt that Luke's time fighting in the rebellion was sufficient explanation.
The production moved to Elstree Studios near London on March 13, where over 60 sets were built, more than double the number used in the previous film. A fire in January on Stage 3 (during filming of Stanley Kubrick's The Shining) forced the budget to be increased from $18.5 million to $22 million, and by July the budget increased $3 million more. Filming finished by mid-September.
The script contained a scene in which Princess Leia professed her love to Han Solo, with Han replying "I love you too." Harrison Ford felt the characterization was not being used effectively, and Kershner agreed. After several takes, the director told the actor to improvise on the spot, and Ford changed Solo's line to "I know."
During production, great secrecy surrounded the fact that Darth Vader was Luke's father. Like the rest of the crew, Prowse—who spoke all of Vader's lines during filming—was given a false page that contained dialogue with the revelatory line being, "No. Obi-Wan killed your father." Hamill was informed just moments before cameras rolled on his close-up, and did not tell anyone, including his wife; according to Hamill, Ford did not learn the truth until he watched the film.
To preserve the dramatic opening sequences of his films, Lucas wanted the screen credits to come only at the end. While this practice has become more common over the years, this was relatively unusual at the time. The Writers and Directors guilds of America had no problem allowing it on Star Wars, back in 1977, because the writer-director credit (George Lucas) matched the company name. However, when Lucas did the same thing for the sequel, it became an issue because they viewed the company credit (Lucasfilm) as displaying Lucas' name at the start of the film, while the director and writers had theirs on the end. The guilds fined him over $250,000 and attempted to pull Empire out of theaters. The DGA also attacked Kershner; to protect his director, Lucas paid all the fines to the guilds. Due to the controversy, he left the Directors and Writers guilds, and the Motion Picture Association.
The initial production budget of $18 million was 50 percent more than that of the original. After the various increases in budget, The Empire Strikes Back became one of the most expensive films of its day and after the bank threatened to call in his loan, Lucas was forced to approach 20th Century Fox. Lucas made a deal with the studio to secure the loan in exchange for paying the studio more money, but without the loss of his sequel and merchandising rights. After the film's box office success, unhappiness at the studio over the deal's generosity to Lucas caused studio president Alan Ladd, Jr. to quit. The departure of his longtime ally caused Lucas to take Raiders of the Lost Ark to Paramount Pictures.
Like its predecessor, The Empire Strikes Back draws from several mythological stories and world religions. It also includes elements of 1930s film serials such as Flash Gordon, a childhood favorite of Lucas', that similarly featured a city afloat in the sky.
The world premiere of The Empire Strikes Back was held on May 17, 1980, at the Kennedy Center in Washington, D.C. (as a special Children's World Premiere event). The film had a Royal Charity Premiere in London at the Odeon Cinema in Leicester Square on May 20. The special event was dubbed "Empire Day", a playful take the British Commonwealth Day holiday (known as Empire Day prior to 1958), where legions of stormtroopers were unleashed across the city. A series of other charity benefit premieres were held in numerous locations on May 19 and 20. The film went on to official general release in North America and the U.K. on May 21, 1980. The first wave of release included 126 70 mm prints, before a wider release in June 1980 (which were mostly 35 mm prints). During the initial theatrical run in Europe and Australia, the short film Black Angel by Star Wars art director Roger Christian was shown before the feature.
Though the film was simply titled The Empire Strikes Back in its original promotional materials, the film still started with the title Star Wars on-screen which was followed by the opening crawl that gave the film's subtitle as Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back, causing some surprise among cinema goers at the time as the original Star Wars film had not been given an episode number or subtitle for its first release in 1977. However, Episode IV: A New Hope was added to its opening crawl from its 1981 re-release onwards. Like A New Hope, The Empire Strikes Back was rated PG by the Motion Picture Association of America, and certificate U in the United Kingdom. This original version was released on CED in 1984 and on VHS and Laserdisc several times during the 1980s and 1990s.
When the film debuted on television, it was preceded by a second-person introduction by Darth Vader, which was framed as an interruption of the Earth broadcast by the Galactic Empire.
As part of Star Wars's 20th anniversary celebration in 1997, The Empire Strikes Back was digitally remastered and re-released along with Star Wars and Return of the Jedi under the title Star Wars Trilogy: Special Edition. Lucas took this opportunity to make several minor changes to the film. These included explicitly showing the Wampa creature on Hoth in full form, creating a more complex flight path for the Falcon as it approaches Cloud City, digitally replacing some of the interior walls of Cloud City with vistas of Bespin, and replacing certain lines of dialogue. A short sequence was also added depicting Vader's return to his Super Star Destroyer after dueling with Luke, created from alternate angles of a scene from Return of the Jedi. Most of the changes were small and esthetic. Some fans believe that the changes to the film were less detrimental than that of the other two entries in the trilogy.
The film was also resubmitted to the MPAA for rating; it was again rated PG, but under the Association's new description nomenclature, the reason given was for "sci-fi action/violence". This version of the film runs 127 minutes.
- DVD release
The Empire Strikes Back was released on DVD in September 2004, bundled in a box set with A New Hope, Return of the Jedi, and a bonus disc of extra features. The films were digitally restored and remastered, with additional changes made by George Lucas. The bonus features include a commentary by George Lucas, Irvin Kershner, Ben Burtt, Dennis Muren, and Carrie Fisher, as well as an extensive documentary called Empire of Dreams: The Story of the Star Wars Trilogy. Also included are featurettes, teasers, trailers, TV spots, still galleries, video game demos, and a preview of Revenge of the Sith.
For the DVD release, Lucas and his team made changes that were mostly implemented to ensure continuity between The Empire Strikes Back and the recently released prequel trilogy films. The most noticeable of these changes was replacing the stand-in used in the holographic image of the Emperor (with Clive Revill providing the voice) with actor Ian McDiarmid providing some slightly altered dialogue. With this release, Lucas also supervised the creation of a high-definition digital print of The Empire Strikes Back and the original trilogy's other films. It was reissued in December 2005 as part of a three-disc "limited edition" boxed set that did not feature the bonus disc.
The film was reissued again on a separate two-disc Limited Edition DVD for a brief time from September 12, 2006, to December 31, 2006, this time with the film's original, unaltered version as bonus material. It was also re-released in a trilogy box set on November 4, 2008. There was controversy surrounding the initial release, because the DVDs featured non-anamorphic versions of the original films based on LaserDisc releases from 1993 (as opposed to newly remastered, film-based, high-definition transfers). Since non-anamorphic transfers fail to make full use of the resolution available on widescreen televisions, many fans were disappointed with this choice.
- Blu-ray release
On August 14, 2010, George Lucas announced that all six Star Wars films in their Special Edition form would be released on Blu-ray Disc in Fall 2011. On January 6, 2011, 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment announced the Blu-ray release for September 2011 in three different editions.
- Digital release
On April 7, 2015, Walt Disney Studios, 20th Century Fox, and Lucasfilm jointly announced the digital releases of the six released Star Wars films. Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment released The Empire Strikes Back through the iTunes Store, Amazon Video, Vudu, Google Play, and Disney Movies Anywhere on April 10, 2015. All six films will be available for streaming on Disney+ within the first year of the service's launch.
The film grossed $6,415,804 on its opening weekend in limited release on 126 screens. After four weeks on release, it expanded to 824 screens and grossed $10,840,307 for the weekend setting a new weekly record of $20,380,052. Within three months of the release of The Empire Strikes Back, Lucas had recovered his $33 million investment and distributed $5 million in bonuses to employees. It earned $181,379,640 during its first run in the United States and Canada.
It was re-released on July 31, 1981 and grossed a further $26,758,774 and again on November 19, 1982 with a gross of $14,535,852 to bring its gross to $222,674,266 and about $450 million worldwide.
When The Empire Strikes Back returned to cinemas in 1997, it grossed $21,975,993 on its first weekend of re-release. As of 2007, the film has grossed $290,475,750 domestically and $538,375,067 worldwide. 35 years after the film's initial release, it re-entered the UK box office at number 9 grossing $470,000 from June 4–7, 2015.
The Empire Strikes Back initially received mixed reviews from critics upon release. For example, Vincent Canby of The New York Times wrote a largely dismissive review of the film, saying "it is nice and inoffensive and, in a way that no one associated with it need be ashamed of, it's also silly. Attending to it is a lot like reading the middle of a comic book." David Denby of New York magazine called the film "a Wagnerian pop movie—grandiose, thrilling, imperiously generous in scale, and also a bit ponderous". Judith Martin of The Washington Post criticized the film's "middle-of-the-story" plot, which she claimed had no particular beginning or end. However, this was a concept that Lucas had intended. James Harwood of Variety wrote, "'The Empire Strikes Back' is a worthy sequel to 'Star Wars,' equal in both technical mastery and characterization, suffering only from the familiarity with the effects generated in the original and imitated too much by others." Gene Siskel of the Chicago Tribune gave the film three-and-a-half stars out of four and stated that although the film "has some poor special effects" and that Lando Calrissian "isn't given enough screen time to develop into anyone special," he found these weaknesses "trivial compared to the strengths of the film, which are considerable and sometimes even majestic." Charles Champlin of the Los Angeles Times stated that the film "seems to me a hugely accomplished and exciting follow-on to 'Star Wars'," adding that "I wish it were a handful of minutes shorter but this my single caveat about another richly imaginative, engrossing and spectacular motion picture from the redoubtable George Lucas." Roger Angell of The New Yorker reported, "I had a great time at 'The Empire Strikes Back,' and although I did not find it as consistently pleasing and exciting as its predecessor, I felt stretched and terrifically entertained—and convinced, as I was at 'Star Wars,' that I was watching a first-class kids' movie." Richard Combs of The Monthly Film Bulletin was negative, writing, "That story counts for less than gimmicks, and characters less than both, might be judged from the lack of resonance in the one narrative revelation, concerning Darth Vader and Luke Skywalker." Bruce McCabe of The Boston Globe said, "This is a respectable sequel to 'Star Wars' but not as good," explaining that "[t]he sequel is more calculated. The spontaneous energy of the original, which grew out of the arcane riskiness of the project, is missing."
The film's reputation improved over the years, and Episode V is now widely considered one of the best films of all time. According to the review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, 95% of critics have given the film a positive review based on 97 reviews, with an average rating of 8.93/10. The site's critics consensus reads: "Dark, sinister, but ultimately even more involving than A New Hope, The Empire Strikes Back defies viewer expectations and takes the series to heightened emotional levels." At Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 82 out of 100 based on 25 critics, indicating "universal acclaim". Bob Stephens of The San Francisco Examiner described The Empire Strikes Back as "the greatest episode of the Star Wars Trilogy" in 1997. In 2016, James Charisma of Playboy ranked the film #3 on a list of 15 Sequels That Are Way Better Than The Originals. Roger Ebert described the film as the strongest and "most thought-provoking" film of the original trilogy.
Writing for Empire Magazine, Ian Nathan gave the film a five-star rating proclaiming "it's generally agreed that The Empire Strikes Back is the best film of George Lucas' initial trilogy (despite a latter-day shift toward the original's storytelling purity). Not a sequel as such, but the next part of a continuing story, Empire marks enormous progression both in terms of the mythos of the series and in the filmmaking quality itself." In 2014, the magazine's readers voted for the film as the greatest movie ever made, based on 250,000 votes.
Chuck Klosterman suggested that while "movies like Easy Rider and Saturday Night Fever painted living portraits for generations they represented in the present tense, The Empire Strikes Back might be the only example of a movie that set the social aesthetic for a generation coming in the future."
At the 53rd Academy Awards, The Empire Strikes Back won the award for Best Sound, which was awarded to Bill Varney, Steve Maslow, Gregg Landaker, and Peter Sutton. In addition, the film received the Special Achievement Academy Award for Best Visual Effects that was awarded to Brian Johnson, Richard Edlund, Dennis Muren, and Bruce Nicholson. Composer John Williams was also nominated for Best Original Score, and Norman Reynolds, Leslie Dilley, Harry Lange, Alan Tomkins, and Michael Ford were nominated for Best Art Direction.
In addition, John Williams was awarded the British Academy Film Award for his compositions: the Anthony Asquith Award for Film Music. The Empire Strikes Back also received British Academy Film Award nominations for Best Sound and Best Production Design.
The Empire Strikes Back received four Saturn Awards, for Mark Hamill as Best Actor, Irvin Kershner for Best Director, Brian Johnson and Richard Edlund for Best Special Effects, and the Saturn Award for Best Science Fiction Film.
Darth Vader was ranked as the third-greatest film villain of all time in the American Film Institute's 2003 list of the 100 greatest heroes and villains, and Wizard magazine selected the ending of The Empire Strikes Back as the greatest cliffhanger of all time.
The line "No, I am your father" is often misquoted as "Luke, I am your father." The line was selected as one of the 400 nominees for the American Film Institute's 100 Years... 100 Movie Quotes, a list of the greatest American film quotes. Yoda's statement to Luke Skywalker, "Try not! Do, or do not. There is no try", was also a nominee for the same list by the AFI.
The film was selected in 2010 to be preserved by the Library of Congress as part of its National Film Registry. 35mm reels of the 1997 Special Edition were initially presented for preservation because of the difficulty of transferring from the original prints, but it was later revealed that the Library possessed a copyright deposit print of the original theatrical release.
In the 2014 Empire Magazine list, "The 301 Greatest Movies of All Time" voted by fans, The Empire Strikes Back was named as the greatest film ever made.
American Film Institute lists
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies – Nominated
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills – Nominated
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes and Villains:
- Darth Vader – No. 3 Villain
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes:
- "I am your father." – Nominated
- "Do, or do not. There is no try." – Nominated
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) – Nominated
The musical score of The Empire Strikes Back was composed and conducted by John Williams, and it was performed by the London Symphony Orchestra at a cost of about $250,000. In 1980, the company RSO Records published this film's original musical score as both a double LP album and as an 8-track cartridge in the United States. Its front cover artwork features the mask of Darth Vader against a backdrop of outer space, as seen on the advance theatrical poster for the film.
In 1985, the first Compact disc (CD) issue of the film score was made by the company Polydor Records, which had absorbed both RSO Records and its music catalog. Polydor Records used a shorter, one compact-disc edition of the music as their master. In 1993, 20th Century Fox Film Scores released a special boxed set of four compact discs: the Star Wars Trilogy: The Original Soundtrack Anthology. This anthology included the film scores of all three members of the original Star Wars Trilogy in separate CDs, even though there was significant overlap between the three (such as the Star Wars theme music).
In 1997, the record company RCA Victor released a definitive two-CD set to accompany the publications of all three of the Special Editions of the films of the Star Wars Trilogy. This original limited-edition set of CDs featured a 32-page black booklet that was enclosed within a protective outer slip-case. The covers of the booklet and of the slip-case have selections from the poster art of the Star Wars Trilogy: Special Edition. All of the tracks have been digitally re-mastered supposedly for superior clarity of sound.
RCA Victor next re-packaged the Special Edition set later on in 1997, offering it in slim-line jewel case packaging as an unlimited edition, but without the packaging that the original "black booklet" version offered.
In 2004, the Sony Classical Records company purchased the sales rights of the original trilogy's musical scores—primarily because it already had the sales rights of the music from the trilogy of prequels: The Phantom Menace, Attack of the Clones, and Revenge of the Sith. Hence in 2004, the Sony Classical company began manufacturing copies of the film-score CDs that RCA Victor had been making since 1997, including the one for The Empire Strikes Back. This set was made with new cover artwork similar to that of the film's first publication on DVD. Despite the digital re-mastering by Sony Classical, their CD version made and sold since 2004 is essentially the same as the version by RCA Victor.
A novelization of the film was released on April 12, 1980, and published by the company Del Rey Books. The novelization was written by Donald F. Glut, and it was based on the screenplay by Lawrence Kasdan, Leigh Brackett, and George Lucas.
This novelization was originally published as Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back. However, the later editions have been renamed Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back to conform with the change in the titles of the Star Wars saga. Like the other novelizations of the Star Wars Trilogy, background information is added to explain the happenings of the story beyond that which is depicted on-screen.
Comic book adaptationEdit
Marvel Comics published a comic book adaptation of The Empire Strikes Back which was written by Archie Goodwin and illustrated by Al Williamson and Carlos Garzon. It was published simultaneously in four formats: as a magazine (Marvel Super Special #16), an oversized tabloid edition (Marvel Special Edition Featuring Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back), as part of a serialized comic book series, and as a paperback pocket book. In the paperback and tabloid versions, which were published first and for which early concept designs were the only available art reference, Yoda was given a quite different appearance than in the films: Yoda is thinner, he has long white hair, and he has purple skin, rather than green skin. For the magazine and serialized comic book editions, there was enough time for the artwork featuring Yoda to be revised extensively, and his appearance was changed to match that in the film.
Comic book historians and industry professionals have remarked that Marvel's Star Wars comics published in the years before The Empire Strikes Back include plot points similar to those later used in the film, such as the Empire's counter-strike against the rebels after the destruction of the Death Star. However, the film's makers have not acknowledged receiving any inspiration from the comic books.
This section does not cite any sources. (December 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Lucasfilm adapted the story for a children's book-and-record set. Released in 1980, the 24-page Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back read-along book was accompanied by a 33 1⁄3 rpm 7-inch gramophone record. Each page of the book contained a cropped frame from the film with an abridged and condensed version of the story. The record was produced by Buena Vista Records.
Video games based on the film have been released on several consoles. Additionally, several Star Wars video games feature or mention key events seen in the film, but are not entirely based upon the film. In 1982 Parker Brothers released Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back for the Atari 2600 games console, which featured the speeder attack on the AT-ATs on Hoth. The arcade game Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back followed in 1985. The game features familiar battle sequences and characters played from a first-person perspective. Specific battles include the Battle of Hoth and the subsequent escape of the Millennium Falcon through an asteroid field. A conversion was released in 1988 for the ZX Spectrum, Amstrad CPC, Commodore 64, BBC Micro, Atari ST, and Commodore Amiga.
In 1992, JVC released the LucasArts-developed video game also titled Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back for the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) console. The player assumes the role of Luke Skywalker and maneuvers through Skywalker's story as seen in the film. In 1992, Ubisoft released a version for the Game Boy. Like its previous incarnation, it follows the story of Luke Skywalker. Super Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back was developed for the console Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES) by LucasArts and was released by JVC in 1993. The SNES game is similar in spots to the 1991 NES release, and is on a 12-megabit cartridge.
A radio play adaptation of The Empire Strikes Back was written by Brian Daley, and was produced for and broadcast on the National Public Radio network in the U.S. during 1983. It was based on characters and situations created by George Lucas, and on the screenplay by Leigh Brackett and Lawrence Kasdan. Its director was John Madden, with sound mixing and post-production work done by Tom Voegeli.
Mark Hamill, Billy Dee Williams, and Anthony Daniels reprised their roles as Luke Skywalker, Lando Calrissian, and C-3PO respectively, with John Lithgow voicing Yoda. This radio play was designed to last for five hours of radio time, usually presented in more than one part. Radio agencies estimate that about 750,000 people tuned in to listen to this series radio play beginning on February 14, 1983. In terms of the canonical Star Wars story, this radio drama has been given the highest designation, G-canon.
- Baker also portrays a GONK power droid in the background.
- Bulloch also makes a cameo appearance as the Imperial officer who grabs Leia when she tells Luke to avoid Vader's trap with John Morton doubling as Fett in this scene.
- This was stated in 2013 to be make-up artist Rick Baker's wife wearing a mask he crafted, with chimpanzee eyes superimposed over hers. However, it was later clarified by Lucasfilm creative executive Pablo Hidalgo to be Eaton in the film (previously believed to have only appeared in a test), wearing a mask crafted by Phil Tippett.
- Filmed during the production of Revenge of the Sith (Kaminski 2008)
- "THE EMPIRE STRIKES BACK". British Board of Film Classification. Archived from the original on December 20, 2014. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
- "The Empire Strikes Back (1980)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on June 27, 2015. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
- Nathan, Ian (May 6, 2014). "Tales From The Dark Side: The Making Of The Empire Strikes Back". Empireonline.com. Archived from the original on December 20, 2014. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
- "Star Wars Ep. V: The Empire Strikes Back – Box Office Data, DVD and Blu-ray Sales, Movie News, Cast and Crew Information". The Numbers. Archived from the original on July 8, 2015. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
- Nathan, Ian. "The 500 greatest movies of all time, No. 3: Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back (1980)". Empire. Archived from the original on January 20, 2012. Retrieved September 14, 2009.
- "Film features: 100 Greatest Movies Of All Time". Total Film. Archived from the original on February 10, 2010. Retrieved June 17, 2010.
- "100 Greatest Films of All Time". AMC Filmsite.org. Archived from the original on March 31, 2014. Retrieved June 17, 2010.
- "The 100 Best Movies of All Time by Mr. Showbiz". AMC Filmsite.org. Archived from the original on June 18, 2010. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
- "The 500 Greatest Movies Of All Time". Empire. Archived from the original on August 22, 2016.
- "Films adjusted for inflation". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on May 4, 2009. Retrieved June 21, 2012.
- "Those Yoda Guys". Archived from the original on March 29, 2014. Retrieved August 6, 2014.
- Rinzler, J.W. (October 22, 2013). The Making of Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back (Enhanced ed.). Ballantine Group. ISBN 9780345543363. Archived from the original on July 25, 2019. Retrieved September 15, 2017.
- Alasdair Wilkins (October 10, 2010). "Yoda was originally played by a monkey in a mask, and other secrets of The Empire Strikes Back". io9. Archived from the original on October 17, 2010. Retrieved October 18, 2010.
- Gourley, Matt. "I Was There Too". earwolf.com. Earwolf. Archived from the original on November 9, 2016. Retrieved November 10, 2016.
- @pablohidalgo (October 26, 2016). "Okay here's what I've got. It is not Elaine Baker in the movie. @PhilTippett sculpted the piece and Rick applied it" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Star Wars: The Changes". dvdactive. Archived from the original on July 29, 2012. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
- "Lucasfilm Defends DVD Changes". Sci-Fi Wire. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved February 18, 2007.
- White, Brett (May 24, 2018). "'Solo' Is Just the Latest Sci-Fi Event to Put a 'Cheers' Star in Space". Decider. NYP Holdings, Inc. Archived from the original on October 26, 2018. Retrieved October 25, 2018.
- "Interview: John Ratzenberger - Major Bren Derlin, Master of the Improv". StarWars.com. Lucasfilm Ltd. February 11, 2015. Archived from the original on October 26, 2018. Retrieved October 25, 2018.
- "The 10 Most Important Star Wars Characters You Don't Know By Name". Newsweek. November 26, 2015. Archived from the original on October 25, 2018. Retrieved October 25, 2018.
- Murphy, Mike (October 23, 2015). "We should think of Leia from "Star Wars" as a politician as much as a princess". Quartz. Archived from the original on October 25, 2018. Retrieved October 25, 2018.
- Page, Lewis (February 19, 2014). "Actor who played Rogue Two in Star Wars dies aged 67". The Register. Situation Publishing. Archived from the original on October 26, 2018. Retrieved October 25, 2018.
- Hutchinson, Lee (December 3, 2015). "First Star Wars spin-off movie gets name and a date: Rogue One, next December". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on October 26, 2018. Retrieved October 25, 2018.
- Newbold, Mark (June 8, 2018). "Two Fantha Trackers were a part of Solo: A Star Wars Story". Fantha Tracks. Archived from the original on October 25, 2018. Retrieved October 25, 2018.
- Wittmer, Carrie (May 4, 2018). "38 major deaths in the 'Star Wars' movies, ranked from saddest to completely deserved". Business Insider. Archived from the original on October 26, 2018. Retrieved October 25, 2018.
- Franch, Darren (March 12, 2015). "'Star Wars' spinoff 'Rogue One' explained: A brief history of Rogue Squadron". Entertainment Weekly. Meredith Corporation. Archived from the original on October 25, 2018. Retrieved October 25, 2018.
- Wenz, John (January 1, 2018). "The First Star Wars sequel: Inside the writing of Splinter of the Mind's Eye". Syfy. SyFy Channel. Archived from the original on September 30, 2018. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
- Empire of Dreams: The Story of the Star Wars Trilogy. Star Wars Trilogy Box Set DVD documentary. 
- "Behind the Scenes: The Empire Strikes Back". American Cinematographer. Archived from the original on November 9, 2006. Retrieved March 2, 2007.
- Jones, Brian Jay (2016). George Lucas: A Life. New York City: Little, Brown and Company. pp. 263, 264, 267. ISBN 978-0316257442.
- Bouzereau 1997, p. 144.
- Bouzereau 1997, p. 135.
- Kaminski 2008, p. 161.
- Bouzereau 1997, p. 123
- Kaminski 2008.
- Kaminski 2008, pp. 120–21.
- Kaminski 2008, pp. 164–65.
- Kaminski 2008, p. 528.
- Marcus Hearn (2005). "Cliffhanging". The Cinema of George Lucas. New York City: Harry N. Abrams Inc. pp. 122–7. ISBN 0-8109-4968-7.
- Kaminski 2008, p. 178.
- Peter Hartlaub (June 27, 2008). "Nah, dude, they weren't cranes, they were garbage trucks". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on September 30, 2008. Retrieved June 27, 2008.
- Nick Maley. "A tribute to Stuart Freeborn". Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved February 16, 2007.
- "Star Wars Trilogy DVD Super-Feature". Underground Online. Archived from the original on April 27, 2007. Retrieved February 16, 2007.
- The Empire Strikes Back DVD commentary featuring George Lucas, Irvin Kershner, Ben Burtt, Dennis Muren and Carrie Fisher, 
- Chris Chiarella (2004). "Mark Hamill Interview". Home Theater. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved February 13, 2007.
- Ross, Dalton (September 16, 2004). "Secrets and Jedis". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on May 25, 2007. Retrieved February 16, 2007.
- Ross, Dalton (September 16, 2004). "10 things we learned from the "Star Wars" DVDs". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on December 22, 2016. Retrieved December 15, 2016.
- Mark Hamill on Star Citizen, Wing Commander and Star Wars. YouTube. November 19, 2015. Archived from the original on November 30, 2017. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
- "Star Wars Origins – Flash Gordon". Star Wars Origins. Archived from the original on September 1, 2006. Retrieved November 16, 2006.
- "Flash Gordon (1980)". The 80s Movies Rewind. Archived from the original on February 9, 2007. Retrieved February 13, 2007.
- "An 'Empire Day' to Remember | StarWars.com". StarWars.com. Archived from the original on April 8, 2016. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
- "Empire release" Archived August 12, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. From Script To DVD.com. Retrieved October 6, 2010.
- Verrier, Richard (October 16, 2013). "Short film meant to accompany 'Empire Strikes Back' makes a comeback". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on April 17, 2014. Retrieved May 15, 2015.
- "Cinema", TIME, May 19, 1980, archived from the original on August 17, 2014, retrieved August 5, 2014
- "Star Wars on Ced" Archived April 9, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Amazon.com Retrieved October 6, 2010.
- Doug Smith (May 9, 2011). "Yesterday's technology can be a collectible". Quad-City Times. Archived from the original on November 27, 2016. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- Cavanaugh, Patrick (November 21, 2018). "'The Empire Strikes Back' Debuted on TV With This Awesome Imperial Interruption". ComicBook.com. Archived from the original on November 22, 2018. Retrieved November 22, 2018.
- "Star Wars Episode V The Empire Strikes Back (1997)". Motion Picture Association of America. Archived from the original on January 14, 2007. Retrieved January 13, 2007.
- "Star Wars Trilogy (Widescreen Edition Without Bonus Disc, 1977)". Amazon.com. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved February 19, 2007.
- "Star Wars Saga Repacked in Trilogy Sets on DVD". Lucasfilm. StarWars.com. August 28, 2008. Archived from the original on October 26, 2008. Retrieved November 8, 2008.
- Ian Dawe. "Anamorphic Star Wars and Other Musings". Mindjack Film. Archived from the original on June 13, 2006. Retrieved May 26, 2006.
- "George Lucas Announces Star Wars on Blu-Ray at Celebration V". Lucasfilm. StarWars.com. August 14, 2010. Archived from the original on August 16, 2010. Retrieved August 15, 2010.
- "Pre-order Star Wars: The Complete Saga on Blu-ray Now!". StarWars.com. Lucasfilm. January 6, 2011. Archived from the original on January 9, 2011. Retrieved January 7, 2011.
- Vlessing, Etan (April 6, 2015). "'Star Wars' Movie Franchise Headed to Digital HD". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on April 10, 2015. Retrieved April 7, 2015.
- Hayes, Dade (April 11, 2019). "Entire 'Star Wars' Franchise Will Be On Disney+ Within Its First Year". Deadline. Archived from the original on April 14, 2019. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
- "Smokey 2 No. 1 in Domestic B.O. Maiden Wk. With $17,805,900". Daily Variety. August 25, 1980.
- "'Star Wars' B.O. History". Variety. May 17, 1999. p. 30.
- Alex Ritman (June 10, 2015). "U.K. Box Office: 'Empire Strikes Back' Returns to Top 10". The Hollywood Reporter. (Prometheus Global Media). Archived from the original on June 10, 2015. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
- "CRITICAL OPINION: THE EMPIRE STRIKES BACK'S ORIGINAL REVIEWS". Star Wars. Archived from the original on April 16, 2018. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
- Burwick, Kevin. "Star Wars Fans Hated Empire Strikes Back When It Was First Released, Too". MovieWeb. Archived from the original on October 4, 2018. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
- Taylor, Chris. "'Last Jedi' haters are nothing new. Plenty of fans hated 'Empire Strikes Back' too". Mashable. Archived from the original on October 4, 2018. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
- Asher-Perrin, Emily. "You Must Unlearn What You Have Learned: How The Empire Strikes Back Ruined Everything". Tor.com. Archived from the original on July 1, 2018. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
- Canby, Vincent (June 15, 1980). "'The Empire Strikes Back' Strikes a Bland Note'". New York Times. Archived from the original on July 28, 2019. Retrieved September 16, 2019.
- Denby, David (May 26, 1980). "Star Wars Strikes Back". New York. Archived from the original on January 2, 2016. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
- Martin, Judith (May 23, 1980). "'The Empire Strikes Back'". Washington Post. Archived from the original on July 16, 2015. Retrieved February 12, 2007.
- Harwood, James (May 14, 1980). "Film Reviews: The Empire Strikes Back". Variety. 14.
- Siskel, Gene (May 21, 1980). "'Empire' on sequel footing with the 'Star Wars' magic". Chicago Tribune. Section 3, p. 1.
- Champlin, Charles (May 18, 1980). "In the 'Star Wars' Saga, 'Empire' Strikes Forward". Los Angeles Times. Calendar, p. 1, 30.
- Angell, Roger (May 26, 1980). "The Current Cinema: Cheers and Whimpers". The New Yorker. 123.
- Combs, Richard (July 1980). "The Empire Strikes Back". The Monthly Film Bulletin. 47 (558): 130.
- McCabe, Bruce (May 21, 1980). "The Force is with 'Empire Strikes Back'". The Boston Globe. 77.
- Orange, Allen (for MovieWeb). "250,000 Movie Fans Voted 'The Empire Strikes Back' The Greatest Movie Of All Time". Business Insider. Retrieved March 23, 2019.
- "Star Wars: Episode V - The Empire Strikes Back (1980)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Archived from the original on July 31, 2011. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
- "Star Wars: Episode V - The Empire Strikes Back Reviews". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on April 28, 2019. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
- Stephens, Bob (February 21, 1997). ""Empire Strikes Back' is the best of "Star Wars' trilogy". Sfgate.com. Archived from the original on May 25, 2006. Retrieved July 26, 2006.
- Charisma, James (March 15, 2016). "Revenge of the Movie: 15 Sequels That Are Way Better Than The Originals". Playboy. Archived from the original on July 26, 2016. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- Ebert, Roger (February 21, 1997). "The Empire Strikes Back". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on August 3, 2006. Retrieved July 26, 2006.
- Nathan, Ian. "Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes back Review". Empire Magazine. Archived from the original on April 6, 2019. Retrieved April 26, 2019.
- Orange, Allen (for MovieWeb) (June 2, 2014). "250,000 Movies Fans Voted 'The Empire Strikes Back' The Greatest Movie Of All Time". Business Insider. Retrieved April 26, 2019.
- Klosterman, Chuck (June 22, 2004). Sex, Drugs, and Cocoa Puffs: A Low Culture Manifesto. Scribner. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-7432-3601-0.
- "The 53rd Academy Awards (1981) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
- "The Empire Strikes Back—Awards & Nominations". Yahoo! Movies. Archived from the original on May 26, 2006. Retrieved February 16, 2007.
- "How Many Academy Awards Did The Empire Strikes Back Win In 1980?". AtThaMovies. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved December 16, 2015.
- "Star Wars: Episode V—The Empire Strikes Back (1980) – Awards". Internet Movie Database. Archived from the original on June 18, 2006. Retrieved July 29, 2006.
- "About the Golden Canvas". Goldene Leinwand. Archived from the original on December 11, 2017. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
- "AFI's 100 Years ... 100 Heroes & Villains". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on December 4, 2003. Retrieved January 20, 2007.
- Jake Rossen (August 5, 2007). "The Top 25 Cliffhangers of All Time!". Wizard. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved August 5, 2007.
- Michael French (2003). "The Common Concept of Indiana Jones". TheRaider.net. Archived from the original on February 11, 2007. Retrieved February 26, 2007.
- "AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movie Quotes: Official Ballot" (PDF). AFI.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 19, 2009. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
- "Hollywood Blockbusters, Independent Films and Shorts Selected for 2010 National Film Registry". Library of Congress. December 28, 2010. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved July 27, 2014.
- Barnes, Mike (December 28, 2010). "'Empire Strikes Back,' 'Airplane!' Among 25 Movies Named to National Film Registry". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on December 30, 2010. Retrieved December 28, 2010.
- Andrews, Mallory (July 21, 2014). "A 'New' New Hope: Film Preservation and the Problem with 'Star Wars'". soundonsight.org. Sound on Sight. Archived from the original on July 28, 2014. Retrieved July 27, 2014.
the NFR does not possess workable copies of the original versions...Government-mandated agencies such as the National Film Registry are unable to preserve (or even possess) working copies of the films on their list without the consent of the author and/or copyright holder.
- "Request Denied: Lucas Refuses to Co-Operate with Government Film Preservation Organizations". savestarwars.com. Saving Star Wars. 2011. Archived from the original on December 3, 2014. Retrieved July 27, 2014.
When the request was made for STAR WARS, Lucasfilm offered us the Special Edition version. The offer was declined as this was obviously not the version that had been selected for the Registry.
- Ulanoff, Lance (December 17, 2015). "The search for the 'Star Wars' George Lucas doesn't want you to see". Mashable. Archived from the original on October 13, 2016. Retrieved October 12, 2016.
- "Empire Magazine – 301 Greatest Movies of All Time", empireonline.com, Retrieved December 1, 2015
- Arnold 1980, p. 266.
- "The Original Soundtrack from the Film The Empire Strikes Back". Star Wars Collectors Archive. Archived from the original on November 10, 2006. Retrieved October 26, 2006.
- "Star Wars Trilogy: The Original Soundtrack Anthology [BOX SET] [SOUNDTRACK]". Amazon.com. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved January 20, 2007.
- "The Empire Strikes Back: The Original Motion Picture Soundtrack (Special Edition) SOUNDTRACK". Amazon.com. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved January 20, 2007.
- "Star Wars / The Empire Strikes Back / Return of the Jedi (Original Soundtracks – 2004 reissue)". Archived from the original on November 27, 2006. Retrieved January 20, 2007.
- Star Wars, Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back (Mass Market Paperback). Amazon.com. ISBN 0345283929.
- "GCD :: Issue :: Marvel Super Special #16". comics.org. Archived from the original on November 7, 2012. Retrieved May 3, 2013.
- Marvel Special Edition Featuring Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back Archived April 23, 2014, at the Wayback Machine at the Grand Comics Database
- Edwards, Ted (1999). "Adventures in the Comics". The Unauthorized Star Wars Compendium. Little, Brown and Company. p. 82. ISBN 9780316329293.
In 1980 The Empire Strikes Back hit theaters and Marvel published their adaptation of the movie in a few different formats. The earliest version appeared in a paperback-size book followed by the magazine-size Marvel Super Special No. 16, and then in regular comic book form in six parts.
- Keane, Mike (June 2009). "Bob Wiacek". Back Issue!. TwoMorrows Publishing (34): 53.
- "Toshiki Kudo". Lambiek. March 14, 2008. Archived from the original on August 18, 2018. Retrieved March 1, 2019.
- "Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back". GameSpot. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007.
- "Empire Strikes Back, The". The Killer List of Videogames. Archived from the original on March 2, 2007. Retrieved February 24, 2007.
- Advertising poster
- "Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back for NES". Moby Games. Archived from the original on July 28, 2007. Retrieved February 24, 2007.
- "Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back for Game Boy". Moby Games. Archived from the original on July 26, 2007. Retrieved February 24, 2007.
- "Super Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on March 17, 2007. Retrieved February 24, 2007.
- Robb, Brian J. (2012). A Brief Guide to Star Wars. London: Hachette. ISBN 9781780335834. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
- "Empire Strikes Back Produced by NPR". HighBridge Audio. Archived from the original on November 5, 2006. Retrieved December 10, 2006.
- "Star Wars Radiodrama". NPR Shop. Archived from the original on May 28, 2007. Retrieved February 22, 2007.
- "Keeper of the Holocron". Star Wars: Blogs. Archived from the original on May 5, 2012. Retrieved May 29, 2007.
- "Star Wars Canon" Archived March 30, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Canon Wars. Retrieved February 22, 2007.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: The Empire Strikes Back|
- The Empire Strikes Back at starwars
- The Empire Strikes Back at Lucasfilm.com
- The Empire Strikes Back on IMDb
- The Empire Strikes Back at the TCM Movie Database
- The Empire Strikes Back at AllMovie
- The Empire Strikes Back at Rotten Tomatoes
- The Empire Strikes Back at Box Office Mojo
- The Empire Strikes Back at Metacritic
- The Empire Strikes Back at The Numbers
- The Empire Strikes Back at Filmsite.org
- The Empire Strikes Back at the American Film Institute Catalog