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Ralph Angus McQuarrie (June 13, 1929 – March 3, 2012) was an American conceptual designer and illustrator. His career included work on the original Star Wars trilogy, the original Battlestar Galactica television series, the film E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, and the film Cocoon, for which he won an Academy Award.

Ralph McQuarrie
McQuarrie visiting Industrial Light & Magic in 2008
McQuarrie visiting ILM in 2008
Born (1929-06-13)June 13, 1929
Gary, Indiana, United States
Died March 3, 2012(2012-03-03) (aged 82)
Berkeley, California, U.S.
Cause of death Parkinson's disease
Nationality American
Alma mater Art Center College of Design
Occupation Illustrator and designer
Notable work Star Wars,
E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial,
Spouse(s) Joan Benjamin
Awards Academy Award for Visual Effects (1985)


Early lifeEdit

Ralph McQuarrie was born on June 13, 1929 in Gary, Indiana and was raised on a farm near Billings, Montana.[1] He served in the United States Army during the Korean War, surviving a shot to the head.[1] After returning from the war, McQuarrie moved to California in the 1960s,[2] studying at the Art Center School,[1] then in downtown Los Angeles.


"I just did my best to depict what I thought the film should look like, I really liked the idea. I didn't think the film would ever get made. My impression was it was too expensive. There wouldn't be enough of an audience. It's just too complicated. But George knew a lot of things that I didn't know."

—McQuarrie on Star Wars.[3]

McQuarrie initially worked for a dentistry firm, drawing teeth and equipment,[1] before working as an Artist and Preliminary Design Illustrator for the Boeing Company, where he drew diagrams for a manual on constructing the 747 Jumbo Jet, as well as designing film posters and animating CBS News' coverage of the Apollo space program at the three-man company Reel Three.[2][3] While there, McQuarrie was asked by Hal Barwood to produce some illustrations for a film project he and Matthew Robbins were starting.[2][3] McQuarrie married Joan Benjamin in 1983 and stayed married until his death.

Impressed with his work, director and filmmaker George Lucas met with him to discuss his plans for a space-fantasy film. Several years later, in 1975, Lucas commissioned McQuarrie to illustrate several scenes from the script of the film, Star Wars. McQuarrie designed many of the film's characters, including Darth Vader, Chewbacca, R2-D2 and C-3PO[4][5] and drew many concepts for the film's sets.[2] It was McQuarrie who suggested that Vader wear a breathing apparatus.[1] McQuarrie's concept paintings, including such scenes as R2-D2 and C-3PO arriving on Tatooine, helped convince 20th Century Fox to fund Star Wars, which became a huge success upon release in 1977.[1][2][3][6] Neil Kendricks of The San Diego Union-Tribune stated McQuarrie "holds a unique position when it comes to defining much of the look of the "Star Wars" universe."[3] McQuarrie noted, "I thought I had the best job that an artist ever had on a film, and I had never worked on a feature film before. [...] I still get fan mail — people wondering if I worked on Episode I or just wanting to have my autograph."[3]

Around the same period, he was brought on board the design team of Star Trek: Planet of the Titans to re-design the USS Enterprise.[7] McQuarrie went on to work as the conceptual designer on A New Hope's two sequels The Empire Strikes Back (1980) and Return of the Jedi (1983).[3]

Christian Blauvelt of Entertainment Weekly praised McQuarrie's works as "pioneering of the 'used future' aesthetic" which unlike other science-fiction, "imagined a lived-in galaxy that was gritty, dirty, and in advance states of decay." He described McQuarrie's style as "strongly geometric subjects rendered in muted colors against a flat, purposefully compressed backdrop. A McQuarrie Star Wars design looks like what would have resulted if Salvador Dalí had sketched concepts for Universals 1936 Flash Gordon serial by way of Sergio Leones Old West."[8]

McQuarrie played the uncredited role of General Pharl McQuarrie in The Empire Strikes Back. He appears in Echo Base on Hoth in the film's opening sequence.[1] An action figure in his likeness as "General McQuarrie" was produced for Star Wars 30th anniversary.[1][5] Action figures based on McQuarrie's concept art, including conceptual versions of the Imperial Stormtrooper, Chewbacca, R2-D2 and C-3PO, Darth Vader, Han Solo, Boba Fett, Obi-Wan Kenobi, Yoda and other characters have also been made.[9]

McQuarrie designed the alien ships in Steven Spielberg's films Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977) and E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982),[3] while his work as the conceptual artist on the 1985 film Cocoon earned him the Academy Award for Visual Effects.[5][10] He also worked on the 1978 TV series Battlestar Galactica,[5] and the films Raiders of the Lost Ark, Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home and *batteries not included.[6]

Retirement and deathEdit

Rick McCallum offered McQuarrie a role as designer for the Star Wars prequel trilogy, but he rejected the offer, noting he had "run out of steam" and Industrial Light & Magic animator Doug Chiang was appointed instead. McQuarrie retired and his Star Wars concept paintings were subsequently displayed in art exhibitions, including the 1999 Star Wars: The Magic of Myth.[3] Several of McQuarrie's unused designs from the original trilogy were utilized for the Star Wars: The Clone Wars and Star Wars Rebels animated TV series,[11] including the planet Orto Plutonia, which was based on McQuarrie's original design of Hoth,[8] and the characters Zeb Orrelios and Chopper, based on his original designs for Chewbacca and R2-D2, respectively.[12][13]

McQuarrie died aged 82 on March 3, 2012, in his Berkeley, California home, from complications of Parkinson's disease.[1][5] He is survived by his wife Joan.[1][6][14]

Lucas commented after McQuarrie's death: "His genial contribution, in the form of unequalled production paintings, propelled and inspired all of the cast and crew of the original Star Wars trilogy. When words could not convey my ideas, I could always point to one of Ralph's fabulous illustrations and say, 'do it like this'."[15]

Posthumous workEdit

The current Lucasfilm creative team is employing parts of McQuarrie’s original unused concept art from the seventies and eighties in the development of new Star Wars-related media.[16]




McQuarrie's previsualization artwork, production sketches and paintings, and matte paintings feature prominently in the first three volumes of The Art of Star Wars book series.

  • Titelman, Carol; Hoffman, Valerie, eds. (1979). The Art of Star Wars (1st ed.). New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0345282736. 
    Reprinted 1994 ISBN 9781852865832
  • Bulluck, Vic; Hoffman, Valerie (1980). Call, Deborah, ed. The Art of The Empire Strikes Back (1st ed.). New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 9780345293350. 
    Reprinted 1994 ISBN 9780345392039
  • Kasdan, Lawrence; Lucas, George (1983). The Art of Return of the Jedi - Star Wars (1st ed.). New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0345312549. 
    Reprinted 1995 ISBN 9781852865856
  • Anderson, Kevin J.; Carabetta, Michael (1996). Star Wars, the art of Ralph McQuarrie. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books. ISBN 9780811813204. 
  • McQuarrie, Ralph; Alinger, Brandon; Lageose, Wade; Mandel, David; Ltd, LucasFilm (2016). Star Wars Art: Ralph McQuarrie. Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 9781419717932. Retrieved 21 June 2017. 

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Rees Shapiro, T. (2012-03-05). "Ralph McQuarrie, artist who drew Darth Vader, C-3PO, dies at 82". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2012-03-05. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Magid, Ron (2004-09-28). "Ralph McQuarrie on Designing Star Wars". Star Wars Insider #76 via Archived from the original on March 5, 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Kendricks, Neil (1999-09-23). "Behind The Force 'Star Wars: The Magic of Myth' showcases the work of artists who collaborated with the head Jedi, a.k.a. George Lucas". San Diego Union-Tribune. p. NIGHT & DAY-32. 
  4. ^ Michael Heilemann: George Lucas Stole Chewbacca, But It’s Okay,,18. September 2010, Sep 18, '10
  5. ^ a b c d e "Star Wars artist Ralph McQuarrie dies aged 82". BBC News. 2012-03-04. Retrieved 2012-03-04. 
  6. ^ a b c White, James (2012-03-04). "Ralph McQuarrie Has Died". Empire. Retrieved 2012-03-04. 
  7. ^ Anders, Charlie Jane (December 31, 2010). "Ralph McQuarrie's concept art for a Star Trek movie in 1976-1977". io9. Retrieved July 28, 2013. 
  8. ^ a b Blauvelt, Christian (2012-03-04). "Ralph McQuarrie, legendary 'Star Wars' concept artist, dies at 82: A tribute to the man who designed that Galaxy Far, Far Away". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2012-03-05. 
  9. ^ Szadkowski, Joseph (2007-08-04). "Star Wars' concept art turned into action figures". The Washington Times. p. C09. 
  10. ^ Spelling, Ian (2009-11-24). "The real, incredibly mundane reason Darth Vader wears a mask". Sci Fi Wire. 
  11. ^ Hibberd, James (January 23, 2014). "'Star Wars Rebels' interview: New series goes to dark places, embraces 1977 film's spirit". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved May 5, 2014. 
  12. ^ Goldman, Eric (18 February 2014). "Star Wars Rebels Exclusive First Look: Meet Zeb". IGN. Retrieved 14 June 2014. 
  13. ^ Hibberd, James (Jan 28, 2014). "'Star Wars Rebels': New droid revealed". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved February 13, 2014. 
  14. ^ Watercutter, Angela (4 March 2012). "Star Wars Conceptual Artist Ralph McQuarrie Dies at 82". Retrieved 5 March 2012. 
  15. ^ "Ralph McQuarrie Remembered". Star 2012-03-03. Retrieved 2012-03-04. 
  16. ^ Sciretta, Peter (1 December 2014). "See How ‘Star Wars: The Force Awakens’ Was Inspired By Ralph McQuarrie’s Unused Concept Art". Retrieved 1 January 2015. 

External linksEdit