A novelization (or novelisation) is a derivative novel that adapts the story of a work created for another medium, such as a film, TV series, stage play, comic book or video game. Film novelizations were particularly popular before the advent of home video, but continue to find commercial success as part of marketing campaigns for major films. They are often written by accomplished writers based on an early draft of the film's script and on a tight deadline.
History and purposeEdit
Novelizations of films began to be produced in the 1910s and 1920s for silent films such as Les Vampires (1915–16) and London After Midnight (1927). One of the first films with spoken dialogue to be novelized was King Kong (1933). Film novelizations were especially profitable during the 1970s before home video became available, as they were then the only way to re-experience popular movies other than television airing or a rerelease in theaters. The novelizations of Star Wars (1977), Alien (1979) and Star Trek:The Motion Picture (1979) sold millions of copies.
Even after the advent of home video, film novelizations remain popular, with the adaptation of Godzilla (2014) being included on The New York Times Best Seller list for mass-market paperbacks. This has been attributed to these novels' appeal to fans: About 50% of novelizations are sold to people who have watched the film and want to explore its characters further, or to reconnect to the enthusiasm they experienced when watching the film. A film is therefore also a sort of commercial for its novelization; the film's success or failure affects the novelization's sales. Conversely, film novelizations help generate publicity for upcoming films, serving as a link in the film's marketing chain.
According to publishing industry estimates, about one or two percent of the audience of a film will buy its novelization. This makes these relatively inexpensively produced works a commercially attractive proposition in the case of blockbuster film franchises. The increasing number of previously established novelists taking on tie-in works has been credited with these works gaining a "patina of respectability" after they had previously been disregarded in literary circles as derivative and mere merchandise.
The writer of a novelization is supposed to multiply the 20,000–25,000 words of a screenplay into at least 60,000 words. Writers usually achieve that by adding description or introspection. Ambitious writers are driven to work on transitions and characters just to accomplish "a more prose-worthy format". Sometimes the "novelizer" invents new scenes in order to give the plot "added dimension", provided they are allowed to do that. Publishers aim to have novelizations in shops before a film is released, which means it is usually necessary to base the novelization on a screenplay instead of the completed film. It might take an insider to tell whether a novelization diverges unintentionally from the final film because it is based on an earlier version which included deleted scenes. Thus the novelization occasionally presents material which will later on appear in a director's cut. In some cases, separate novelizations of the same film are written for publication in different countries, and these may be based on different drafts of the screenplay, as was very clearly the case with the American and British novelizations of Capricorn One. Writers select different approaches to enrich a screenplay. Dewey Gram's Gladiator, for example, included historical background information.
If a film is based on a novel, the original novel is generally reissued with a cover based on the film's poster. If a film company also wishes to have a separate novelization published, the company is supposed to approach the author who has "Separated Rights". A writer has these rights if he contributed the source material (or added a great deal of creative input to it) and if he was moreover properly credited.
Novelizations also exist where the film itself is based on an original novel: novelist and screenwriter Christopher Wood wrote a novelization of the James Bond film The Spy Who Loved Me. Although the 1962 Ian Fleming novel was still available in bookstores, its story had nothing to do with the 1977 film. To avoid confusion, Wood's novelization was titled James Bond, The Spy Who Loved Me. This novel is also an example of a screenwriter novelizing his own screenplay. Star Wars: From the Adventures of Luke Skywalker was published under the name of George Lucas but his script had been novelized by the prolific tie-in writer Alan Dean Foster.
Acquiring editors looking for a novelizer have different issues. The author may not have all of the information needed; Foster wrote the Alien novelization without knowing what the Xenomorph looked like. The contract may be very restrictive; Max Allan Collins had to write the novelization for Road to Perdition only based on the film, without the detail he had created for the graphic novel of the same name that the film is based on. Rewrites of scripts may force last-minute novelization rewrites. The script for the 1966 film Modesty Blaise was rewritten by five different authors. The writer or script doctor responsible for the so-called "final" version is not necessarily the artist who has contributed the original idea or most of the scenes. The patchwork character of a film script might even exacerbate because the film director, a principal actor or a consulting script doctor does rewrites during the shooting. An acquiring editor who intends to hire one of the credited screenwriters has to reckon that the early writers are no longer familiar with the current draft or work already on another film script. Not every screenwriter is available, willing to work for less money than what can be earned with film scripts and able to deliver the required amount of prose on time. Even if so, there is still the matter of novelizations having a questionable reputation. The International Association of Media Tie-In Writers concedes that by saying their craft is "largely unrecognized". Writers Guild of America rules require that screenwriters have right of first refusal to write novelizations of their own films, but they rarely do so because of the lack of prestige and money.
Some novels blur the line between a novelization and an original novel that is the basis of a film adaptation. Arthur C. Clarke provided the ideas for Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey. Based on his own short stories and his cooperation with Kubrick during the preparation and making of this film adaptation he wrote the film novelization of the same name which is appreciated by fans because the film provides little exposition, and the novelization fills in some blanks. David Morrell wrote the novel First Blood about John Rambo, which led to the film adaptation of the same name. Although Rambo dies at the end of his original story, Morrell had a paragraph in his contract stipulating he remained "the only person who could write books about Rambo". This paid off for him when the film producers changed the ending and decided for a sequel. David Morrell accepted to carry out the novelization and negotiated unprecedented liberties which resulted in a likewise unprecedented success when his book entered The New York Times Best Seller list and stayed there for six weeks.
Simon Templar or James Bond are examples of media franchises that have been popular for more than one generation. When the feature film The Saint was released in 1997 the creator of this character (Leslie Charteris) had already been dead for four years. Hence its novelization had to be written by another author. Ian Fleming on the other hand had official successors who wrote contemporary "Post-Fleming" James Bond novels. During his tenure John Gardner was consequently chosen to write the novelization of Licence to Kill in 1989 and also the novelization of GoldenEye in 1995. John Gardner found his successor in Raymond Benson who wrote besides several original Bond novels three novelizations including The World Is Not Enough.
Video games are novelized in the same manner as films. While gamers might enjoy playing a certain action scene for hours, the buyers of a novelization might be bored soon if they merely read about such a scene. Consequently, the writer will have to cut down on the action.
Novelization writers are often also accomplished original fiction writers, as well as fans of the works they adapt, which helps motivate them to undertake a commission that is generally compensated with a relatively low flat fee. Alan Dean Foster, for example, said that, as a fan, "I got to make my own director's cut. I got to fix the science mistakes, I got to enlarge on the characters, if there was a scene I particularly liked, I got to do more of it, and I had an unlimited budget. So it was fun".
Writing skill is particularly needed for challenging situations common to writing novelizations of popular media, such as lack of access to information about the film, last-minute script changes and very quick turnaround times. Collins had to write the novelization of In the Line of Fire in nine days.
Although novelizations tend to have a low prestige, and are often viewed as "hackwork", several critically acclaimed literary authors have written novelizations, including, Arthur Calder-Marshall, William Kotzwinkle and Richard Elman. Best-selling author Ken Follett, early in his career, also wrote a novelization, and so did Isaac Asimov, later in his career. While increasingly also a domain of previously established novelists, tie-in writing still has the disadvantages, from the writers' point of view, of modest pay, tight deadlines and no ownership in the intellectual property created.
The International Association of Media Tie-In Writers is an American association that aims to recognize the writers of adapted and tie-in fiction. It hands out annual awards, the "Scribes", in categories including "best adapted novel".
Doctor Who had stories novelised in particular from the era of its original series published by Target Books.
Episodes of Star Trek were adapted into short stories by the noted science fiction writer James Blish. Each volume of the stories included a number of the short story adaptations. Alan Dean Foster would later adapt the follow-up animated series into the Star Trek Log series.
In the early 1970s Lee Falk was asked by the Avon publishing house to deliver Phantom novels based on the eponymous comic strip. Falk worked on the novelizations on his own and with collaboration. A dispute over how he would be credited led to the cessation of the series.
Eric Nylund introduced a new concept for a novelization when he delivered a trilogy, consisting of a prequel titled Halo: The Fall of Reach, an actual novelization titled Halo: First Strike and a sequel titled Halo: Ghosts of Onyx.
Raymond Benson novelized the original Metal Gear Solid in 2008 and its sequel Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty, while Project Itoh wrote a Japanese language novelization of Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots also in 2008 (with an English adaptation later published in 2012). Itoh was set to write novelizations of Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater and Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker, but his death in 2009 resulted in these projects being handed to Beatless author Satoshi Hase and a new writer named Hitori Nojima (a pen name for Kenji Yano) respectively. Nojima would go on to write Metal Gear Solid: Substance (a two-part alternate novelization of the original Metal Gear Solid and Metal Gear Solid 2), as well as the novelizations of Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain and Death Stranding (a game which he helped write the script for).
In some cases an otherwise standard novel may be based on an unfilmed screenplay. Ian Fleming's 1961 James Bond novel Thunderball was based on a script he had co-written; in this case his collaborators subsequently sued for plagiarism.
Peter O'Donnell's novel Modesty Blaise was a novelization of a refused film script. In this case the creator of the main character had written the script alone. But later on other authors had changed O'Donnell's original script over and over, until merely one single sentence remained from the original. The novel was released a year before the film and unlike the film it had sequels.
Cormac McCarthy's 2005 novel No Country for Old Men was adapted from a screenplay the author wrote. This allowed the Coen brothers to stick "almost word for word" faithfully to the book when adapting it back into a screenplay for the acclaimed 2007 film of the same name.
Lists of novelizationsEdit
Novels based on comicsEdit
Novels based on filmsEdit
Novels by franchiseEdit
|Bad News Bears||The Bad News Bears (1976)||Richard Woodley||0-440-90823-X/978-0-440-90823-4||Dell Publishing||Novelization of the film|
|The Bad News Bears in Breaking Training (1977)||0-440-10417-3/978-0-440-10417-9||Novelization of the film|
|The Bad News Bears Go to Japan (1978)||0-440-10427-0/978-0-440-10427-8||Novelization of the film|
|Blade Runner||Blade Runner: A Story of the Future (1982)||Les Martin||0-394-85303-2||Random House||Novelization of the film|
|Blade Runner 2: The Edge of Human (1995)||K. W. Jeter||0-553-09979-5/978-0-553-09979-9||Bantam Books||Sequel novel to the original film|
|Blade Runner 3: Replicant Night (1996)||0-553-09983-3/978-0-553-09983-6||Spectra||Second sequel novel to the original film|
|Blade Runner 4: Eye and Talon (2000)||0-575-06865-5/978-0-575-06865-0||Gollancz||Third sequel novel to the original film|
|Dollars Trilogy||A Fistful of Dollars (1972)||Frank Chandler||Novelization of the film|
|For a Few Dollars More (1965)||Joe Millard||Novelization of the film|
|The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (1967)||Novelization of the film|
|A Coffin Full of Dollars (1971)||0-352-30744-7/978-0-352-30744-6||Award Books||Original novel|
|A Dollar to Die For||Brian Fox|
|The Devil's Dollar Sign||Joe Millard|
|The Million-Dollar Bloodhunt|
|Blood for a Dirty Dollar|
|E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial||E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982)||William Kotzwinkle||Berkley Books||Novelization of the film|
|E.T.: The Book of the Green Planet (1985)||0-425-08001-3||Sequel novel, published three years after the original film|
|Friday the 13th||Friday the 13th Part 3 3-D (1982)||Michael Avallone||0352312491||Tower & Leisure Sales Co.||First novelization of the film|
|Jason Lives: Friday the 13th Part VI (1986)||Simon Hawke||0451146417||Signet||Novelization of the film|
|Friday the 13th (1987)||0451150899||Novelization of the 1980 film|
|Friday the 13th Part II (1988)||0451153375||Novelization of the film|
|Friday the 13th Part III (1988)||0451153111||Second novelization of the film|
|Friday the 13th: Mother's Day (1994)||William Pattinson (as Eric Morse)||0425142922||Berkley Books||Camp Crystal Lake series; the fifth installment was published as e-book; Self-published by the author|
|Friday the 13th: Jason's Curse (1994)|
|Friday the 13th: The Carnival (1994)|
|Friday the 13th: Road Trip (1994)|
|Friday the 13th: The Mask of Jason Voorhees (2011)||None|
|Freddy vs. Jason (2005)||Stephen Hand||Novelization of the film|
|Jason X (2005)||Pat Cadigan||Novelization of the film|
|Jason X: The Experiment (2005)||1844161692||Black Flame||Jason X series|
|Jason X: Planet of the Beast (2005)||Nancy Kilpatrick||Black Flame|
|Jason X: Death Moon (2005)||Alex Johnson||Black Flame|
|Jason X: To the Third Power (2006)||Nancy Kilpatrick||Black Flame|
|Friday the 13th: Church of the Divine Psychopath (2005),||Scott Phillips||1844161811||Black Flame||Friday the 13th series|
|Friday the 13th: Hell Lake (2005)||Paul Woods||Black Flame|
|Friday the 13th: Hate-Kill-Repeat (2005)||Jason Arnopp||Black Flame|
|Friday the 13th: The Jason Strain (2006)||Chris Faust||Black Flame|
|Friday the 13th: Carnival of Maniacs (2006)||Stephen Hand||Black Flame|
|Ghostbusters||Ghostbusters (1984)||Larry Milne||0727811932||Coronet Books||Novelization of the 1984 film|
|Ghostbusters: The Return (2004)||Sholly Fisch||0743479483||I Books||Non-canon alternate sequel to Ghostbusters and Ghostbusters II|
|Halloween||Halloween (1979)||Curtis Richards||0553132261 / 978-0553132267||Bantam Books||Novelization of the 1978 film|
|Halloween II (1981)||Jack Martin||089083864X / 978-0890838648||Zebra||Novelization of the film|
|Halloween III: Season of the Witch (1982)||0515068853 / 978-0515068856||Jove Books||Novelization of the film|
|Halloween IV (1988)||Nicholas Grabowsky||1-55547-292-3 / 978-1-55547-292-4||Critic's Choice Paperbacks||Novelization of the film Halloween 4: The Return of Michael Myers|
|Halloween: The Scream Factory (1997)||Kelly O'Rourke||157297298X / 978-1572972988||Boulevard Books||Original novel|
|Halloween: The Old Myers Place (1997)||1572973412 / 978-1572973411||Original novel|
|Halloween: The Mad House (1998)||1572973420 / 978-1572973428||Original novel|
|Halloween (2018)||John Passarella||Novelization of the 2018 film|
|Herbie||The Love Bug (1969)||Mel Cebulash||Novelization of the film|
|Herbie Rides Again (1974)||Novelization of the film|
|Herbie Goes to Monte Carlo (1977)||Vic Crume||0-590-10402-0/978-0-590-10402-9||Scholastic Book Services||Novelization of the film|
|Herbie Goes Bananas (1980)||Joe Claro||0-590-31609-5/978-0-590-31609-5||Scholastic Book Services||Novelization of the film|
|Herbie: Fully Loaded (2005)||Novelization of the film|
|It's Alive||It's Alive (1977)||Richard Woodley||0-345-25879-7 /978-0-345-25879-3||Ballantine Books||Novelization of the film|
|It Lives Again (1978)||James Dixon||0-345-27693-0/978-0-345-27693-3||Ballantine Books||Novelization of the film|
|Jaws||Jaws 2 (1978)||Hank Searls||0-553-11708-4||Bantam Books||Novelization of the film|
|Jaws: The Revenge (1987)||0-425-10546-6||Berkley Books||Novelization of the film|
|James Bond||James Bond, The Spy Who Loved Me (1977)||Christopher Wood||0-224-01497-8/978-0-224-01497-7||Jonathan Cape||Novelization of the film|
|James Bond and Moonraker (1979)||0-224-01734-9||Novelization of the film|
|King Kong||King Kong (1932)||Delos W. Lovelace||Grosset & Dunlap||Novelization of the 1933 film|
|King Kong (2005)||Christopher Golden||1-4165-0391-9||Pocket Star Books||Novelization of the 2005 film|
|Living Dead||Night of the Living Dead (1974)||John A. Russo||0446764108 / 978-0446764100||Warner Paperback Library||Novelization of the 1968 film|
|Return of the Living Dead (1977)||John A. Russo||089559062X / 978-0895590626||Dale Publishing||Alternate sequel novel to the 1968 film; later adapted to film as The Return of the Living Dead (1985)|
|Dawn of the Dead (1978)||George A. Romero
|0312183933 / 978-0312183936||St. Martin's Press||Novelization of the 1978 film|
|The Living Dead (2020)||George A. Romero
|9781250305121||Tor Books||Original novel|
|A Nightmare on Elm Street||The Nightmares on Elm Street Parts 1, 2, 3: The Continuing Story (1987)||Jeffrey Cooper||0-312-90517-3/978-0-312-90517-0||St. Martin's Press||Novelization of the 1984 film and the sequels Freddy's Revenge and Dream Warriors|
|The Nightmares on Elm Street Parts 4 & 5 (1989)||Joseph Locke||0-312-91764-3/978-0-312-91764-7||Novelization of the films The Dream Master and The Dream Child|
|Wes Craven's New Nightmare (1994)||David Bergantino||0-812-55166-4/978-0-812-55166-2||Tor Books||Novelization of the film|
|The Omen||The Omen (1976)||David Seltzer||0-8600-7371-8||Futura Books
|Novelization of the 1976 film|
|Damien: Omen II (1978)||Joseph Howard||0-7088-1358-5||Novelization of the film|
|The Final Conflict (1981)||Gordon McGill||0-7088-1958-3||Novelization of the film|
|Omen IV: Armageddon 2000 (1983)||0-7088-2275-4||First of two novels set after The Final Conflict, unrelated to the 1991 film Omen IV: The Awakening|
|Omen V: The Abomination (1985)||0-7088-2745-4||Second of two novels set after The Final Conflict|
|The Pink Panther||The Pink Panther (1963)||Martin Albert||9765339216/978-9765339211||Bantam Books||Novelization of the 1963 film|
|The Return of the Pink Panther (1975)||Frank Waldman||0345251237/978-0345251237||Ballantine Books
|Novelization of the film|
|The Pink Panther Strikes Again (1976)||0213166380/978-0213166380||Novelization of the film|
|The Pink Panther (2006)||Max Allan Collins||Novelization of the 2006 film|
|Planet of the Apes||Beneath the Planet of the Apes (1970)||Michael Avallone||0553080334/978-0553080339||Bantam Books||Novelization of the film|
|Escape from the Planet of the Apes (1971)||Jerry Pournelle||Award Books||Novelization of the film|
|Conquest of the Planet of the Apes (1972)||John Jakes||0095132414/978-0095132411||Novelization of the film|
|Battle for the Planet of the Apes (1973)||David Gerrold||0891901639/978-0891901631||Novelization of the film|
|Rambo||Rambo: First Blood Part II (1985)||David Morrell||0-515-08399-2||Jove Books||Novelization of the film|
|Rambo III (1988)||0-515-09333-5||Novelization of the film|
|The Shaggy Dog||The Shaggy Dog (1967)||Elizabeth L. Griffen||[none]||Scholastic Book Services||Novelization of the 1959 film|
|The Shaggy D. A. (1976)||Vic Crume||0-449-13642-6/978-0-449-13642-3||Fawcett Publications||Novelization of the film|
|Species||Species (1995)||Yvonne Navarro||0-553-57404-3||Bantam Books||Novelization of the film|
|Species II (1998)||0-812-57075-8||Tom Doherty Associates, LLC||Novelization of the film|
|Witch Mountain||Return from Witch Mountain (1978)||Alexander Key||0-664-32630-7/978-0-664-32630-2||Westminster Press||Novelization of the film|
|Race to Witch Mountain (2009)||James Ponti||Novelization of the film|
|King Kong||Edgar Wallace||081297493X||Modern Library||1933||Novelization of the film|
|Dr. Cyclops||Henry Kuttner||0445024852||Stellar Publishing||1940||Novelization of the film|
|Monster Godzilla||Shigeru Kayama||Iwatani Bookstore||1954||Novelization of the film Godzilla|
|Blood Feast||Herschell Gordon Lewis||9780938782070||Novel Books||1964||Novelization of the film|
|Two Thousand Maniacs!||Herschell Gordon Lewis||0938782088||Noel Books||1964||Novelization of the film|
|House of Dark Shadows||Marilyn Ross||Paperback Library||1970||Novelization of the film|
|THX 1138||Ben Bova||0446897116 / 978-0446897112||Paperback Library||1971||Novelization of the film|
|Super Fly||Philip Fenty||034502818X||Sphere Books||1972||Novelization of the film|
|Coffy||Paul W. Fairman||1973||Novelization of the film|
|That Darn Cat||The Gordons||0590086138 / 978-0590086134||Scholastic Book Services||1973||Novelization of the 1965 film, published eight years after the release of the source film|
|Blazing Saddles||Tad Richards||0446765368||Warner Paperback Library||1974||Novelization of the film|
|The Sugarland Express||Henry Clement||[none]||Popular Library||1974||Novelization of the film|
|Black Christmas||Lee Hays||[none]||Popular Library||1976||Novelization of the film|
|Communion||Frank Lauria||0553112414||Random House Publishing||1977||Novelization of the film, better known as Alice, Sweet Alice|
|Freshwater||Julian Michael Carver||1922551945||Severed Press||2021||Novelization of the film|
|Close Encounters of the Third Kind||Steven Spielberg||0-440-11433-0||Dell Books||1977||Novelization of the film|
|The Cat from Outer Space||Ted Key||067181740X / 978-0671560546||Pocket Books||1978||Novelization of the film|
|Hot Lead and Cold Feet||Ted Sparks||0590120638 / 978-0590120630||Scholastic Book Services||1978||Novelization of the film|
|Pete's Dragon||Jean Bethell||044816101X / 978-0448161013||Wonder Books||1978||American novelization of the 1977 film|
|Pete's Dragon||Dewy Moffatt||0450038378 / 978-0450038372||New English Library||1978||British novelization of the 1977 film|
|Warlords of Atlantis||Paul Victor||0708813925 / 978-0708813928||Futura Books||1978||Novelization of the film|
|The Wicker Man||Robin Hardy, Anthony Shaffer||0307382761||Crown Publishing Group||1978||Novelization of the film|
|1941||Bob Gale||0-345-28332-5 / 978-0-345-28332-0||Ballantine Books||1979||Novelization of the film|
|American Gigolo||Timothy Harris||0385280254 / 978-0385280259||Dell Publishing||1979||Novelization of the film; published a year before the release of the source film|
|The Apple Dumpling Gang Rides Again||Gary Poole||0441025854 / 978-0441025855||Ace Books||1979||Novelization of the film|
|The Black Hole||Alan Dean Foster||0-345-29053-4 / 978-0-345-29053-3||Del Rey Books||1979||Novelization of the film|
|The Complete American Graffiti: The Novel||John Minahan||0425045544 / 978-0425045541||Berkley Books||1979||Novelization of the films American Graffiti and More American Graffiti|
|Mad Max||Terry Hayes||[none]||QB Books||1979||Novelization of the film|
|Prophecy||David Seltzer||0345286421 / 978-0345286420||Ballantine Books||1979||Novelization of the film|
|The Fog||Dennis Etchison||0553138251 / 978-0553138252||Bantam Books||1980||Novelization of the film|
|The Funhouse||Dean Koontz||0-425-14248-5||Jove Books||1980||Novelization of the film, released a year before its source material|
|The Last Flight of Noah's Ark||Chas Carner||0345291735 / 978-0345291738||Ballantine Books||July 1980||American novelization of the film|
|The Last Flight of Noah's Ark||Heather Simon||0450050068 / 978-0450050060||New English Library||August 1980||British novelization of the film|
|Midnight Madness||Tom Wright||0441529852 / 978-0441529858||Ace Books||February 1, 1980||Novelization of the film|
|Saturn 3||Steve Gallagher||0722137621 / 978-0722137628||Sphere Books||1980||Novelization of the film|
|Snowball Express||Joe Claro||0590303597 / 978-0590303590||Scholastic Book Services||1980||Novelization of the film, released eight years after its source|
|Teddy||John Gault||0770415989||Bantam Books||1980||Novelization of the film The Pit, released a year before its source|
|Butcher, Baker, Nightmare Maker||Joseph Burgo, Richard Natale||0671429353||Pocket Books||1981||Novelization of the film|
|Condorman||Joe Claro||059032022X / 978-0590320221 (original)
0590721577 / 978-0590721578 (reprint)
|Scholastic Book Services||June 1981||American novelization of the film|
|Condorman||Heather Simon||0450052605 / 978-0450052606||New English Library||July 1981||British novelization of the film|
|The Devil and Max Devlin||Robert Grossbach||0345293649 / 978-0345293640||Ballantine Books||January 12, 1981||Novelization of the film|
|Dragonslayer||Wayland Drew||034529694X / 978-0345296948||Ballantine Books||June 1981||Novelization of the film|
|Final Exam||Geoffrey Meyer||0523415850||Pinnacle Books||1981||Novelization of the film|
|The Fox and the Hound||Heather Simon||0671442910 / 978-0671442910||Archway Paperbacks||December 1981||First novelization of the film|
|Gallipoli||Jack Bennett||0-312-31572-4||St. Martins Press||1981||Novelization of the film|
|Hawk the Slayer||Terry Marcel
|0450050467 / 978-0450050466||New English Library||1981||Novelization of the film|
|Raiders of the Lost Ark||Campbell Armstrong||0345353757||Del Rey Books||1981||Novelization of the film|
|The Wave||Todd Strasser||0-440-99371-7||Dell Publishing||1981||Novelization of the film|
|Zorro, The Gay Blade||Les Dean||0-8439-1007-0||Leisure Books||1981||Novelization of the film|
|Poltergeist||James Kahn||0446302228||Grand Central Pub||1982||Novelization of the film|
|Buckaroo Banzai||Earl Mac Rauch||0375841547||Pocket Books||1984||Novelization of the film|
|The Jungle Book||Jean Bethell||0448161079||Ottenheimer Publishers||1984||Junior novelization of the film|
|Splash||Ian Don||0352315946 / 978-0352315946||Star Books||1984||Novelization of the film|
|Baby||Ian Don||0-352-31693-4 / 978-0-352-31693-6||Star Books||1985||Novelization of the film|
|Escape from New York||Mike McQuay||0553149148||Bantam Books||1985||Novelization of the film|
|Fright Night||John Skipp, Craig Spector||979-8683973254||Goldmann||1985||Novelization of the film|
|The Journey of Natty Gann||Ann Matthews||0671606492 / 978-0671606497||Archway Paperbacks||October 1985||Novelization of the film|
|One Magic Christmas||Martin Noble||0426202422 / 978-0426202424||W. H. Allen & Co.||1985||Novelization of the film|
|My Science Project||Mike McQuay||0553253786 / 978-0553253788||Bantam Books||1985||Novelization of the film|
|Return of the Living Dead||John A. Russo||0099426102 / 9780099426103||Arrow Books||1985||Novelization of the film|
|Return to Oz||Joan D. Vinge||034532207X / 978-0345322074||Ballantine Books||June 1985|
|Return to Oz||Alistair Hedley||0140319573 / 978-0140319576||Puffin Books||1985||Junior novelization; published as part of the "Young Puffin" series.|
|The Terminator||Randall Frakes, William Wisher Jr.||0553253174||Spectra Books||1985||Novelization of the film|
|Young Sherlock Holmes||Alan Arnold||0583309429 / 978-0583309424||Grafton||1985||Novelization of the film|
|The Aristocats||Victoria Crenson||0816708878||Ottenheimer Publishers||1986||Junior novelization of the film|
|Down and Out in Beverly Hills||Ian Marter||0352318635 / 978-0352318633||Star Books||1986||Novelization of the film|
|Lady and the Tramp||Victoria Crenson||0816708886||Ottenheimer Publishers||1986||Junior novelization of the film|
|RoboCop||Ed Naha||0440174791||Dell Publishing||1986||Novelization of the 1987 film|
|Ruthless People||Martin Noble||0352320265 / 978-0352320261||Star Books||1986||Novelization of the film|
|Short Circuit||Colin Wedgelock||0722170351 / 978-0722170359||Sphere Books||1986||Novelization of the film|
|Song of the South||Victoria Crenson||0816708886||Ottenheimer Publishers||1986||Junior novelization of the film|
|Adventures in Babysitting||Elizabeth Faucher||0-590-41251-5 / 978-0-590-41251-3||Point||1987||Novelization of the film|
|Harry and the Hendersons||Joyce Thompson||042510155X / 978-0425101551||Berkley Books||1987||Novelization of the film|
|Lethal Weapon||Kirk Mitchell||0553174959||Bantam Books||1987||Novelization of the film|
|The Lost Boys||Craig Shaw Gardner||0425100448||Berkley Books||1987||Novelization of the film|
|Outrageous Fortune||Robin Turner||035232080X / 978-0352320803||Star Books||1987||Novelization of the film|
|Re-Animator||Jeff Rovin||0671637231||Pocket Books||1987||Novelization of the film|
|Tin Men||Martin Noble||0352320818 / 978-0352320810||Star Books||1987||Novelization of the film|
|Tucker: The Man and His Dream||Robert Tine||0671665863 / 978-0671665869||Pocket Books||1988||Novelization of the film|
|Who Framed Roger Rabbit||Martin Noble||0352323892 / 978-0352323897||Star Books||1988||Novelization of the film|
|Who Framed Roger Rabbit||Justine Korman||0140341889||Puffin Books||1988||Junior novelization of the film|
|Willow||Wayland Drew||0345351959 / 978-0345351951||Ballantine Books||1988||Novelization of the film|
|The Abyss||Orson Scott Card||0099690608 / 978-0099690603||Pocket Books||1989||Novelization of the film|
|Black Rain||Mike Cogan||067168969X / 978-0671689698||Pocket Books||1989||Novelization of the film|
|Honey, I Shrunk the Kids||Elizabeth Faucher||0140902120 / 978-0140902129||Fantail||1989||Novelization of the film|
|Honey, I Shrunk the Kids||Bonnie Bryant Hiller and Neil W. Hiller||0590421190 / 978-0590421195||Scholastic, Inc.||June 1989||Junior novelization of the film|
|Total Recall||Piers Anthony||0688052096||Arrow Books||1989||Novelization of the 1990 film|
|Darkman||Randall Boyll||0515103780||Jove||1990||Novelization of the film|
|Hudson Hawk||Geoffrey Marsh||0515107387 / 978-0515107388||Jove Books||1991||Novelization of the film|
|Bram Stoker's Dracula||Fred Saberhagen, James V. Hart||0451175751||Sigent Books||1992||Novelization of the film|
|Far and Away||Sonja Massie||0-425-13298-6||Berkley Books||1992||Novelization of the film|
|Demolition Man||Robert Tine||0451180798||E. P. Dutton||1993||Novelization of the film|
|12 Monkeys||Elizabeth Hand||0061056588||HarperPrism||1995||Novelization of the film|
|Lord of Illusions||Clive Barker||0751516511||Little, Brown and Company||1995||Novelization of the film|
|Dragonheart||Charles Edward Pogue||1572971304||Berkley Books||1996||Novelization of the film|
|Space Jam||Francine Hughes||0590945556 / 978-0590945554||Scholastic Corporation||1996||Novelization of the film|
|Mars Attacks!||Jonathan Gems||0451192567 / 978-0451192561||Signet Books||1996||Novelization of the film|
|Good Burger||Joseph Locke||978-0671016920||Pocket Books||1997||Novelization of the film|
|Men in Black||Steve Perry||0553577565||Bantam Books||1997||Novelization of the film|
|Mulan||Cathy East Dubowski||0786842229||Disney Press||1998||Junior novelization of the film|
|The Iron Giant||James Preller||0439086345||Scholastic Corporation||1999||Junior novelization of the film|
|The Road to El Dorado||Peter Lerangis||0141310049 / 978-0141310046||Puffin Books||2000||Novelization of the film|
|Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl||Irene Trimble||0736421718||Disney Press||2003||Junior novelization of the film|
|The Punisher||D.A. Stern||0345475569||Del Rey Books||2004||Novelization of the film|
|Van Helsing||Kevin Ryan||0743493540||HarperCollins||2004||Novelization of the film|
|Snakes on a Plane||Christa Faust||1844163814||Games Workshop||2006||Novelization of the film|
|The Toxic Avenger: The Novel||Lloyd Kaufman, Adam Jahnke||1560258705||Running Press||2006||Novelization of the film|
|V for Vendetta||Steve Moore||1416516999||Pocket Star Books||2006||Novelization of the film|
|30 Days of Night||Tim Lebbon||1416544976||Pocket Star Books||2007||Novelization of the film|
|Jennifer's Body||Audrey Nixon||006180892X||HarperFestival||2009||Novelization of the film|
|ParaNorman||Elizabeth Cody Kimmel||0316231851||Little, Brown Books for Young Readers||2012||Novelization of the film|
|Pacific Rim||Alex Irvine||9781781166789||Titan Books||2013||Novelization of the film|
|Manos: The Hands of Fate||Stephen D. Sullivan||1519301340||Walkabout Publishing||2015||Novelization of the film|
|Kubo and the Two Strings||Sadie Chesterfield||0316361445||Little, Brown and Company||2016||Novelization of the film|
|Plan 9 from Outer Space||Matthew Ewald||1523689307||Darkstone Productions, LLC||2016||Novelization of the film|
|Zootopia||Suzanne Francis||0736433945||Disney Press||2016||Junior novelization of the film|
|Mean Girls||Micol Ostow||133828195X||Scholastic Corporation||2017||Novelization of the film|
|The House on Haunted Hill||Tommy Jamerson||9781940865256||Next Stage Press||2019||Novelization of the film|
|Pan's Labyrinth: The Labyrinth of the Faun||Guillermo del Toro, Cornelia Funke||0062414461||Katherine Tegen||2019||Novelization of the film|
|Nightmare Pavilion||Andy Rausch||1-951036-21-2||Happy Cloud Publishing||2020||Novelization of the film Carnival of Souls|
Novels based on playsEdit
Novels based on television programsEdit
|Flight into Danger (1958)||John Castle and Arthur Hailey||Souvenir Press||[none]||1958||Novelization of the CBC play of the same title; later adapted as the television film Terror in the Sky (1971).|
|Boy Dominic (1974)||Geoffrey Morgan||Armada Books||ISBN 0-006-90904-3||1974||Based on the Yorkshire series of the same title.|
|The View from Daniel Pike (1974)||Edward Boyd and Bill Knox|
|Intimate Strangers (1974)||Alan Wykes||New English Library||ISBN 0-450-02314-1||September 1974||Novelization of the LWT series of the same title.|
|The Organization (1974)||Philip Mackie|
|Arthur of the Britons (1975)||Rex Edwards||Target Books||ISBN 0-426-10540-0||1975||Original novel on the Harlech series of the same title.|
|Victorian Scandals (1976)||Peter Wildeblood||Arrow Books||ISBN 0-099-13940-5||1976||Original novel on the Granada series of the same title.|
|Danger UXB (1979)||Michael Beaker||Pan Books and Macmillian London||ISBN 0-330-25671-8||1979||Original novel based on the Thames series of the same title.|
|Quest of Eagles (1979)||Richard Cooper|
|The Omega Factor (1979)||Jack Gerson|
|The Ravelled Thread (1979)||John Lucarotti||Puffin Books|
|The Further Adventures of Oliver Twist (1980)||David Butler||Futura Publications||ISBN 0-7088-1724-6||1980||Novelization of the ATV serial of the same title.|
|Automan (1984)||Martin Noble||Target Books||ISBN 0-426-19975-8||1984||Novelization of the pilot episode of the series of the same title.|
|By the Sword Divided (1983)||Mollie Hardwick|
|The Bounder (1983)||Eric Chappell|
|The Outsider (1983)||Hugh Miller|
|Morgan's Boy (1984)||Alick Rowe||Sphere Books||ISBN 0-426-10540-0||1984||Novelization of the BBC One series of the same title.|
|Mitch (1984)||Roger Mark||New English Library||ISBN 0-450-05516-7||1984||Novelization of the LWT series of the same title.|
|Charlie (1984)||Nigel Williams|
|Lytton's Diary (1985)||Ray Connolly|
|Connie (1985)||Ron Hutchinson|
|The Collectors (1986)||Evan Christie||Novelization of the BBC One series of the same title.|
Novels by seriesEdit
|Battlestar Galactica (1978)||Battlestar Galactica (1978)||Glen A. Larson and Robert Thurston||Novelization of the pilot episode "Saga of a Star World".|
|Battlestar Galactica 2: The Cylon Death Machine (1979)||Novelization|
|Battlestar Galactica 3: The Tombs of Kobol (1979)||Novelization|
|Battlestar Galactica 4: The Young Warriors (1979)||Novelization|
|Battlestar Galactica 5: Galactica Discovers Earth (1980)||Glen A. Larson and Michael Resnick||Novelization of the episode of the same title from Galactica 1980.|
|Battlestar Galactica 6: The Living Legend (1980)||Glen A. Larson and Nicholas Yermakov||Novelization|
|Battlestar Galactica 7: War of the Gods (1980)||Novelization|
|Battlestar Galactica 8: Greetings from Earth (1980)||Glen A. Larson and Ron Goulart||Novelization|
|Battlestar Galactica 9: Experiment in Terra (1980)||Novelization|
|Battlestar Galactica 10: The Long Patrol (1980)||Novelization|
|Battlestar Galactica 11: The Nightmare Machine (1980)||Glen A. Larson and Robert Thurston||Original novel|
|Battlestar Galactica 12: "Die, Chameleon!" (1980)||Original novel|
|Battlestar Galactica 13: Apollo's War (1980)||Original novel|
|Battlestar Galactica 14: Surrender the Galactica! (1980)||Original novel|
|Ben Casey||Ben Casey (1962)||William Johnston||Lancer Books|
|Ben Casey: A Rage for Justice (1962)||Norman Daniels|
|Ben Casey: The Strength of His Hands (1963)||Sam Elkin|
|Ben Casey: The Fire Within (1963)||Norman Daniels|
|Buck Rogers in the 25th Century||Buck Rogers in the 25th Century (1978)||Addison E. Steele||Novelization of the pilot film|
|Buck Rogers: That Man on Beta (1979)||Novelization of an unproduced teleplay from the series|
Novels based on video gamesEdit
- Ballantine Books
- Dell Publishing
- Target Books
- Tor Books
- Alan Dean Foster
- List of Alien (franchise) novels
- List of Alien vs. Predator novels
- List of Disney novelizations
- List of Doctor Who novelizations
- List of Nickelodeon novelizations
- List of Predator (franchise) novels
- List of Star Trek novels
- List of Star Wars books
- List of television series made into books
- The X-Files literature
- Jones, J. R. (November 18, 2011). "You've seen the movie—now write the book". The Chicago Reader. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- Suskind, Alex (27 August 2014). "Yes, People Still Read Movie Novelizations ... And Write Them, Too". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- David Cuciz: GameSpy Interviews – Alan Dean Foster. The Writing Game, August 2000 Archived 2008-01-03 at the Wayback Machine
- Kobel, Peter (April 1, 2001). "To Some, a Movie Is Just an Outline for a Book". The New York Times.
- "David Morrell on Rambo". Archived from the original on October 4, 2013. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- Alter, Alexandra (4 January 2015). "Popular TV Series and Movies Maintain Relevance as Novels". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
- "The Tie-In Life by Raymond Benson". Archived from the original on June 14, 2015. Retrieved February 1, 2011.
- Allison, Deborah (2007). "Film/Print: Novelisations and Capricorn One". M/C Journal. 10 (2). doi:10.5204/mcj.2633. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
- "Snakes on a Plane". Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- Barry, Rick (February 12, 2012). "Review: The Novelization of Disney's John Carter".
- "Theatrical Separated Rights". Writers Guild of America, West. Archived from the original on February 11, 2013. Retrieved April 13, 2013.
- Britton 2005, p. 149.
- Busch, Jenna (May 25, 2011). "Interview with Alan Dean Foster, Author of Terminator Salvation: The Official Movie Novelization". HuffPost. Retrieved April 13, 2013.
George wrote the script, I wrote the novelization, George vetted the result, and Del Rey published it
- "Movies and TV". The Modesty Blaise Book Covers. Archived from the original on May 16, 2012. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
Peter O'Donnell's script was rewritten by five different writers, until only one line of the original remained
- Gilden, Mel. "Are Novelizations the Scum of Literature?". Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- "What is a Tie-In Writer?". Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- "License to Kill". Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- "Goldeneye". Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- "Gardner, Benson & Bond". January 26, 1995.
- Griffin, Bob; Griffin, John (December 5, 1999). "The Son of the Phantom (1944–1946)". The Deep Woods.
- Pringle 1998, p. 119.
- Hamilton & Jones 2009, p. 198.
- Shatzky & Taub 1997, p. 79.
- Turner 1996, p. 172.
- Asimov, Isaac (1981). In joy still felt : the autobiography of Isaac Asimov, 1954-1978. New York: Avon. ISBN 0-380-53025-2. OCLC 7880716.
- "Lee Falk: Father of The Phantom". Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- Forbeck, Matt (July 22, 2010). "How to Write a Tie-In Novel". The Escapist.
- Kojima Productions [@KojiPro2015_EN] (June 13, 2016). "Just so you know; the "Hitori Nojima" from whose name is at the end of the trailer is actually our friend Kenji Yano" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Kevin McClory, Jack Whittingham and Ian Fleming". Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- "Modesty Blaise Trivia". TCM. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- "Modesty Blaise Trivia". IMDB. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- Nathan, Paul S. (1975). "Rights and Permissions". Publishers Weekly. 207 (Part 2): 28.
- Legge, Jeff (2017-11-21). "From Script to Screen: No Country for Old Men". The Script Lab. Retrieved 2022-04-26.
- Patterson, John (December 21, 2007). "We've killed a lot of animals". Film/Interviews. The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2022-04-26.
- anonymous (September 1977). "Bits & Pieces". Starlog (8): 16, 30.
- "King Kong by Delos W. Lovelace".
- "Dr. Cyclops by Will Garth".
- "Godzilla - A Novelization|NOOK Book".
- "Blood Feast".
- "Two Thousand Maniacs!".
- "House of Dark Shadows (Dark Shadows tie-in)".
- "Super Fly: A Novelization Based On The Original Screenplay by Philip Fenty".
- "Blazing Saddles by Tad Richards".
- "Black Christmas by Lee Hays".
- "The Wicker Man by Robin Hardy".
- "Mad Max by Terry Kaye".
- "The Funhouse by Dean Koontz".
- "Teddy by John Gault".
- "Butcher, Baker, Nightmare Maker by Joseph Burgo".
- "Final Exam".
- "Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Ark by Campbell Black".
- "The Wave by Todd Strasser".
- "Poltergeist by James Kahn".
- "The Adventures of Buckaroo Banzai Across the Eighth Dim…".
- "Escape from New York by Mike McQuay".
- "Fright Night by John Skipp".
- "The Terminator by Randall Frakes".
- "Harry and the Hendersons by Joyce Thompson".
- "Lethal Weapon by Joel Norst".
- "The Lost Boys by Craig Shaw Gardner".
- "Re-Animator by Jeff Rovin".
- "Total Recall".
- "Darkman by Randall Boyll".
- "Bram Stoker's Dracula by Fred Saberhagen".
- "Demolition Man by Robert Tine".
- "Twelve Monkeys by Elizabeth Hand".
- "Lord of Illusions by Clive Barker".
- "Dragonheart by Charles Edward Pogue".
- "Mars Attacks! by Jonathan Gems".
- "Men In Black by Steve Perry".
- "Disney's Mulan".
- "Iron Giant".
- "The Road to El Dorado by Peter Lerangis".
- "Pirates of the Caribbean".
- "The Punisher".
- "Van Helsing by Kevin Ryan".
- "Snakes on a Plane by Christa Faust".
- "The Toxic Avenger: The Novel by Lloyd Kaufman".
- "V for Vendetta".
- "30 Days of Night: Official Novelization of the Film".
- "Jennifer's Body by Audrey Nixon".
- "ParaNorman by Elizabeth Cody Kimmel".
- "Pacific Rim: The Official Movie Novelization by Alexander C. Irvine".
- "MANOS - the Hands of Fate".
- "Kubo and the Two Strings: The Junior Novel by Sadie Chesterfield".
- "Plan 9 From Outer Space: Movie Novelization by Matthew Ewald".
- "Zootopia (Junior Novelization)".
- "Mean Girls by Micol Ostow".
- "The House on Haunted Hill".
- "Pan's Labyrinth: The Labyrinth of the Faun by Guillermo del Toro".
- "Nightmare Pavilion".
- Britton, Wesley Alan (2005). Beyond Bond: Spies in Fiction and Film. Praeger. ISBN 0-275-98556-3.
- Hamilton, Geoff & Jones, Brian (2009). Encyclopedia of American Popular Fiction. Facts on File. ISBN 978-0-8160-7157-9.
- Pringle, David (1998). St. James Guide to Horror, Ghost & Gothic Writers. St. James Press. ISBN 1-55862-206-3.
- Shatzky, Joel & Taub, Michael, eds. (1997). Contemporary Jewish-American Novelists: A Bio-critical Sourcebook. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-29462-3.
- Turner, Richard Charles (1996). Ken Follett: A Critical Companion. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-29415-1.
- Baetens, Jan (2007). "From Screen to Text: Novelization, the Hidden Continent". In Cartmell, Deborah; Whelehan, Imelda (eds.). The Cambridge Companion to Literature on Screen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 226–38.
- Baetens, Jan (2005). "Novelization, a Contaminated Genre?". Critical Inquiry. 32 (1): 43–60. doi:10.1086/498003. ISSN 0093-1896. JSTOR 10.1086/498003. S2CID 162192040.
- Baetens, Jan; Lits, Marc, eds. (2004). La Novellisation: Du film au livre [Novelization: From Film to Novel] (in French). Leuven: Leuven University Press.
- Larson, Randall D. (1995). Films Into Books. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810829282.
- Mahlknecht, Johannes (2012). "The Hollywood Novelization: Film as Literature or Literature as Film Promotion?". Poetics Today. 33 (2): 137–168. doi:10.1215/03335372-1586572.
- Siskind, Mariano (2010). "The Globalization of the Novel and the Novelization of the Global. A Critique of World Literature". Comparative Literature. 62 (4): 336–360. doi:10.1215/00104124-2010-021. JSTOR 40962923.
- Van Parys, Thomas (2009). "The Commercial Novelization: Research, History, Differentiation". Literature/Film Quarterly. 37 (4): 305–317. JSTOR 43797691.