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USS Enterprise (NCC-1701) is a fictional starship in the fictional Star Trek universe that serves as both the main setting of the original Star Trek television series, as well as the primary transportation method for the show's characters. The Enterprise has been depicted in four network television series, six feature films, many books, and much fan-created media. The original Star Trek series (1966–1969) features a voice-over by Enterprise captain, James T. Kirk (William Shatner), which describes the mission of the Enterprise as "to explore strange new worlds; to seek out new life and new civilizations; to boldly go where no man has gone before".[6]

USS Enterprise
USS Enterprise (NCC-1701), ENT1231.jpg
USS Enterprise
First appearance "The Cage"
Affiliation United Federation of Planets
Launched 2245[1]
General characteristics
Class Constitution[2]
Registry NCC-1701
Auxiliary craft 7×7 man shuttlecraft[3]
Armaments 2 x electromagnetic launch Photon Torpedo tube
3 x Twin Phaser bank[4]
Defenses Multiple Force Field Deflector Grids[5]
Propulsion 4 x dual Impulse Power Units
2 x Space Warp Propulsion Units[3]
Power Dilithium-focused matter/anti-matter reaction chamber
Length 288.646 metres (947.00 ft)[3]

The Enterprise is a Constitution class Heavy Cruiser[2] that serves as a part of Starfleet, which is the United Federation of Planets' space-borne peace-keeping force.[2][7] It is capable of Interstellar travel and serves intermittently as both a patrol craft and as a deep-space exploration vessel.[8] The ship's components were built at the Starfleet Division of the San Francisco Navy Yards and assembled in orbit.[9]

The NCC-1701 appears in the first three Star Trek films in a refitted configuration. The original starship was destroyed in Star Trek III: The Search for Spock and from then on was replaced with an identical starship, the NCC-1701-A.

The 2009 Star Trek film, which takes place in an alternate timeline,[10] features a re-conceptualization of the original Enterprise.

Contents

Origin and designEdit

Original configurationEdit

 
The 11-foot (3.4 m) model donated by Paramount to the Smithsonian in 1974[11]

Star Trek art director Matt Jefferies was the primary designer of the original Starship Enterprise. Jefferies' experience with aviation led to his Enterprise designs being imbued with what he called "aircraft logic".[12] The final interior plans of the Enterprise were designed by Franz Joseph in 1974, with approval from both Gene Roddenberry and Paramount Pictures, six years after Star Trek had been cancelled. The plans heavily referenced both episodes of Star Trek and Matt Jefferies' design.[13][14]

The ship's "NCC-1701" registry number stemmed from "NC" being one of the international aircraft registration codes assigned to the United States; the second "C" was added as Soviet aircraft used "CCCC" and Matt Jeffries combined the two as he believed a venture into space would be a joint operation by the United States and Russia.[15] According to The Making of Star Trek, "NCC" is the Starfleet abbreviation for "Naval Construction Contract", comparable to what the U.S. Navy would call a hull number.[9] The "1701" was chosen to avoid any possible ambiguity; according to Jefferies, the numbers 3, 6, 8, and 9 are "too easily confused".[16] Other sources cite it as a reference to the house across the street from where Roddenberry grew up,[17] while another account gives it as the street address of Linwood Dunn.[18] Jefferies' own sketches provide the explanation that it was his 17th cruiser design with the first serial number of that series: 1701.[19] The Making of Star Trek explains that "USS" should mean "United Space Ship" and that "Enterprise is a member of the Starship Class".[9] The ship's class was officially changed to Constitution Class with the release of Franz Joseph's Star Fleet Technical Manual in 1975, even though all previous references identify it as Starship Class.[2]

The first miniature built for the pilot episode "The Cage" (1965) was unlit and approximately 33 inches (0.8 m) long, commonly referred to as "the three foot model". This model was constructed almost entirely of wood and was made by Richard C. Datin in his shop. It was eventually modified during the course of the series to match the changes made to the larger model before and after shooting of the second pilot, and appears on-set in "Requiem for Methuselah" (1969) after some damage sustained in storage had been partially repaired. The second miniature built for the original pilot measures 11 feet 2 inches (3.4 m) long and was built by a small crew of model makers (Volmer Jensen, Mel Keys and Vernon Sion) supervised by Richard C. Datin, working out of Jensen's model shop in Burbank, California (although the larger base components were subcontracted to a shop with a large lathe). It was initially filmed by both Howard A. Anderson and Linwood G. Dunn at Dunn's Film Effects of Hollywood facility, who also re-filmed later more-elaborate models of the ship, generating a variety of stock footage that was used in later episodes.[citation needed]

Initially, the models were static and had no electronics. For the second pilot, "Where No Man Has Gone Before" (1966), various details of the 11-foot model were altered, and the starboard window ports and running lights were internally illuminated. When the series was picked up and went into production, the model was altered yet again. These alterations included the addition of translucent domes and blinking lights at the forward ends of the engine nacelles, smaller domes at the stern end of the engine nacelles, a shorter bridge dome, and a smaller deflector/sensor dish. Save for re-used footage from the two pilot episodes, this was the appearance of the ship throughout the series, except for some detail added to nacelles for shots used in "The Trouble with Tribbles".

Two small (3") models were also made for the episode "Catspaw", one embedded in a block of lucite, bringing the total number of models used to represent Enterprise during the original series to four.

While the three-foot model was lost during construction of a new model (the refurbished version seen in the first movie), the 11 feet (3.4 m) model has undergone a historic restoration,[20] having previously been displayed in the Gift Shop downstairs at the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C.,[21] and was unveiled in its new display position in the lobby of the Milestones of Flight Hall at NASM's 40th anniversary celebration on July 1, 2016, which also roughly coincides with Star Trek's 50th anniversary.

Greg Jein created a model of the original Enterprise for the Star Trek: Deep Space Nine episode "Trials and Tribble-ations" (1996). Jein's model was built to be exactly half the size of the larger of the two original models, and later appeared in the 1998 Star Trek wall calendar. In addition, a CGI model of the ship makes a brief cameo appearance at the end of the final episode of Star Trek: Enterprise, "These Are the Voyages..." (2005), and another CGI version was created for remastered episodes of the original Star Trek, based on the model in the Smithsonian.[citation needed]

Refit configurationEdit

USS Enterprise
 
The refitted Enterprise at the battle of the Mutara Nebula
First appearance Star Trek The Motion Picture (1979)
Affiliation United Federation of Planets
Starfleet
Launched 2270
General characteristics
Class Enterprise[22][23]
Registry NCC-1701
Maximum speed Warp 12[24]
Auxiliary craft 5 x Mark VIII Long Range Shuttlecraft with warp drive sled[25]
Armaments 2 x electromagnetic launch Photon Torpedo tube
6 x twin phaser bank
6 x single phaser[24]
Defenses Multiple Force Field Deflector Grids[26]
Propulsion 1 x dual Impulse power unit with impulse deflection crystal[27]
2 x Space Warp Propulsion Units[24]
Power linear intermix matter/anti-matter reaction chamber
Length 304.8 meters (1000 ft)[24]

The refitted Enterprise that appears in the first three Star Trek films was initially designed by Matt Jefferies, based on an early design he had made of a hypothetical Enterprise refit for the original Star Trek,[28][29] and reworked for the scrapped Star Trek: Phase II TV series.[30] While Andrew Probert and Richard Taylor often take credit for the design,[31][32] the changes they actually made compared to Jefferies' original designs largely amount to minor detail alterations.[33][34]

Michael Minor, Gene Roddenberry, Joe Jennings, Douglas Trumbull, Harold Michaelson, and Jim Dow contributed in part to the final look of Enterprise, while Jim Dow was in charge of building the model and created all the molds and structural processes.[35][36] Paul Olsen[37] painted the distinct "Aztec" paint scheme to provide an additional level of detail for the film screen, and to suggest the notion of interlocking panels providing tensile strength to the hull.[38] The 8-foot (2.4 m) model was re-used as the USS Enterprise-A in the fourth, fifth, and sixth Star Trek films. Foundation Imaging created a CGI model of the ship for the "Director's Edition" release of Star Trek: The Motion Picture to add footage envisioned but never shot by director Robert Wise.

2009 rebootEdit

USS Enterprise
 
The re-conceptualized, "alternate universe" Enterprise in the 2009 Star Trek film
First appearance Star Trek (2009)
Affiliation United Federation of Planets
Starfleet
Launched 2258
General characteristics
Registry NCC-1701
Maximum speed Warp 8[39]
Auxiliary craft Shuttlecraft
Armaments Photon torpedoes
Phasers
Defenses Deflector shields
Propulsion Impulse engines
Warp drive
Power Matter/antimatter

Enterprise was redesigned for the 2009 Star Trek film. Director J. J. Abrams wanted Enterprise to have a "hot rod" look while retaining the traditional shape, but otherwise afforded Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) "tremendous" leeway in creating the ship. Perhaps the most notable change was in the large engine nacelles, seen attached to the main body. The change applied a sleeker finish and shape to the otherwise simple nacelles of the previous ship.[40] Concept artist Ryan Church's initial designs were modeled and refined by set designer Joseph Hiura. This design was then given to ILM for further refinement and developed into photo-realistic models by Alex Jaeger's team.[41] ILM's Roger Guyett recalled the original Enterprise being "very static", and added moving components to the film's model.[40] ILM retained subtle geometric forms and patterns to allude to the original Enterprise.[40] The computer model's digital paint recreates the appearance of "interference paint", which contains small particles of mica to alter the apparent color, used on the first three films' model.[40] The initial redesign of Enterprise was notably larger than the original Enterprise and was projected to be 367 meters length and between 170 and 180 meters wide but the final version used in the films was upscaled to be at least 700 meters length and 330–350 meters wide.

DepictionEdit

Built between 2243 and 2245 in the original Star Trek timeline, Starfleet commissioned the Enterprise in 2245.[42] In Star Trek, the ship's dedication plaque lists it as "Starship Class"; however, with the release of Franz Joseph's Star Fleet Technical Manual in 1975, the ship was renamed "Constitution class", even though all previous references identify it as "Starship Class".[2] This is confirmed by episode dialogue in "Relics", a Next Generation episode which refers to the vessel as a "Constitution class" starship.

Star Trek: The Animated Series states that Robert April is Enterprise's first commanding officer. After April, Captain Christopher Pike (Jeffrey Hunter) commands Enterprise for about a decade, and Pike is the commanding officer in the (originally un-aired) pilot "The Cage". Throughout the first Star Trek television series, Captain James T. Kirk commands the ship on a five-year mission of exploration. Before the events of Star Trek: The Motion Picture (1979), Enterprise undergoes an 18-month refit overseen by its new commanding officer, Willard Decker (Stephen Collins). In early scenes of the film, Decker describes the refit to Admiral Kirk as "an almost totally new Enterprise". Star Trek novels and the semi-official fan-produced internet series Star Trek: New Voyages (and the abortive planned TV series Star Trek: Phase II) depict a second five-year exploratory mission under Kirk's command between the events of the first and second films.

Spock (Leonard Nimoy) commands Enterprise, serving as a training ship, at the beginning of Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan (1982), but Kirk assumes command when the ship investigates problems with Project Genesis. USS Reliant, hijacked by Khan Noonien Singh (Ricardo Montalbán), inflicts substantial damage to Enterprise; Spock sacrifices his life to save the ship. Shortly after returning to spacedock at the beginning of Star Trek III: The Search for Spock (1984), Enterprise is marked for decommissioning. Kirk leads his officers in stealing the ship in an attempt to restore Spock's life. In the process, they are attacked by Klingons inflicting mortal damage on the ship; to even the odds and gain a tactical advantage, Kirk is forced to destroy Enterprise by activating its self-destruct system.

Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home (1986) opens with Kirk and his officers agreeing to return to Earth to face judgment for their actions in the previous film. En route (in the Klingon vessel they had commandeered), they travel back in time to stop a probe threatening to destroy Earth. Upon the success of their mission and return to the 23rd century, the charges against the crew are dismissed. Admiral Kirk is "punished" with a demotion in rank to captain and is given command of Enterprise's successor, USS Enterprise, NCC-1701-A.

In the 2009 film Star Trek, Enterprise makes its first appearance in an altered timeline while it is still under construction in a planetside yard in Riverside, Iowa in 2255. Captain Christopher Pike (Bruce Greenwood) commands Enterprise on its maiden voyage in 2258 to respond to a distress call from Vulcan although command later shifts to Commander Spock (Zachary Quinto) and, by film's conclusion, Kirk (Chris Pine) is promoted to captain and receives command of the Federation's flagship as his first assignment out of the academy. This version of the ship, like the movies it appeared in, was controversial for being a radical departure from the original.[citation needed] The re-imagined Enterprise appears in both 2013's Star Trek Into Darkness and 2016's Star Trek Beyond, where it is destroyed.

A ship with matching hull number (NCC 1701) is depicted in the 2015 Star Trek fanfilm Prelude to Axanar. In this film its portrayed to have been built in shipyard's orbiting the planet Axanar during the Klingon Federation war.

Scientific and cultural impactEdit

The Starship Enterprise, and by extension, Star Trek as a franchise, has had considerable scientific and cultural impact.[43]

ScienceEdit

  • The Enterprise's command bridge design was considered for use by the United States Navy due to the efficiency of its style and layout, and has been emulated in functional Bridge designs.[44] More precisely, the layout of task stations caused the Navy to rethink the division of labor for managing rapidly changing information: the helmsman focuses on immediate steering requirements, navigator plans helmsman's next actions, the captain plans strategy while looking over the shoulders of both. Without visual distraction, the captain is told from behind about engine status, weapons status, and fleet communications.[45] The design has also been emulated for Combat Information Centers and Ship's Mission Centers.[46][47]
  • NASA created a webpage dedicated to Star Trek's technology.[48]
  • At least one website has been created that proposes a functional spacecraft with a layout similar to the Enterprise could be constructed and used as a fully functioning interplanetary craft, and could - according to the author - be built with current technology in as little as twenty years from the time of his writing.[50]

CultureEdit

  • In 1968, a write-in campaign caused the owners of Star Trek, the first television series to depict the Starship Enterprise, to reverse their decision to cancel the show after its second season.[51]
  • In 1974, the Smithsonian accepted the donation of the primary model of the Starship Enterprise used in filming the original series, for display at its National Air and Space Museum – the first and only artifact at the nation's most visited museum that depicts a fictional craft.[53]
  • The operations aboard Enterprise have been used as an analogy for practices in human resources management.[56]

MinutiaeEdit

The Enterprise was originally going to be named Yorktown (as seen in series creator Gene Roddenberry's first outline drafts of the series).[35]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Enterprise, U.S.S". Startrek.com. Retrieved 2007-08-28. 
  2. ^ a b c d e "Star Trek Blueprints – General Plans Constitution Class: U.S.S. Enterprise". CBS Paramount. Archived from the original on June 14, 2013. Retrieved September 27, 2016. The following ships of this class were constructed under authorization of the original articles of the United Federation of Planets (...) Enterprise – NCC-1701 
  3. ^ a b c "Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. 6 December 2006. Archived from the original on 6 December 2006. Retrieved 16 September 2017. 
  4. ^ "Class 1 Heavy Cruiser Plans" (JPG). Cygnus-x1.net. Retrieved 2017-09-16. 
  5. ^ "Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. 6 December 2006. Archived from the original on 6 December 2006. Retrieved 16 September 2017. 
  6. ^ "Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan Transcript". Paramount. Retrieved 2017-10-23. Space, the final frontier. These are the continuing voyages of the Starship Enterprise. Her ongoing mission, to explore strange new worlds, to seek out new lifeforms and new civilizations. To boldly go where no man has gone before. 
  7. ^ "Star Trek Blueprints – General Plans Constitution Class: U.S.S. Enterprise". CBS Paramount. Archived from the original on June 14, 2013. Retrieved September 27, 2016. The Heavy Cruiser Starship class is the main element of United Federation of Planets peace-keeping forces (...) Enterprise – NCC-1701 
  8. ^ "Star Trek "The Cage" transcript". 
  9. ^ a b c Whitfield, Stephen PE; Roddenberry, Gene (1968). The Making of Star Trek. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-31554-5. OCLC 23859. 
  10. ^ Burr, Ty (2009-05-05). "Star Trek". The Boston Globe. p. 1. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  11. ^ "Model, Starship Enterprise, Television Show, "Star Trek"". Retrieved 19 February 2015. 
  12. ^ Robinson, Ben; Marcus Riley (2011-07-21). Star Trek: U.S.S. Enterprise: Haynes Manual. Simon & Schuster. pp. Forward. 
  13. ^ "Interview with Franz Joseph - General Plans Constitution Class: U.S.S. Enterprise". CBS Paramount. Archived from the original on December 31, 2004. Retrieved September 13, 2016. I laid the drawing out, scaled and sized it, and made a drawing of the Enterprise. Next I devised the Dreadnought, made a drawing of one of the uniforms, and about twelve drawings in all. They were drawn on the format I'd already devised for the Technical Orders. I sent a copy of the T.O.'s for the Dreadnought and the Enterprise to Gene Roddenberry on June 3rd, told him what I was doing, and inquired about proprietary rights. I got a letter in reply immediately, stating there was no problem with the proprietary rights, that he liked what I was doing, and wanted me to proceed...So I sent him copies of some fourteen T.O.'s I'd made to date and I got a very enthusiastic letter back. He said he'd never seen anything like that before and he wanted to see more of it. So I started collecting Star Trek material in order to be able to make the T.O.'s. 
  14. ^ "Interview with Franz Joseph - General Plans Constitution Class: U.S.S. Enterprise". CBS Paramount. Archived from the original on December 31, 2004. Retrieved September 13, 2016. I had told Gene I didn't feel comfortable trading on someone else's original idea, but he insisted the Manual would be a real asset to the memorabilia. I told him I'd stay with the theme he'd developed, explained the errors and what I'd planned to do about them, and also offered to send any major changes to him for approval before using them. This way, since the subject was dead, I didn't think I'd be hurting anything he'd accomplished. I wasn't interested in science fiction, or the Star Trek TV series. My interest was in the interplanetary community, how much we actually knew about its potentiality, and the true science and technology as it would exist in that time period. I wasn't interested in watching the TV reruns although I saw every episode maybe 50 times or so, just to confirm a single detail of something I was going to put in the Manual. 
  15. ^ "Report: Visual Effects Magic Not Always High-Tech". Report: Visual Effects Magic Not Always High-Tech. startrek.com. Archived from the original on 2010-01-14. 
  16. ^ "Star Trek". BBC. Retrieved 2017-09-16. 
  17. ^ Fine Scale Modeler, May 1998, page 8.
  18. ^ Magid, Ron. "ILM creates new universe of Effects for Star Trek Generations". American Cinematographer, April 1995, p. 78.
  19. ^ "Forgotten Trek Returns". Forgotten Trek. Archived from the original on 2011-10-03. 
  20. ^ "Star Trek's U.S.S. Enterprise to Boldly Go Back to the Workshop". Retrieved 2014-09-14. 
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  22. ^ "Star Trek: The Motion Picture Official Blueprints". CBS Paramount. Archived from the original on February 6, 2007. Retrieved September 13, 2016. The refitted Enterprise is more powerful than any vessel in Starfleet because of its linear inter-mix chamber,, which not only boosts the magnatomic-initiator stage of the new nacelles, but also fires directly into the deflection crystal of the new nacelles. (...) 
  23. ^ "Star Trek: The Motion Picture Official Blueprints". CBS Paramount. Archived from the original on February 6, 2007. Retrieved September 13, 2016. Normally patrolling in "packs" of three, the cruisers are deadly for a single Federation starship. The new Enterprise class, however, promises to even those odds. 
  24. ^ a b c d "Star Trek The Motion Picture 14 official blueprints - sheet 3". Archived from the original on 2007-05-16. 
  25. ^ "Star Trek The Motion Picture 14 official blueprints - sheet 10". Archived from the original on 2007-04-06. 
  26. ^ "Star Trek The Motion Picture 14 official blueprints - sheet 1". Archived from the original on 2007-02-06. 
  27. ^ "Star Trek The Motion Picture 14 official blueprints - sheet 2". Archived from the original on 2007-04-06. 
  28. ^ "Enterprise 1701A refit plans". Paramount. Archived from the original on 2017-10-23. Retrieved 2017-10-23. 
  29. ^ "Matt Jefferies redesign". Paramount. Archived from the original on 2017-10-23. Retrieved 2017-10-23. 
  30. ^ "Phase 2 Enterprise". David Shaw. Archived from the original on 2016-09-10. Retrieved 2017-10-23. 
  31. ^ "Screen capture of Andrew Probert's debate with Paul Olsen". Archived from the original on 2017-10-23. Retrieved 2017-10-23. 
  32. ^ "Interview with Richard Taylor". Retrieved 2017-10-23. 
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  34. ^ "Enterprise refit comparison 2". Paramount. Archived from the original on 2017-10-23. Retrieved 2017-10-23. 
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  36. ^ Tobias, Tracey (December 2001). "Redesigning the USS Enterprise NCC-1701". Star Trek: the Magazine. Fabbri Publishing. 2 (8): 85. 
  37. ^ Olsen, Paul (2013). Creating The Enterprise. Bristol, UK: STAR Books. pp. 91, 92, 93, 94. ISBN 0 9740407 11. 
  38. ^ Hood, Jamie. "Probing the Ships of Star Trek: the Motion Picture". Round 2 Models. Retrieved October 22, 2013. 
  39. ^ "Official Star Trek Site Updated With Final 'Dossiers' + New Info Section + more". TrekMovie.com. 
  40. ^ a b c d "How ILM came up with the new Enterprise for J.J. Abrams' Trek". Sci Fi Wire. 2009-04-17. Retrieved 2009-04-21. 
  41. ^ Plant, Bob (2009-07-23). "Church of Trek". Round 2 Models. Retrieved 2009-10-04. 
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  43. ^ "Star Trek: History & Effect on Space Technology". Space.com. Archived from the original on 2017-10-24. Retrieved 2017-10-23. Perhaps the most famous example of Star Trek inspiring real-life took place in the 1970s. (...) 
  44. ^ Whitfield, Stephen; Gene Roddenberry (September 1968). The Making of Star Trek. Ballantine Books. 
  45. ^ Navy Times (2017). "LCS 2's Streamlined Design Could Become Fleet's New Standard". U.S. Navy. Archived from the original on October 7, 2017. Retrieved October 24, 2017. Visitors to Independence's pilot-house see many resemblances to the bridge of the Starship Enterprise, including two side-by-side command chairs with their own computer keyboards, a third chair behind them for overseeing the ship's activity, and more consoles for engines, weapons and sensors in the back of the pilothouse. The ship's captain has a fourth chair, of his own, on the starboard side, with a monitor for the ship's vital information. 
  46. ^ Matthew Griffin (2016). "Capable of full-autonomy, we go inside the stealth destroyer uss Zumwalt". Global Futurist. Retrieved October 17, 2016. The SMC looks like a miniature version of a war room at the Pentagon and works in a similar fashion to the bridge seen on Star Trek. Gone are the purpose built heavy consoles used in a ship’s dark and cramped CIC, such as those still found today aboard AEGIS combat systemequipped cruisers and destroyers. In their place the new SMC is entirely re-configurable and features streamlined consoles and workstations running on an incredibly powerful array of custom-built software and advanced off the shelf hardware. 
  47. ^ Tyler Rogoway (2016). "The Navy's New Stealth Destroyer". The Drive. Archived from the original on October 24, 2017. Retrieved October 24, 2017. The nerve-center of the ship is also new. Gone is the classic low-ceilinged and vault-like Combat Information Center (CIC) of AEGIS equipped destroyers and cruisers. In its place is the SMC, the Ship’s Mission Center, which looks more like a starship command center than something found on a surface combatant. 
  48. ^ "The Science of Star Trek". NASA. Archived from the original on 2009-05-19. Retrieved 2017-10-23. Here's a list of the standard Star Trek features, roughly in order of increasing scientific incredibility. (...) 
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  50. ^ "Spaceship Enterprise in 20 years? Beam me up!". Retrieved 2012-05-12. 
  51. ^ Kendall Ashley (2016). "You Can Thank Star Trek Superfan Bjo Trimble For Saving The Enterprise". Geek and Sundry. Archived from the original on October 24, 2017. Retrieved October 24, 2017. Upon learning that Star Trek‘s journey through the final frontier was cancelled after just two seasons, Trimble became highly involved in a campaign to save the show. Trimble set up a grassroots letter writing campaign to petition NBC to allow Star Trek another season, and she was successful. Star Trek got a third season, and while it ultimately was cancelled after that third season, the show had enough episodes to enter syndication. The Star Trek television series quickly became a huge fan favorite and launched films (which are still being made to this day) and numerous television spin-offs that are beloved by fans all over the globe. (...) 
  52. ^ NASA (2000). "Enterprise (OV-101)". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Archived from the original on March 26, 2015. Retrieved November 28, 2007. 
  53. ^ Smithsonian Institution (2017). "Star Trek Starship Enterprise Studio Model". Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on October 24, 2017. Retrieved October 24, 2017. 
  54. ^ "U.S. Stamps Postal History - Star Trek stamps beaming into United States Post Office". Archived from the original on 2017-10-24. 
  55. ^ "About Vulcan, Alberta's Star Ship FX6-1995-A". Archived from the original on 2010-07-02. Retrieved 2010-07-29. 
  56. ^ Effron, Marc; Marshall Goldsmith (2003-04-30). Human resources in the 21st century. John Wiley and Sons. 
  57. ^ "Virgin Galactic's Private Spaceship Makes First Crewed Flight". Space.com. 2010-07-16. Retrieved 2010-07-29. 

External linksEdit