The Otoyol (Plural: Otoyollar) is the national network of controlled-access highways in Turkey. The network spans 3,523 kilometres (2,189 mi) as of 2020-end[3] and was first opened in 1973. Another term for the system is Otoban, which is a popular but unofficial term transcribed from the German word autobahn. The term Otoyol translates to motorway while the literal meaning is auto-route.

Otoyol
Turkey road sign B-18 (2).svg
O1-TR sign.svgO20-TR sign.svgO30-TR sign.svg
Route markers for three Turkish Motorways
Motorway Map of Turkey (revised).png
Otoyol network in Turkey. Motorways in use, under construction and projected.
System information
Maintained by Karayolları Genel Müdürlüğü
Formed1968[1]
Highway names
Otoyols:Otoyol XX (O-XX)
System links

The Otoyol system previously consisted of three separate networks; the Edirne-Istanbul-Ankara corridor, the Aegean network centered around İzmir, and the Southeastern network centered around Adana. With the completion of the O-5 in 2019 and the extension of the O-21 in 2020, these three networks have since been connected. The network is expected to expand to 4,773 kilometres (2,966 mi) by 2023 and to 9,312 kilometres (5,786 mi) by 2035.[4] The minimum speed limit on the Turkish otoyols is 40 km/h (25 mph) while the maximum speed is 120 km/h (75 mph).[5]

HistoryEdit

The construction of a national road system was prioritized in 1948, where the construction of new roads were greatly accelerated. This led to a rise in automobile usage in Turkey. By the 1960s, traffic problems were becoming prevalent in large cities and capacity on intercity roads needed to be upgraded. Plans to build new expressways were put into action in 1968, when construction of the Istanbul Inner Beltway was started.[6] The Beltway, known as the O-1, was opened together with the Bosporus Bridge in 1973 with great fanfare. This became the first motorway to be built in Turkey. The Istanbul Beltway was then to be a part of a large expressway spanning from Edirne, in East Thrace, to İskenderun, on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea. Construction of this expressway first started in 1973 on a 14 km (8.7 mi) section between Pozantı and Akçatekir, on what would become the O-21. In 1975 construction of a 40 km (25 mi) section of the motorway from Gebze to Izmit was started. Due to financial problems during the following years, construction of the two otoyols were greatly slowed down. It wasn't until 1984 that these two motorways were opened to traffic.[1]

Turgut Özal became Prime Minister in 1983 and brought forth a policy of constructing new otoyols in Turkey. In 1985, construction of an intercontinental motorway spanning 772 km (480 mi) from Edirne to Ankara was started. This motorway project would serve as an outer beltway round Istanbul and also included the construction of a second bridge over the Bosporus, the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge. The first section of the motorway, the 20 km (12 mi) long Edirne Beltway, was opened in 1987, followed by the opening of the Outer Beltway in Istanbul, from Levent to Kozyatağı, together with the FSM Bridge on 3 July 1988. The motorway was opened in sections in the following years until being completed in 1994. 2 decades later O-7 or Third Beltway opened in 2017.

In 1988 the construction of three new motorways in Izmir were started. O-32 opened in 1992 and it became first motorway in Agean Region. O-30 was built 1 year after. And a year after O-31 was opened, running between İzmir and Aydın. Finally in 2008, O-30 was completed. First section of O-5 was opened between Kemalpaşa and Bornova, after that in 2019 the motorway opened by phases section between Balıkesir junctions opened in 2018 and Kemalpaşa and Akhisar section was opened in March 2019 and finally in August 2019 remaining sections opened between Akhisar and Balıkesir West ,Balıkesir North and Bursa West junctions. In 2020 two new motorways opened to the traffic . One of which is O-33 was opened in February 2020, as a continuous part of O-30. At the same year in November 2020 the first section of O-21 extension was opened and in December 2020 was fully opened all the way to Niğde. Finally in 2021 the 8th phase of O-7 opened, and in 18th March 2022 the newest motorway Otoyol-6 opened between Malkara and Lapseki. Including the 1915 Çanakkale Bridge.

Today two motorway extensions under construction. In O-7 9th phase between Nakkaş-Başakşehir link road and O-31 extension to Denizli. These are planned to open in 2023.

Network mapEdit

 
Interactive map of highways of Turkey

List of Otoyol routesEdit

Number Length (km) Length (mi) Northern or western terminus Southern or eastern terminus Opened Notes
  O-1 20.5 12.7   in Eyüp, Istanbul Bağdat Ave. in Kadıköy, Istanbul 1970 - 1973 Istanbul Inner Beltway including the Bosphorus Bridge
  O-2 36.9 22.9   O-3 in Mahmutbey, Istanbul   in Kozyatağı, Istanbul 1986 -1988 Istanbul Outer Beltway including the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge
  O-3 246.9 153.4   near Edirne   in Eyüp, Istanbul 1987 İstanbul-Edirne (Bulgaria-Greece-Turkey border) Motorway
  O-4 372 231.2   O-2/O1-O2 connector in Ataşehir, Istanbul   O-20 near Sincan, Ankara 1984 - 2007 İstanbul-Ankara Motorway, including the Mount Bolu Tunnel
  O-5 409.4 254.4   O-4 near Gebze, Kocaeli   O-30 in Bornova, Izmir 2016 - 2019 İstanbul-Bursa-İzmir Motorway, including the Osmangazi Bridge and the Orhangazi Tunnel
  O-6 101 62.8   near Malkara, Tekirdağ   near Lapseki, Çanakkale 2022 The section containing the Çanakkale 1915 Bridge was opened in March 2022
  O-7 275.2 171.1   O-3 near Kınalı, Istanbul   O-4 near Akyazı, Sakarya 2016 - 2020 Northern Marmara Motorway, Contains the northernmost beltway of İstanbul, including the Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge
  O-20 110 68.4 Road forms complete ring around Ankara Road forms complete ring around Ankara 1987 Ankara Beltway
  O-21 399.5 248.3   O-20 near Gölbaşı, Ankara   near Tarsus, Mersin 1984 - 2020 Ankara-Çukurova Motorway
  O-21A 32 19.9   near Çakmak Bucağı, Konya   O-21 near Eminlik, Niğde 1992
  O-22 34.1 21.2   O-5 near Çağlıyan, Bursa   near Turanköy, Bursa 2006
  O-30 60.4 37.5   O-32 in Balçova, Izmir   O-33 in Çiğli, Izmir 1993 - 2006 İzmir Beltway
  O-31 127.8 79.4   O-30 in Buca, Izmir   in Aydın 1996 - 2004 İzmir-Aydın Motorway
  O-32 77.7 48.3 1065 Sk. in Çeşme Mustafa Kemal Sahil Blv. in Balçova, Izmir 1992 - 1996 İzmir-Çeşme Motorway
  O-33 55.2 34.3 Çandarlı Connector near Çandarlı   O-30 in Çiğli, İzmir 2019 Northern Aegean Motorway
  O-51 99.2 61.6   in Çeşmeli, Mersin   O-52 in Adana 1992 Adana-Mersin Motorway
  O-52 365 226.8   O-51 in Adana   near Şanlıurfa 1992 Adana-Gaziantep-Şanlıurfa Motorway
  O-53 150 93.2   O-52 near Ceyhan   in İskenderun 1993
  O-54 35 21.7   in Gaziantep   O-52 in Gaziantep 2013 Gaziantep Beltway

ProjectsEdit

Under ConstructionEdit

Number Length (km) Length (mi) Northern or western terminus Southern or eastern terminus Opens Notes
  O-31 165 102.5   O-31in Aydın   in Pınarkent, Denizli 2023
  O-7 45 28   O-7 near Nakkaş, Istanbul   O-7 near Başakşehir, Istanbul 2023

Tender PhaseEdit

Number Length (km) Length (mi) Northern or western terminus Southern or eastern terminus Tender Date Notes
  O-51 98 60.9   in Taşucu   O-51 near Çeşmeli, Mersin 23.09.2021
  O-6 114 70.8   near Malkara, Tekirdağ   O-3 near Kınalı, Istanbul N/A Part of Kınalı-Balıkesir Motorway.
  119 73.9   O-20 in Mamak, Ankara   in Delice N/A Part of Ankara-Samsun Motorway. Delice-Samsun section still in planning phase.
  130 80.8   O-22 in Sivrihisar   O-20 in Tulumtaş, Ankara N/A Part of Izmir–Ankara Motorway. İzmir-Sivrihisar section still in planning phase.
  137 85.2   O-4 in Gerede   in Ilgaz N/A Part of Gerede-Gürbulak Motorway [tr]. Ilgaz-Merzifon-Koyulhisar-Pülümür-Horasan-Gürbulak sections still in planning phase.
  O-51 155 96.3   in Antalya   in Alanya N/A Part of Afyon-Antalya-Alanya Motorway [tr]. Afyonkarahisar-Burdur-Antalya section still in planning phase.
  31.3 19.5   O-53 near Dörtyol, Hatay   near Hassa, Hatay N/A Dörtyol-Hassa Motorway

Planning PhaseEdit

Number Length (km) Length (mi) Northern or western terminus Southern or eastern terminus Tender Date Notes
  12 7.46   O-30 near Sasalı, İzmir   O-30 near İnciraltı, İzmir N/A İZKARAY [tr] - Gulf of İzmir Passage Project between Çiğli (Sasalı) and Balçova (İnciraltı); including one undersea tunnel and one bridge
  41 25.5   O-33 near Menemen, İzmir   O-30 near Buca, İzmir N/A İzmir 2. peripheral motorway
  O-31 155 96.3   O-31 in Denizli   near Bucak, Burdur N/A Denizli-Burdur section of Aydın-Denizli-Burdur Motorway
  O-6 137 85.1   near Lapseki, Çanakkale   O-5 near Balıkesir N/A Lapseki-Balıkesir section of Kınalı-Balıkesir Motorway
  350 217.5  } near Afyonkarahisar   near Antalya N/A Afyonkarahisar-Burdur-Antalya Motorway [tr]
  408 253.5   O-5 near Turgutlu, Manisa   O-22 near Sivrihisar N/A Sivrihisar-İzmir section of Ankara-İzmir Motorway
  O-22 231 143.5   O-5 near Kestel, Bursa   O-22 near Sivrihisar, Eskişehir N/A Sivrihisar-Bursa Motorway
  O-52 454 282.1   O-52 near Şanlıurfa   near Habur, Silopi, Şırnak N/A Şanlıurfa-Mardin-Habur Motorway (including link to Diyarbakır) (border crossing)
  303 188.3   near Samsun   near Delice N/A Delice-Samsun section of Ankara-Samsun Motorway
  144 89.5   near Bafra, Samsun   near Ünye, Ordu N/A Bafra-Samsun-Ünye Motorway
  183 113.7   near Ilgaz, Çankırı   near Merzifon, Amasya N/A Ilgaz-Merzifon Motorway [tr]
  919 571   near Merzifon, Amasya   near Gürbulak, Doğubayazıt, Ağrı N/A Merzifon-Gürbulak Motorway [tr] (border crossing)
  91 56.6   O-5 near Yalova   O-4 near İzmit, Kocaeli N/A Yalova-İzmit Motorway [tr]
  440 273.4   near Afyonkarahisar   near Ulukışla, Niğde N/A Afyonkarahisar-Konya-Ereğli-Niğde (Ulukışla) Motorway
  105 65.3   near Bozüyük, Bilecik   near Afyonkarahisar N/A Bozüyük-Afyonkarahisar Motorway
  O-51 200 124.3   near Alanya, Antalya   near Silifke, Mersin N/A Alanya-Silifke Motorway
  105 65.3   O-4 near Düzce   near Zonguldak N/A Düzce-Zonguldak Motorway
  500 310.7   near Delice   near Refahiye, Erzincan N/A Delice-Sivas-Refahiye Motorway
  600 372.8   O-21 near Nevşehir   near Diyarbakır N/A Nevşehir-Kayseri-Malatya-Diyarbakır Motorway
  220 136.7   near Sivas   near Malatya N/A Sivas-Malatya Motorway
  50 31.1   O-52 near Şanlıurfa   near Akçakale, Şanlıurfa N/A Şanlıurfa-Akçakale Motorway (border crossing)
  475 295.2   near Diyarbakır   near Gürbulak, Doğubayazıt, Ağrı N/A Diyarbakır-Gürbulak Motorway (border crossing)
  540 335.6   near Trabzon   near Kahramanmaraş N/A Trabzon-Refahiye-Malatya-Kahramanmaraş Motorway
  250 155.4   near Pasinler, Erzurum   near Türkgözü, Posof, Ardahan N/A Pasinler-Türkgözü Motorway (border crossing)
  460 285.8   near Rize   near Diyarbakır N/A Rize-Erzurum-Diyarbakır Motorway
  O-53 78 48.5   O-53 near İskenderun, Hatay   near Cilvegözü, Reyhanlı, Hatay N/A İskenderun-Cilvegözü Motorway (border crossing)
  O-33 80 49.7   O-33 near Çandarlı, Dikili, İzmir   O-5 near Savaştepe, Balıkesir N/A Çandarlı-Bergama-Savaştepe Motorway
  90 55.9   O-31 near Aydın   near Muğla N/A Aydın-Muğla Motorway
  75 46.6   near İpsala, Edirne   near Malkara, Tekirdağ N/A Malkara-İpsala Motorway (border crossing)
  130 80.8   O-3 near Havsa, Edirne   near Kavakköy, Gelibolu, Çanakkale N/A Havsa-Gelibolu Motorway
  180 111.9   near Lapseki, Çanakkale   O-5 near Karacabey, Bursa N/A Lapseki-Karacabey Motorway

TollEdit

 
An OGS transponder. An active (battery powered) RFID unit for non-stop passing through toll booths on Turkish motorways

Most motorways are toll roads. The toll is based on the distance traveled. On most sections, the toll can be paid only with RFID-based HGS and OGS. Cash and KGS card payment methods have mostly been abolished in recent years. Only the newly opened Otoyol 5, and Otoyol 7 have sections where it is possible to pay by cash or with credit card. Apart from motorways, the other state roads in Turkey are free of charge.

The revenue from tolls in 2001 were still about $203 million, rising by 2012 to approximately $542 million. In 2012, the Bosphorus bridges saw 150 million vehicles pass and the other toll roads saw over 210 million vehicles.[7] In 2015, both bridges were used by 141 million vehicles while the other toll motorways were used by 271 million vehicles, generating a total revenue of $391 million (both bridges and motorways combined).[8]

StandardsEdit

 
Otoyol 5 near Altınova exit

Mainly because the country already has a wide network of double carriageways, the standards for motorways in comparison are very high. Most sections of otoyols have 3 lanes in each direction, aside from the O-4 around Izmit, a small stretch of the O-3 between Silivri and Esenyurt, and the section of O-32 between Alaçatı and Çeşme, which only have two lanes in each direction. Also the O-2, the O-7 and the O-20 all have four lanes in each direction along the entire route. The lanes are each 3.75 meters wide. Most exits have a connection road, which helps avoiding wrong-way driving and illegal access to the road (bikes, tractors and horses are not allowed on otoyols).

The minimum speed is 40 km/h (25 mph) and the maximum allowed speed is 120 km/h (75 mph), although speeding is not punished under 132 km/h (82 mph). However, on sections of the O-1 through central Istanbul the speed limit is 70 km/h (45 mph). In most tunnels the speed limit is 90 km/h (55 mph).

Alongside otoyols, there are resting areas, which are standardized as A, B, C and D type service areas. The D type is mainly a parking area. The C type has a fuel station added. The B type has a fuel station and a vehicle service station added. The A type additionally has a motel (in urban ones, this motel is traded for a large shopping mall).

Dangerous stretches such as tunnels or bridges where there is often fog, exits, interchanges and service areas are illuminated.

Since gradients are expected to be very low and turning radii are expected to be very high, otoyols have many bridges and tunnels which makes them very expensive to construct.

Otoyol signs in Turkey are green and uses the Highway Gothic typeface.

StatisticsEdit

 
Map of the highways in the Otoyol network

LengthEdit

ProvincesEdit

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Muhteşem Kaynak - Türkiye'de Otoyollar
  2. ^ Length of Motorways
  3. ^ https://www.kgm.gov.tr/SiteCollectionDocuments/KGMdocuments/Istatistikler/OtoyolEnvanterBilgisi/Yillara%C4%B0tibariyleYapimiTamamlanmisOtoyollar.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  4. ^ Infrastrukturprojekte sollen die türkische Bauwirtschaft ankurbeln Archived 2013-02-10 at archive.today, Germany Trade and Invest, 24. November 2009
  5. ^ "Hız Sınırları" (in Turkish). KGM. Archived from the original on 11 May 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  6. ^ Birol Cetin, Serap Baris, Serap Saroglu - Türkiye’de Karayollarının Gelişimine Tarihsel Bir Bakış, p.173
  7. ^ "Otoyol ve Köprü Gelirleri (2001-2012)" (PDF) (in Turkish). KGM. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
  8. ^ http://www.kgm.gov.tr/SiteCollectionDocuments/KGMdocuments/Istatistikler/OtoyolMaliBilgileri/OtoyolVeKopruGelirleri%282001-2015%29.pdf Otoyol statistics
  9. ^ Dairesi, Karayolları Genel Müdürlüğü Bilgi İşlem. "otoyolharitalari". www.kgm.gov.tr (in Turkish). Retrieved 2018-01-31.