Ensemble casts in film were introduced as early as September 1916, with D. W. Griffith's silent epic film Intolerance, featuring four separate though parallel plots. The film follows the lives of several characters over hundreds of years, across different cultures and time periods. The unification of different plot lines and character arcs is a key characteristic of ensemble casting in film; whether it's a location, event, or an overarching theme that ties the film and characters together.
Films that feature ensembles tend to emphasize the interconnectivity of the characters, even when the characters are strangers to one another. The interconnectivity is often shown to the audience through examples of the "six degrees of separation" theory, and allows them to navigate through plot lines using cognitive mapping. Examples of this method, where the six degrees of separation is evident in films with an ensemble cast, are in productions such as Babel, Love, Actually and Crash, which all have strong underlying themes interwoven within the plots that unify each film.
Other forms of narrative for films with ensemble casts having more or less equal amounts of screen time is demonstrated in recent productions such as The Avengers, Captain America: Civil War and Avengers: Infinity War where the cast and their characters have already been established in individual films prior to its release. In The Avengers, there is no need for a protagonist in the feature as each character shares equal importance in the narrative, successfully balancing the ensemble cast. Referential acting is a key factor in executing this balance, as ensemble cast members "play off each other rather than off reality".
Ensemble casting also became more popular in television series because it allows flexibility for writers to focus on different characters in different episodes. In addition, the departure of players is less disruptive to the premise than it would be if the star of a production with a regularly structured cast were to leave the series. The television series Friends is an archetypal example of an ensemble cast occurring in an American sitcom. Ensemble casts of 20 or more actors are common in soap operas, a genre that relies heavily on the character development of the ensemble. The genre also requires continuous expansion of the cast as the series progresses, with soap operas such as Days of Our Lives and The Bold and the Beautiful staying on air for decades. Science-fiction mystery drama series Lost also features an ensemble cast.
An example of a success for television in ensemble casting is the Emmy Award-winning HBO series Game of Thrones. The epic fantasy series features one of the largest ensemble casts on the small screen. The series is notorious for major character deaths, resulting in constant changes within the ensemble.
- Random House: ensemble acting Linked 2013-07-17
- Steven Withrow; Alexander Danner (2007). Character design for graphic novels. Focal Press/Rotovision. p. 112. ISBN 9780240809021. Retrieved 2009-09-05.
- "Mathijs, E. (2011). Referential acting and the ensemble cast. Screen, 52(1), 89--96. Retrieved from http://screen.oxfordjournals.org/content/52/1/89.extract
- Smith, L. (2012). Ensemble film, postmodernity and moral mapping. Screening The Past, 35. Retrieved from www.screeningthepast.com/2012/12/ensemble-film-postmodernity-and-moral-mapping/
- Filmsite.org,. (2014). Intolerance (1916). Retrieved 20 June 2014, from http://www.filmsite.org/into.html
- "Silvey, V. (2009). Not Just Ensemble Films: Six Degrees, Webs, Multiplexity and the Rise of Network Narratives. FORUM: University Of Edinburgh Postgraduate Journal of Culture & The Arts, 0(08). Retrieved from http://www.forumjournal.org/article/view/621/906
- Child, B. (2012). Avengers Assemble disarms the critics. the Guardian. Retrieved 20 June 2014, from https://www.theguardian.com/film/filmblog/2012/apr/23/avengers-assemble-disarms-critics-joss-whedon
- Bean, J. (2011). Joss Whedon talks in depth about the ensemble cast of 'The Avengers' - Hypable. Hypable. Retrieved 20 June 2014, from http://www.hypable.com/2011/11/19/joss-whedon-talks-in-depth-about-the-ensemble-cast-of-the-avengers
- Ford, S. (2008). Soap operas and the history of fan discussion. Transformative Works and Cultures, 1. Retrieved from http://journal.transformativeworks.org/index.php/twc/article/view/42/50
- Jenkins, H. (2010). The Survival of Soap Opera (Part Two):The History and Legacy of Serialized Television. Henryjenkins.org. Retrieved 24 June 2014, from http://henryjenkins.org/2010/12/the_survival_of_soap_opera_par_1.html
- Campbell, S. (2014). David Cameron: 'I'm a Game of Thrones fan' - The Daily Telegraph. (London). Retrieved 17 June 2014, from https://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/tvandradio/game-of-thrones/10888519/David-Cameron-Im-a-Game-of-Thrones-fan.html
- Abc.net.au,. (2012). The Game of Thrones: Nobody wins, everybody dies –Opinion ABC Religion & Ethics Australian Broadcasting Corporation). Retrieved 17 June 2014, from http://www.abc.net.au/religion/articles/2013/06/12/3780302.htm