Novelization

A novelization (or novelisation) is a derivative novel that adapts the story of a work created for another medium, such as a film, TV series, stage play, comic book or video game. Film novelizations were particularly popular before the advent of home video, but continue to find commercial success as part of marketing campaigns for major films. They are often written by accomplished writers based on an early draft of the film's script and on a tight deadline.

1915 novelization of the original 1904 play Peter and Wendy

History and purposeEdit

 
Novelization of chapter 8 of the film series Les Vampires (1915–16).

Novelizations of films began to be produced in the 1910s and 1920s for silent films such as Les Vampires (1915–16) and London After Midnight (1927). One of the first films with spoken dialogue to be novelized was King Kong (1933). Film novelizations were especially profitable during the 1970s before home video became available,[1] as they were then the only way to re-experience popular movies other than television airing or a rerelease in theaters. The novelizations of Star Wars (1977), Alien (1979) and Star Trek:The Motion Picture (1979) sold millions of copies.[2]

The first ever video game to be novelised was Shadowkeep, in 1984.[3]

Even after the advent of home video, film novelizations remain popular, with the adaptation of Godzilla (2014) being included on The New York Times Best Seller list for mass-market paperbacks. This has been attributed to these novels' appeal to fans: About 50% of novelizations are sold to people who have watched the film and want to explore its characters further, or to reconnect to the enthusiasm they experienced when watching the film.[2] A film is therefore also a sort of commercial for its novelization; the film's success or failure affects the novelization's sales.[4] Conversely, film novelizations help generate publicity for upcoming films, serving as a link in the film's marketing chain.[5]

According to publishing industry estimates, about one or two percent of the audience of a film will buy its novelization. This makes these relatively inexpensively produced works a commercially attractive proposition in the case of blockbuster film franchises. The increasing number of previously established novelists taking on tie-in works has been credited with these works gaining a "patina of respectability" after they had previously been disregarded in literary circles as derivative and mere merchandise.[6]

VariantsEdit

FilmEdit

 
King Kong (1932) novelization of King Kong (1933)

The writer of a novelization is supposed to multiply the 20,000–25,000 words of a screenplay into at least 60,000 words.[4] Writers usually achieve that by adding description or introspection.[5] Ambitious writers are driven to work on transitions and characters just to accomplish "a more prose-worthy format". Sometimes the "novelizer" invents new scenes in order to give the plot "added dimension", provided they are allowed to do that.[7] Publishers aim to have novelizations in shops before a film is released, which means it is usually necessary to base the novelization on a screenplay instead of the completed film.[8] It might take an insider to tell whether a novelization diverges unintentionally from the final film because it is based on an earlier version which included deleted scenes.[1] Thus the novelization occasionally presents material which will later on appear in a director's cut.[9] In some cases, separate novelizations of the same film are written for publication in different countries, and these may be based on different drafts of the screenplay, as was very clearly the case with the American and British novelizations of Capricorn One.[8] Writers select different approaches to enrich a screenplay. Dewey Gram's Gladiator, for example, included historical background information.

If a film is based on a novel, the original novel is generally reissued with a cover based on the film's poster.[10] If a film company also wishes to have a separate novelization published, the company is supposed to approach the author who has "Separated Rights". A writer has these rights if he contributed the source material (or added a great deal of creative input to it) and if he was moreover properly credited.[11]

Novelizations also exist where the film itself is based on an original novel: novelist and screenwriter Christopher Wood wrote a novelization of the James Bond film The Spy Who Loved Me. Although the 1962 Ian Fleming novel was still available in bookstores, its story had nothing to do with the 1977 film. To avoid confusion, Wood's novelization was titled James Bond, The Spy Who Loved Me.[12] This novel is also an example of a screenwriter novelizing his own screenplay. Star Wars: From the Adventures of Luke Skywalker was published under the name of George Lucas but his script had been novelized by the prolific tie-in writer Alan Dean Foster.[13]

Acquiring editors looking for a novelizer have different issues. The author may not have all of the information needed; Foster wrote the Alien novelization without knowing what the Xenomorph looked like. The contract may be very restrictive; Max Allan Collins had to write the novelization for Road to Perdition only based on the film, without the detail he had created for the graphic novel of the same name that the film is based on.[2] Rewrites of scripts may force last-minute novelization rewrites. The script for the 1966 film Modesty Blaise was rewritten by five different authors.[14] The writer or script doctor responsible for the so-called "final" version is not necessarily the artist who has contributed the original idea or most of the scenes. The patchwork character of a film script might even exacerbate because the film director, a principal actor or a consulting script doctor does rewrites during the shooting. An acquiring editor who intends to hire one of the credited screenwriters has to reckon that the early writers are no longer familiar with the current draft or work already on another film script. Not every screenwriter is available, willing to work for less money than what can be earned with film scripts and able to deliver the required amount of prose on time. Even if so, there is still the matter of novelizations having a questionable reputation.[15] The International Association of Media Tie-In Writers concedes that by saying their craft is "largely unrecognized".[16] Writers Guild of America rules require that screenwriters have right of first refusal to write novelizations of their own films, but they rarely do so because of the lack of prestige and money.[4]

Some novels blur the line between a novelization and an original novel that is the basis of a film adaptation. Arthur C. Clarke provided the ideas for Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey. Based on his own short stories and his cooperation with Kubrick during the preparation and making of this film adaptation he wrote the film novelization of the same name which is appreciated by fans because the film provides little exposition, and the novelization fills in some blanks. David Morrell wrote the novel First Blood about John Rambo, which led to the film adaptation of the same name. Although Rambo dies at the end of his original story, Morrell had a paragraph in his contract stipulating he remained "the only person who could write books about Rambo". This paid off for him when the film producers changed the ending and decided for a sequel. David Morrell accepted to carry out the novelization and negotiated unprecedented liberties which resulted in a likewise unprecedented success when his book entered The New York Times Best Seller list and stayed there for six weeks.[5]

Simon Templar or James Bond are examples of media franchises that have been popular for more than one generation. When the feature film The Saint was released in 1997 the creator of this character (Leslie Charteris) had already been dead for four years. Hence its novelization had to be written by another author. Ian Fleming on the other hand had official successors who wrote contemporary "Post-Fleming" James Bond novels. During his tenure John Gardner was consequently chosen to write the novelization of Licence to Kill[17] in 1989 and also the novelization of GoldenEye[18] in 1995. John Gardner found his successor in Raymond Benson[19] who wrote besides several original Bond novels three novelizations including The World Is Not Enough.

ComicsEdit

While comic books such as the series Classics Illustrated have often provided adaptations of novels, novelizations of comics are relatively rare.[20]

Video gamesEdit

Video games are novelized in the same manner as films. While gamers might enjoy playing a certain action scene for hours, the buyers of a novelization might be bored soon if they merely read about such a scene. Consequently, the writer will have to cut down on the action.[7]

AuthorsEdit

Novelization writers are often also accomplished original fiction writers, as well as fans of the works they adapt, which helps motivate them to undertake a commission that is generally compensated with a relatively low flat fee. Alan Dean Foster, for example, said that, as a fan, "I got to make my own director's cut. I got to fix the science mistakes, I got to enlarge on the characters, if there was a scene I particularly liked, I got to do more of it, and I had an unlimited budget. So it was fun".[2]

Writing skill is particularly needed for challenging situations common to writing novelizations of popular media, such as lack of access to information about the film, last-minute script changes and very quick turnaround times. Collins had to write the novelization of In the Line of Fire in nine days.[2]

Although novelizations tend to have a low prestige, and are often viewed as "hackwork",[2] several critically acclaimed literary authors have written novelizations, including, Arthur Calder-Marshall,[21] William Kotzwinkle[22] and Richard Elman.[23] Best-selling author Ken Follett, early in his career, also wrote a novelization, and so did Isaac Asimov, later in his career.[24][25] While increasingly also a domain of previously established novelists, tie-in writing still has the disadvantages, from the writers' point of view, of modest pay, tight deadlines and no ownership in the intellectual property created.[6]

The International Association of Media Tie-In Writers is an American association that aims to recognize the writers of adapted and tie-in fiction. It hands out annual awards, the "Scribes", in categories including "best adapted novel".[2]

TV seriesEdit

Doctor Who had stories novelised in particular from the era of its original series published by Target Books.

Episodes of Star Trek were adapted into short stories by the noted science fiction writer James Blish. Each volume of the stories included a number of the short story adaptations. Alan Dean Foster would later adapt the follow-up animated series into the Star Trek Log series.

Mel Gilden wrote novelizations of Beverly Hills, 90210, merging three episodes into one book. As he explained, this approach required him to look for a joint story arc.[15]

ComicsEdit

In the early 1970s Lee Falk was asked by the Avon publishing house to deliver Phantom novels based on the eponymous comic strip. Falk worked on the novelizations on his own and with collaboration. A dispute over how he would be credited led to the cessation of the series.[26]

Peter O'Donnell, who scripted the Modesty Blaise comic strip, later authored novels featuring the character not directly based on the stories presented in the strips.

Video gamesEdit

Matt Forbeck became a writer of novels based on video games after he had been "writing tabletop roleplaying game books for over a decade".[27] He worked also as a designer of video games.

S. D. Perry wrote a series of novels based on the Resident Evil video games and added tie-ins to the novelizations, covering all the mainline titles in the series up until Resident Evil Zero.

Eric Nylund introduced a new concept for a novelization when he delivered a trilogy, consisting of a prequel titled Halo: The Fall of Reach, an actual novelization titled Halo: First Strike and a sequel titled Halo: Ghosts of Onyx.

Raymond Benson novelized the original Metal Gear Solid in 2008 and its sequel Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty, while Project Itoh wrote a Japanese language novelization of Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots also in 2008 (with an English adaptation later published in 2012). Itoh was set to write novelizations of Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater and Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker, but his death in 2009 resulted in these projects being handed to Beatless author Satoshi Hase and a new writer named Hitori Nojima (a pen name for Kenji Yano) respectively.[28] Nojima would go on to write Metal Gear Solid: Substance (a two-part alternate novelization of the original Metal Gear Solid and Metal Gear Solid 2), as well as the novelizations of Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain and Death Stranding (a game which he helped write the script for).

Orphaned novelizationsEdit

In some cases an otherwise standard novel may be based on an unfilmed screenplay. Ian Fleming's 1961 James Bond novel Thunderball was based on a script he had co-written; in this case his collaborators subsequently sued for plagiarism.[29]

Peter O'Donnell's novel Modesty Blaise was a novelization of a refused film script. In this case the creator of the main character had written the script alone. But later on other authors had changed O'Donnell's original script over and over, until merely one single sentence remained from the original.[14][30][31] The novel was released a year before the film and unlike the film it had sequels.

Frederick Forsyth's 1979 novel The Devil's Alternative was based on an unfilmed script he had written.[32]

Cormac McCarthy's 2005 novel No Country for Old Men was adapted from a screenplay the author wrote.[33] This allowed the Coen brothers to stick "almost word for word" faithfully to the book when adapting it back into a screenplay for the acclaimed 2007 film of the same name.[34]

Occasionally a novelization is issued even though the film is never made. Gordon Williams wrote the script and novelization for producer Harry Saltzman's abandoned film The Micronauts.[35]

Lists of novelizationsEdit

Novels based on comicsEdit

Novels based on filmsEdit

Novels by franchiseEdit

Franchise Title Author(s) ISBN Publisher Notes
Bad News Bears The Bad News Bears (1976) Richard Woodley 0-440-90823-X/978-0-440-90823-4 Dell Publishing Novelization of the film
The Bad News Bears in Breaking Training (1977) 0-440-10417-3/978-0-440-10417-9 Novelization of the film
The Bad News Bears Go to Japan (1978) 0-440-10427-0/978-0-440-10427-8 Novelization of the film
Blade Runner Blade Runner: A Story of the Future (1982) Les Martin 0-394-85303-2 Random House Novelization of the film
Blade Runner 2: The Edge of Human (1995) K. W. Jeter 0-553-09979-5/978-0-553-09979-9 Bantam Books Sequel novel to the original film
Blade Runner 3: Replicant Night (1996) 0-553-09983-3/978-0-553-09983-6 Spectra Second sequel novel to the original film
Blade Runner 4: Eye and Talon (2000) 0-575-06865-5/978-0-575-06865-0 Gollancz Third sequel novel to the original film
Dollars Trilogy A Fistful of Dollars (1972) Frank Chandler Novelization of the film
For a Few Dollars More (1965) Joe Millard Novelization of the film
The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (1967) Novelization of the film
A Coffin Full of Dollars (1971) 0-352-30744-7/978-0-352-30744-6 Award Books Original novel
A Dollar to Die For Brian Fox
The Devil's Dollar Sign Joe Millard
The Million-Dollar Bloodhunt
Blood for a Dirty Dollar
E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982) William Kotzwinkle Berkley Books Novelization of the film
E.T.: The Book of the Green Planet (1985) 0-425-08001-3 Sequel novel, published three years after the original film
Friday the 13th Friday the 13th Part 3 3-D (1982) Michael Avallone 0352312491 Tower & Leisure Sales Co. First novelization of the film
Jason Lives: Friday the 13th Part VI (1986) Simon Hawke 0451146417 Signet Novelization of the film
Friday the 13th (1987) 0451150899 Novelization of the 1980 film
Friday the 13th Part II (1988) 0451153375 Novelization of the film
Friday the 13th Part III (1988) 0451153111 Second novelization of the film
Friday the 13th: Mother's Day (1994) William Pattinson (as Eric Morse) 0425142922 Berkley Books Camp Crystal Lake series; the fifth installment was published as e-book; Self-published by the author
Friday the 13th: Jason's Curse (1994)
Friday the 13th: The Carnival (1994)
Friday the 13th: Road Trip (1994)
Friday the 13th: The Mask of Jason Voorhees (2011) None
Freddy vs. Jason (2005) Stephen Hand Novelization of the film
Jason X (2005) Pat Cadigan Novelization of the film
Jason X: The Experiment (2005) 1844161692 Black Flame Jason X series
Jason X: Planet of the Beast (2005) Nancy Kilpatrick Black Flame
Jason X: Death Moon (2005) Alex Johnson Black Flame
Jason X: To the Third Power (2006) Nancy Kilpatrick Black Flame
Friday the 13th: Church of the Divine Psychopath (2005), Scott Phillips 1844161811 Black Flame Friday the 13th series
Friday the 13th: Hell Lake (2005) Paul Woods Black Flame
Friday the 13th: Hate-Kill-Repeat (2005) Jason Arnopp Black Flame
Friday the 13th: The Jason Strain (2006) Chris Faust Black Flame
Friday the 13th: Carnival of Maniacs (2006) Stephen Hand Black Flame
Ghostbusters Ghostbusters (1984) Larry Milne 0727811932 Coronet Books Novelization of the 1984 film
Ghostbusters: The Return (2004) Sholly Fisch 0743479483 I Books Non-canon alternate sequel to Ghostbusters and Ghostbusters II
Halloween Halloween (1979) Curtis Richards 0553132261 / 978-0553132267 Bantam Books Novelization of the 1978 film
Halloween II (1981) Jack Martin 089083864X / 978-0890838648 Zebra Novelization of the film
Halloween III: Season of the Witch (1982) 0515068853 / 978-0515068856 Jove Books Novelization of the film
Halloween IV (1988) Nicholas Grabowsky 1-55547-292-3 / 978-1-55547-292-4 Critic's Choice Paperbacks Novelization of the film Halloween 4: The Return of Michael Myers
Halloween: The Scream Factory (1997) Kelly O'Rourke 157297298X / 978-1572972988 Boulevard Books Original novel
Halloween: The Old Myers Place (1997) 1572973412 / 978-1572973411 Original novel
Halloween: The Mad House (1998) 1572973420 / 978-1572973428 Original novel
Halloween (2018) John Passarella Novelization of the 2018 film
Herbie The Love Bug (1969) Mel Cebulash Novelization of the film
Herbie Rides Again (1974) Novelization of the film
Herbie Goes to Monte Carlo (1977) Vic Crume 0-590-10402-0/978-0-590-10402-9 Scholastic Book Services Novelization of the film
Herbie Goes Bananas (1980) Joe Claro 0-590-31609-5/978-0-590-31609-5 Scholastic Book Services Novelization of the film
Herbie: Fully Loaded (2005) Novelization of the film
It's Alive It's Alive (1977) Richard Woodley 0-345-25879-7 /978-0-345-25879-3 Ballantine Books Novelization of the film
It Lives Again (1978) James Dixon 0-345-27693-0/978-0-345-27693-3 Ballantine Books Novelization of the film
Jaws Jaws 2 (1978) Hank Searls 0-553-11708-4 Bantam Books Novelization of the film
Jaws: The Revenge (1987) 0-425-10546-6 Berkley Books Novelization of the film
James Bond James Bond, The Spy Who Loved Me (1977) Christopher Wood 0-224-01497-8/978-0-224-01497-7 Jonathan Cape Novelization of the film
James Bond and Moonraker (1979) 0-224-01734-9 Novelization of the film
King Kong King Kong (1932) Delos W. Lovelace Grosset & Dunlap Novelization of the 1933 film
King Kong (2005) Christopher Golden 1-4165-0391-9 Pocket Star Books Novelization of the 2005 film
Living Dead Night of the Living Dead (1974) John A. Russo 0446764108 / 978-0446764100 Warner Paperback Library Novelization of the 1968 film
Return of the Living Dead (1977) John A. Russo 089559062X / 978-0895590626 Dale Publishing Alternate sequel novel to the 1968 film; later adapted to film as The Return of the Living Dead (1985)
Dawn of the Dead (1978) George A. Romero
Susanna Sparrow
0312183933 / 978-0312183936 St. Martin's Press Novelization of the 1978 film
The Living Dead (2020) George A. Romero
Daniel Kraus
9781250305121 Tor Books Original novel
A Nightmare on Elm Street The Nightmares on Elm Street Parts 1, 2, 3: The Continuing Story (1987) Jeffrey Cooper 0-312-90517-3/978-0-312-90517-0 St. Martin's Press Novelization of the 1984 film and the sequels Freddy's Revenge and Dream Warriors
The Nightmares on Elm Street Parts 4 & 5 (1989) Joseph Locke 0-312-91764-3/978-0-312-91764-7 Novelization of the films The Dream Master and The Dream Child
Wes Craven's New Nightmare (1994) David Bergantino 0-812-55166-4/978-0-812-55166-2 Tor Books Novelization of the film
The Omen The Omen (1976) David Seltzer 0-8600-7371-8 Futura Books
Signet
Novelization of the 1976 film
Damien: Omen II (1978) Joseph Howard 0-7088-1358-5 Novelization of the film
The Final Conflict (1981) Gordon McGill 0-7088-1958-3 Novelization of the film
Omen IV: Armageddon 2000 (1983) 0-7088-2275-4 First of two novels set after The Final Conflict, unrelated to the 1991 film Omen IV: The Awakening
Omen V: The Abomination (1985) 0-7088-2745-4 Second of two novels set after The Final Conflict
The Pink Panther The Pink Panther (1963) Martin Albert 9765339216/978-9765339211 Bantam Books Novelization of the 1963 film
The Return of the Pink Panther (1975) Frank Waldman 0345251237/978-0345251237 Ballantine Books
Futura Books
Novelization of the film
The Pink Panther Strikes Again (1976) 0213166380/978-0213166380 Novelization of the film
The Pink Panther (2006) Max Allan Collins Novelization of the 2006 film
Planet of the Apes Beneath the Planet of the Apes (1970) Michael Avallone 0553080334/978-0553080339 Bantam Books Novelization of the film
Escape from the Planet of the Apes (1971) Jerry Pournelle Award Books Novelization of the film
Conquest of the Planet of the Apes (1972) John Jakes 0095132414/978-0095132411 Novelization of the film
Battle for the Planet of the Apes (1973) David Gerrold 0891901639/978-0891901631 Novelization of the film
Rambo Rambo: First Blood Part II (1985) David Morrell 0-515-08399-2 Jove Books Novelization of the film
Rambo III (1988) 0-515-09333-5 Novelization of the film
The Shaggy Dog The Shaggy Dog (1967) Elizabeth L. Griffen [none] Scholastic Book Services Novelization of the 1959 film
The Shaggy D. A. (1976) Vic Crume 0-449-13642-6/978-0-449-13642-3 Fawcett Publications Novelization of the film
Species Species (1995) Yvonne Navarro 0-553-57404-3 Bantam Books Novelization of the film
Species II (1998) 0-812-57075-8 Tom Doherty Associates, LLC Novelization of the film
Witch Mountain Return from Witch Mountain (1978) Alexander Key 0-664-32630-7/978-0-664-32630-2 Westminster Press Novelization of the film
Race to Witch Mountain (2009) James Ponti Novelization of the film

Standalone novelsEdit

Title Author ISBN Publisher Release Date Notes
King Kong Edgar Wallace 081297493X Modern Library 1933 Novelization of the film[36]
Dr. Cyclops Henry Kuttner 0445024852 Stellar Publishing 1940 Novelization of the film[37]
Monster Godzilla Shigeru Kayama Iwatani Bookstore 1954 Novelization of the film Godzilla[38]
Blood Feast Herschell Gordon Lewis 9780938782070 Novel Books 1964 Novelization of the film[39]
Two Thousand Maniacs! Herschell Gordon Lewis 0938782088 Noel Books 1964 Novelization of the film[40]
House of Dark Shadows Marilyn Ross Paperback Library 1970 Novelization of the film[41]
THX 1138 Ben Bova 0446897116 / 978-0446897112 Paperback Library 1971 Novelization of the film
Super Fly Philip Fenty 034502818X Sphere Books 1972 Novelization of the film[42]
Coffy Paul W. Fairman 1973 Novelization of the film[43]
That Darn Cat The Gordons 0590086138 / 978-0590086134 Scholastic Book Services 1973 Novelization of the 1965 film, published eight years after the release of the source film
Blazing Saddles Tad Richards 0446765368 Warner Paperback Library 1974 Novelization of the film[44]
The Sugarland Express Henry Clement [none] Popular Library 1974 Novelization of the film
Black Christmas Lee Hays [none] Popular Library 1976 Novelization of the film[45]
Communion Frank Lauria 0553112414 Random House Publishing 1977 Novelization of the film, better known as Alice, Sweet Alice[46]
Freshwater Julian Michael Carver 1922551945 Severed Press 2021 Novelization of the film
Close Encounters of the Third Kind Steven Spielberg 0-440-11433-0 Dell Books 1977 Novelization of the film
The Cat from Outer Space Ted Key 067181740X / 978-0671560546 Pocket Books 1978 Novelization of the film
Hot Lead and Cold Feet Ted Sparks 0590120638 / 978-0590120630 Scholastic Book Services 1978 Novelization of the film
Pete's Dragon Jean Bethell 044816101X / 978-0448161013 Wonder Books 1978 American novelization of the 1977 film
Pete's Dragon Dewy Moffatt 0450038378 / 978-0450038372 New English Library 1978 British novelization of the 1977 film
Warlords of Atlantis Paul Victor 0708813925 / 978-0708813928 Futura Books 1978 Novelization of the film
The Wicker Man Robin Hardy, Anthony Shaffer 0307382761 Crown Publishing Group 1978 Novelization of the film[47]
1941 Bob Gale 0-345-28332-5 / 978-0-345-28332-0 Ballantine Books 1979 Novelization of the film
American Gigolo Timothy Harris 0385280254 / 978-0385280259 Dell Publishing 1979 Novelization of the film; published a year before the release of the source film
The Apple Dumpling Gang Rides Again Gary Poole 0441025854 / 978-0441025855 Ace Books 1979 Novelization of the film
The Black Hole Alan Dean Foster 0-345-29053-4 / 978-0-345-29053-3 Del Rey Books 1979 Novelization of the film
The Complete American Graffiti: The Novel John Minahan 0425045544 / 978-0425045541 Berkley Books 1979 Novelization of the films American Graffiti and More American Graffiti
Mad Max Terry Hayes [none] QB Books 1979 Novelization of the film[48]
Prophecy David Seltzer 0345286421 / 978-0345286420 Ballantine Books 1979 Novelization of the film
The Fog Dennis Etchison 0553138251 / 978-0553138252 Bantam Books 1980 Novelization of the film
The Funhouse Dean Koontz 0-425-14248-5 Jove Books 1980 Novelization of the film, released a year before its source material[49]
The Last Flight of Noah's Ark Chas Carner 0345291735 / 978-0345291738 Ballantine Books July 1980 American novelization of the film
The Last Flight of Noah's Ark Heather Simon 0450050068 / 978-0450050060 New English Library August 1980 British novelization of the film
Midnight Madness Tom Wright 0441529852 / 978-0441529858 Ace Books February 1, 1980 Novelization of the film
Saturn 3 Steve Gallagher 0722137621 / 978-0722137628 Sphere Books 1980 Novelization of the film
Snowball Express Joe Claro 0590303597 / 978-0590303590 Scholastic Book Services 1980 Novelization of the film, released eight years after its source
Teddy John Gault 0770415989 Bantam Books 1980 Novelization of the film The Pit, released a year before its source[50]
Butcher, Baker, Nightmare Maker Joseph Burgo, Richard Natale 0671429353 Pocket Books 1981 Novelization of the film[51]
Condorman Joe Claro 059032022X / 978-0590320221 (original)
0590721577 / 978-0590721578 (reprint)
Scholastic Book Services June 1981 American novelization of the film
Condorman Heather Simon 0450052605 / 978-0450052606 New English Library July 1981 British novelization of the film
The Devil and Max Devlin Robert Grossbach 0345293649 / 978-0345293640 Ballantine Books January 12, 1981 Novelization of the film
Dragonslayer Wayland Drew 034529694X / 978-0345296948 Ballantine Books June 1981 Novelization of the film
Final Exam Geoffrey Meyer 0523415850 Pinnacle Books 1981 Novelization of the film[52]
The Fox and the Hound Heather Simon 0671442910 / 978-0671442910 Archway Paperbacks December 1981 First novelization of the film
Gallipoli Jack Bennett 0-312-31572-4 St. Martins Press 1981 Novelization of the film
Hawk the Slayer Terry Marcel
Harry Robertson
0450050467 / 978-0450050466 New English Library 1981 Novelization of the film
Raiders of the Lost Ark Campbell Armstrong 0345353757 Del Rey Books 1981 Novelization of the film[53]
The Wave Todd Strasser 0-440-99371-7 Dell Publishing 1981 Novelization of the film[54]
Zorro, The Gay Blade Les Dean 0-8439-1007-0 Leisure Books 1981 Novelization of the film
Poltergeist James Kahn 0446302228 Grand Central Pub 1982 Novelization of the film[55]
Buckaroo Banzai Earl Mac Rauch 0375841547 Pocket Books 1984 Novelization of the film[56]
The Jungle Book Jean Bethell 0448161079 Ottenheimer Publishers 1984 Junior novelization of the film
Splash Ian Don 0352315946 / 978-0352315946 Star Books 1984 Novelization of the film
Baby Ian Don 0-352-31693-4 / 978-0-352-31693-6 Star Books 1985 Novelization of the film
Escape from New York Mike McQuay 0553149148 Bantam Books 1985 Novelization of the film[57]
Fright Night John Skipp, Craig Spector 979-8683973254 Goldmann 1985 Novelization of the film[58]
The Journey of Natty Gann Ann Matthews 0671606492 / 978-0671606497 Archway Paperbacks October 1985 Novelization of the film
One Magic Christmas Martin Noble 0426202422 / 978-0426202424 W. H. Allen & Co. 1985 Novelization of the film
My Science Project Mike McQuay 0553253786 / 978-0553253788 Bantam Books 1985 Novelization of the film
Return of the Living Dead John A. Russo 0099426102 / 9780099426103 Arrow Books 1985 Novelization of the film
Return to Oz Joan D. Vinge 034532207X / 978-0345322074 Ballantine Books June 1985
Return to Oz Alistair Hedley 0140319573 / 978-0140319576 Puffin Books 1985 Junior novelization; published as part of the "Young Puffin" series.
The Terminator Randall Frakes, William Wisher Jr. 0553253174 Spectra Books 1985 Novelization of the film[59]
Young Sherlock Holmes Alan Arnold 0583309429 / 978-0583309424 Grafton 1985 Novelization of the film
The Aristocats Victoria Crenson 0816708878 Ottenheimer Publishers 1986 Junior novelization of the film
Down and Out in Beverly Hills Ian Marter 0352318635 / 978-0352318633 Star Books 1986 Novelization of the film
Lady and the Tramp Victoria Crenson 0816708886 Ottenheimer Publishers 1986 Junior novelization of the film
RoboCop Ed Naha 0440174791 Dell Publishing 1986 Novelization of the 1987 film[60]
Ruthless People Martin Noble 0352320265 / 978-0352320261 Star Books 1986 Novelization of the film
Short Circuit Colin Wedgelock 0722170351 / 978-0722170359 Sphere Books 1986 Novelization of the film
Song of the South Victoria Crenson 0816708886 Ottenheimer Publishers 1986 Junior novelization of the film
Adventures in Babysitting Elizabeth Faucher 0-590-41251-5 / 978-0-590-41251-3 Point 1987 Novelization of the film
Harry and the Hendersons Joyce Thompson 042510155X / 978-0425101551 Berkley Books 1987 Novelization of the film[61]
Lethal Weapon Kirk Mitchell 0553174959 Bantam Books 1987 Novelization of the film[62]
The Lost Boys Craig Shaw Gardner 0425100448 Berkley Books 1987 Novelization of the film[63]
Outrageous Fortune Robin Turner 035232080X / 978-0352320803 Star Books 1987 Novelization of the film
Re-Animator Jeff Rovin 0671637231 Pocket Books 1987 Novelization of the film[64]
Tin Men Martin Noble 0352320818 / 978-0352320810 Star Books 1987 Novelization of the film
Tucker: The Man and His Dream Robert Tine 0671665863 / 978-0671665869 Pocket Books 1988 Novelization of the film
Who Framed Roger Rabbit Martin Noble 0352323892 / 978-0352323897 Star Books 1988 Novelization of the film
Who Framed Roger Rabbit Justine Korman 0140341889 Puffin Books 1988 Junior novelization of the film
Willow Wayland Drew 0345351959 / 978-0345351951 Ballantine Books 1988 Novelization of the film
The Abyss Orson Scott Card 0099690608 / 978-0099690603 Pocket Books 1989 Novelization of the film
Black Rain Mike Cogan 067168969X / 978-0671689698 Pocket Books 1989 Novelization of the film
Honey, I Shrunk the Kids Elizabeth Faucher 0140902120 / 978-0140902129 Fantail 1989 Novelization of the film
Honey, I Shrunk the Kids Bonnie Bryant Hiller and Neil W. Hiller 0590421190 / 978-0590421195 Scholastic, Inc. June 1989 Junior novelization of the film
Total Recall Piers Anthony 0688052096 Arrow Books 1989 Novelization of the 1990 film[65]
Darkman Randall Boyll 0515103780 Jove 1990 Novelization of the film[66]
Hudson Hawk Geoffrey Marsh 0515107387 / 978-0515107388 Jove Books 1991 Novelization of the film
Bram Stoker's Dracula Fred Saberhagen, James V. Hart 0451175751 Sigent Books 1992 Novelization of the film[67]
Far and Away Sonja Massie 0-425-13298-6 Berkley Books 1992 Novelization of the film
Demolition Man Robert Tine 0451180798 E. P. Dutton 1993 Novelization of the film[68]
12 Monkeys Elizabeth Hand 0061056588 HarperPrism 1995 Novelization of the film[69]
Lord of Illusions Clive Barker 0751516511 Little, Brown and Company 1995 Novelization of the film[70]
Dragonheart Charles Edward Pogue 1572971304 Berkley Books 1996 Novelization of the film[71]
Space Jam Francine Hughes 0590945556 / 978-0590945554 Scholastic Corporation 1996 Novelization of the film
Mars Attacks! Jonathan Gems 0451192567 / 978-0451192561 Signet Books 1996 Novelization of the film[72]
Good Burger Joseph Locke 978-0671016920 Pocket Books 1997 Novelization of the film
Men in Black Steve Perry 0553577565 Bantam Books 1997 Novelization of the film[73]
Mulan Cathy East Dubowski 0786842229 Disney Press 1998 Junior novelization of the film[74]
The Iron Giant James Preller 0439086345 Scholastic Corporation 1999 Junior novelization of the film[75]
The Road to El Dorado Peter Lerangis 0141310049 / 978-0141310046 Puffin Books 2000 Novelization of the film[76]
Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl Irene Trimble 0736421718 Disney Press 2003 Junior novelization of the film[77]
The Punisher D.A. Stern 0345475569 Del Rey Books 2004 Novelization of the film[78]
Van Helsing Kevin Ryan 0743493540 HarperCollins 2004 Novelization of the film[79]
Snakes on a Plane Christa Faust 1844163814 Games Workshop 2006 Novelization of the film[80]
The Toxic Avenger: The Novel Lloyd Kaufman, Adam Jahnke 1560258705 Running Press 2006 Novelization of the film[81]
V for Vendetta Steve Moore 1416516999 Pocket Star Books 2006 Novelization of the film[82]
30 Days of Night Tim Lebbon 1416544976 Pocket Star Books 2007 Novelization of the film[83]
Jennifer's Body Audrey Nixon 006180892X HarperFestival 2009 Novelization of the film[84]
ParaNorman Elizabeth Cody Kimmel 0316231851 Little, Brown Books for Young Readers 2012 Novelization of the film[85]
Pacific Rim Alex Irvine 9781781166789 Titan Books 2013 Novelization of the film[86]
Manos: The Hands of Fate Stephen D. Sullivan 1519301340 Walkabout Publishing 2015 Novelization of the film[87]
Kubo and the Two Strings Sadie Chesterfield 0316361445 Little, Brown and Company 2016 Novelization of the film[88]
Plan 9 from Outer Space Matthew Ewald 1523689307 Darkstone Productions, LLC 2016 Novelization of the film[89]
Zootopia Suzanne Francis 0736433945 Disney Press 2016 Junior novelization of the film[90]
Mean Girls Micol Ostow 133828195X Scholastic Corporation 2017 Novelization of the film[91]
The House on Haunted Hill Tommy Jamerson 9781940865256 Next Stage Press 2019 Novelization of the film[92]
Pan's Labyrinth: The Labyrinth of the Faun Guillermo del Toro, Cornelia Funke 0062414461 Katherine Tegen 2019 Novelization of the film[93]
Nightmare Pavilion Andy Rausch 1-951036-21-2 Happy Cloud Publishing 2020 Novelization of the film Carnival of Souls[94]

Novels based on playsEdit

Novels based on television programsEdit

Standalone novelsEdit

Title Author Publisher ISBN Publication Date Notes
Flight into Danger (1958) John Castle and Arthur Hailey Souvenir Press [none] 1958 Novelization of the CBC play of the same title; later adapted as the television film Terror in the Sky (1971).
Boy Dominic (1974) Geoffrey Morgan Armada Books ISBN 0-006-90904-3 1974 Based on the Yorkshire series of the same title.
The View from Daniel Pike (1974) Edward Boyd and Bill Knox
Intimate Strangers (1974) Alan Wykes New English Library ISBN 0-450-02314-1 September 1974 Novelization of the LWT series of the same title.
The Organization (1974) Philip Mackie
Arthur of the Britons (1975) Rex Edwards Target Books ISBN 0-426-10540-0 1975 Original novel on the Harlech series of the same title.
Victorian Scandals (1976) Peter Wildeblood Arrow Books ISBN 0-099-13940-5 1976 Original novel on the Granada series of the same title.
Danger UXB (1979) Michael Beaker Pan Books and Macmillian London ISBN 0-330-25671-8 1979 Original novel based on the Thames series of the same title.
Quest of Eagles (1979) Richard Cooper
The Omega Factor (1979) Jack Gerson
The Ravelled Thread (1979) John Lucarotti Puffin Books
The Further Adventures of Oliver Twist (1980) David Butler Futura Publications ISBN 0-7088-1724-6 1980 Novelization of the ATV serial of the same title.
Automan (1984) Martin Noble Target Books ISBN 0-426-19975-8 1984 Novelization of the pilot episode of the series of the same title.
By the Sword Divided (1983) Mollie Hardwick
The Bounder (1983) Eric Chappell
The Outsider (1983) Hugh Miller
Morgan's Boy (1984) Alick Rowe Sphere Books ISBN 0-426-10540-0 1984 Novelization of the BBC One series of the same title.
Mitch (1984) Roger Mark New English Library ISBN 0-450-05516-7 1984 Novelization of the LWT series of the same title.
Charlie (1984) Nigel Williams
Lytton's Diary (1985) Ray Connolly
Connie (1985) Ron Hutchinson
The Collectors (1986) Evan Christie Novelization of the BBC One series of the same title.

Novels by seriesEdit

Series Title Author(s) ISBN Publisher Notes
Battlestar Galactica (1978) Battlestar Galactica (1978) Glen A. Larson and Robert Thurston Novelization of the pilot episode "Saga of a Star World".
Battlestar Galactica 2: The Cylon Death Machine (1979) Novelization
Battlestar Galactica 3: The Tombs of Kobol (1979) Novelization
Battlestar Galactica 4: The Young Warriors (1979) Novelization
Battlestar Galactica 5: Galactica Discovers Earth (1980) Glen A. Larson and Michael Resnick Novelization of the episode of the same title from Galactica 1980.
Battlestar Galactica 6: The Living Legend (1980) Glen A. Larson and Nicholas Yermakov Novelization
Battlestar Galactica 7: War of the Gods (1980) Novelization
Battlestar Galactica 8: Greetings from Earth (1980) Glen A. Larson and Ron Goulart Novelization
Battlestar Galactica 9: Experiment in Terra (1980) Novelization
Battlestar Galactica 10: The Long Patrol (1980) Novelization
Battlestar Galactica 11: The Nightmare Machine (1980) Glen A. Larson and Robert Thurston Original novel
Battlestar Galactica 12: "Die, Chameleon!" (1980) Original novel
Battlestar Galactica 13: Apollo's War (1980) Original novel
Battlestar Galactica 14: Surrender the Galactica! (1980) Original novel
Ben Casey Ben Casey (1962) William Johnston Lancer Books
Ben Casey: A Rage for Justice (1962) Norman Daniels
Ben Casey: The Strength of His Hands (1963) Sam Elkin
Ben Casey: The Fire Within (1963) Norman Daniels
Buck Rogers in the 25th Century Buck Rogers in the 25th Century (1978) Addison E. Steele Novelization of the pilot film
Buck Rogers: That Man on Beta (1979) Novelization of an unproduced teleplay from the series

Novels based on video gamesEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Jones, J. R. (November 18, 2011). "You've seen the movie—now write the book". The Chicago Reader. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Suskind, Alex (27 August 2014). "Yes, People Still Read Movie Novelizations ... And Write Them, Too". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
  3. ^ David Cuciz: GameSpy Interviews – Alan Dean Foster. The Writing Game, August 2000 Archived 2008-01-03 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ a b c Kobel, Peter (April 1, 2001). "To Some, a Movie Is Just an Outline for a Book". The New York Times.
  5. ^ a b c "David Morrell on Rambo". Archived from the original on October 4, 2013. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
  6. ^ a b Alter, Alexandra (4 January 2015). "Popular TV Series and Movies Maintain Relevance as Novels". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  7. ^ a b "The Tie-In Life by Raymond Benson". Archived from the original on June 14, 2015. Retrieved February 1, 2011.
  8. ^ a b Allison, Deborah (2007). "Film/Print: Novelisations and Capricorn One". M/C Journal. 10 (2). doi:10.5204/mcj.2633. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  9. ^ "Snakes on a Plane". Retrieved March 28, 2013.
  10. ^ Barry, Rick (February 12, 2012). "Review: The Novelization of Disney's John Carter".
  11. ^ "Theatrical Separated Rights". Writers Guild of America, West. Archived from the original on February 11, 2013. Retrieved April 13, 2013.
  12. ^ Britton 2005, p. 149.
  13. ^ Busch, Jenna (May 25, 2011). "Interview with Alan Dean Foster, Author of Terminator Salvation: The Official Movie Novelization". HuffPost. Retrieved April 13, 2013. George wrote the script, I wrote the novelization, George vetted the result, and Del Rey published it
  14. ^ a b "Movies and TV". The Modesty Blaise Book Covers. Archived from the original on May 16, 2012. Retrieved March 28, 2013. Peter O'Donnell's script was rewritten by five different writers, until only one line of the original remained
  15. ^ a b Gilden, Mel. "Are Novelizations the Scum of Literature?". Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
  16. ^ "What is a Tie-In Writer?". Retrieved March 28, 2013.
  17. ^ "License to Kill". Retrieved March 28, 2013.
  18. ^ "Goldeneye". Retrieved March 28, 2013.
  19. ^ "Gardner, Benson & Bond". January 26, 1995.
  20. ^ Griffin, Bob; Griffin, John (December 5, 1999). "The Son of the Phantom (1944–1946)". The Deep Woods.
  21. ^ Pringle 1998, p. 119.
  22. ^ Hamilton & Jones 2009, p. 198.
  23. ^ Shatzky & Taub 1997, p. 79.
  24. ^ Turner 1996, p. 172.
  25. ^ Asimov, Isaac (1981). In joy still felt : the autobiography of Isaac Asimov, 1954-1978. New York: Avon. ISBN 0-380-53025-2. OCLC 7880716.
  26. ^ "Lee Falk: Father of The Phantom". Retrieved March 28, 2013.
  27. ^ Forbeck, Matt (July 22, 2010). "How to Write a Tie-In Novel". The Escapist.
  28. ^ Kojima Productions [@KojiPro2015_EN] (June 13, 2016). "Just so you know; the "Hitori Nojima" from whose name is at the end of the trailer is actually our friend Kenji Yano" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  29. ^ "Kevin McClory, Jack Whittingham and Ian Fleming". Retrieved March 28, 2013.
  30. ^ "Modesty Blaise Trivia". TCM. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
  31. ^ "Modesty Blaise Trivia". IMDB. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
  32. ^ Nathan, Paul S. (1975). "Rights and Permissions". Publishers Weekly. 207 (Part 2): 28.
  33. ^ Legge, Jeff (2017-11-21). "From Script to Screen: No Country for Old Men". The Script Lab. Retrieved 2022-04-26.
  34. ^ Patterson, John (December 21, 2007). "We've killed a lot of animals". Film/Interviews. The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2022-04-26.
  35. ^ anonymous (September 1977). "Bits & Pieces". Starlog (8): 16, 30.
  36. ^ "King Kong by Delos W. Lovelace".
  37. ^ "Dr. Cyclops by Will Garth".
  38. ^ "Godzilla - A Novelization|NOOK Book".
  39. ^ "Blood Feast".
  40. ^ "Two Thousand Maniacs!".
  41. ^ "House of Dark Shadows (Dark Shadows tie-in)".
  42. ^ "Super Fly: A Novelization Based On The Original Screenplay by Philip Fenty".
  43. ^ "Coffy".
  44. ^ "Blazing Saddles by Tad Richards".
  45. ^ "Black Christmas by Lee Hays".
  46. ^ "Communion".
  47. ^ "The Wicker Man by Robin Hardy".
  48. ^ "Mad Max by Terry Kaye".
  49. ^ "The Funhouse by Dean Koontz".
  50. ^ "Teddy by John Gault".
  51. ^ "Butcher, Baker, Nightmare Maker by Joseph Burgo".
  52. ^ "Final Exam".
  53. ^ "Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Ark by Campbell Black".
  54. ^ "The Wave by Todd Strasser".
  55. ^ "Poltergeist by James Kahn".
  56. ^ "The Adventures of Buckaroo Banzai Across the Eighth Dim…".
  57. ^ "Escape from New York by Mike McQuay".
  58. ^ "Fright Night by John Skipp".
  59. ^ "The Terminator by Randall Frakes".
  60. ^ "RoboCop".
  61. ^ "Harry and the Hendersons by Joyce Thompson".
  62. ^ "Lethal Weapon by Joel Norst".
  63. ^ "The Lost Boys by Craig Shaw Gardner".
  64. ^ "Re-Animator by Jeff Rovin".
  65. ^ "Total Recall".
  66. ^ "Darkman by Randall Boyll".
  67. ^ "Bram Stoker's Dracula by Fred Saberhagen".
  68. ^ "Demolition Man by Robert Tine".
  69. ^ "Twelve Monkeys by Elizabeth Hand".
  70. ^ "Lord of Illusions by Clive Barker".
  71. ^ "Dragonheart by Charles Edward Pogue".
  72. ^ "Mars Attacks! by Jonathan Gems".
  73. ^ "Men In Black by Steve Perry".
  74. ^ "Disney's Mulan".
  75. ^ "Iron Giant".
  76. ^ "The Road to El Dorado by Peter Lerangis".
  77. ^ "Pirates of the Caribbean".
  78. ^ "The Punisher".
  79. ^ "Van Helsing by Kevin Ryan".
  80. ^ "Snakes on a Plane by Christa Faust".
  81. ^ "The Toxic Avenger: The Novel by Lloyd Kaufman".
  82. ^ "V for Vendetta".
  83. ^ "30 Days of Night: Official Novelization of the Film".
  84. ^ "Jennifer's Body by Audrey Nixon".
  85. ^ "ParaNorman by Elizabeth Cody Kimmel".
  86. ^ "Pacific Rim: The Official Movie Novelization by Alexander C. Irvine".
  87. ^ "MANOS - the Hands of Fate".
  88. ^ "Kubo and the Two Strings: The Junior Novel by Sadie Chesterfield".
  89. ^ "Plan 9 From Outer Space: Movie Novelization by Matthew Ewald".
  90. ^ "Zootopia (Junior Novelization)".
  91. ^ "Mean Girls by Micol Ostow".
  92. ^ "The House on Haunted Hill".
  93. ^ "Pan's Labyrinth: The Labyrinth of the Faun by Guillermo del Toro".
  94. ^ "Nightmare Pavilion".

Works citedEdit

  • Britton, Wesley Alan (2005). Beyond Bond: Spies in Fiction and Film. Praeger. ISBN 0-275-98556-3.
  • Hamilton, Geoff & Jones, Brian (2009). Encyclopedia of American Popular Fiction. Facts on File. ISBN 978-0-8160-7157-9.
  • Pringle, David (1998). St. James Guide to Horror, Ghost & Gothic Writers. St. James Press. ISBN 1-55862-206-3.
  • Shatzky, Joel & Taub, Michael, eds. (1997). Contemporary Jewish-American Novelists: A Bio-critical Sourcebook. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-29462-3.
  • Turner, Richard Charles (1996). Ken Follett: A Critical Companion. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-29415-1.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit