Open main menu

Wikipedia β

Nicolás Maduro

  (Redirected from Nicolas Maduro)

Nicolás Maduro Moros (Spanish: [nikoˈlas maˈðuɾo ˈmoɾos]; born 23 November 1962) is a Venezuelan politician who has been the President of Venezuela since assuming office in 2013. Previously he served under President Hugo Chávez as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2006 to 2013 and as Vice President of Venezuela from 2012 to 2013.

Nicolás Maduro
Nicolás Maduro in meeting with Iranian President Hassan Rouhani in Saadabad Palace.jpg
President of Venezuela
Assumed office
19 April 2013
Interim: 5 March 2013 – 19 April 2013
Vice President Jorge Arreaza (2013–16)
Aristóbulo Istúriz (2016–17)
Tareck El Aissami (since 2017)
Preceded by Hugo Chávez
Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement
Assumed office
17 September 2016
Preceded by Hassan Rouhani
President pro tempore of the Union of South American Nations
In office
23 April 2016 – 21 April 2017
Preceded by Tabaré Vázquez
Succeeded by Mauricio Macri
Vice President of Venezuela
In office
13 October 2012 – 5 March 2013
President Hugo Chávez
Preceded by Elías Jaua
Succeeded by Jorge Arreaza
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
9 August 2006 – 15 January 2013
President Hugo Chávez
Preceded by Alí Rodríguez Araque
Succeeded by Elías Jaua
President of the National Assembly of Venezuela
In office
5 January 2005 – 7 August 2006
Preceded by Francisco Ameliach
Succeeded by Cilia Flores
Personal details
Born Nicolás Maduro Moros
(1962-11-23) 23 November 1962 (age 54)
Caracas, Venezuela
Political party United Socialist Party (2007–present)
Fifth Republic Movement (Before 2007)
Spouse(s) Cilia Flores
Children Nicolás Maduro Guerra[1]
Residence Miraflores Palace
Signature
Website Official website

Starting off as a bus driver, Maduro rose to become a trade union leader, before being elected to the National Assembly in 2000. He was appointed to a number of positions within the Venezuelan Government under Chávez, ultimately being made Foreign Minister in 2006. He was described during this time as the "most capable administrator and politician of Chávez's inner circle".[2] After Chávez's death was announced on 5 March 2013, Maduro assumed the powers and responsibilities of the president. A special election was held on 14 April 2013 to elect a new president, and Nicolas Maduro won with 50.62% of the votes as the candidate of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela. He was formally inaugurated on 19 April.[3]

Maduro has ruled Venezuela by decree since 19 November 2013.[4][5][6][7] As a result of Chávez's policies and Maduro's continuation of them, Venezuela's socioeconomic status declined, with crime, inflation, poverty and hunger increasing.[8][9][10][11] Shortages in Venezuela and decreased living standards resulted in protests beginning in 2014 that escalated into daily riots nationwide by 2016, with Maduro's popularity suffering.[12][13] The loss of popularity saw the election of an opposition-led National Assembly in 2015 and a movement toward recalling Maduro in 2016, though Maduro still maintains power through loyal political bodies, such as the Supreme Court and electoral authority, as well as the military.[12][13][14] Maduro, like Chávez, has been accused of authoritarian leadership,[15] with conventional media describing him as a dictator, especially following the suspension of the recall movement that was directed towards him.[16][17][18][19] Following the 2017 Venezuelan Constitutional Assembly election, the United States sanctioned Maduro which froze US assets and prohibited him from entering the country, stating that he was a "dictator".[20]

Contents

BiographyEdit

Family backgroundEdit

Nicolás Maduro Moros was born on 23 November 1962 in Caracas, Venezuela into a working-class family.[21][22][23]

His father, Nicolás Maduro Garcia, who was a prominent trade union leader,[24] died in a motor vehicle accident on 22 April 1989. His mother, Teresa de Jesús Moros, was born in Cúcuta, a Colombian border town at the boundary with Venezuela on "the 1st of June of 1929, as it appears in the National Registry of Colombia."[25]

Nicolás Maduro was raised as a Roman Catholic, although in 2012 it was reported that he was a follower of Indian guru Sathya Sai Baba and previously visited the guru in India in 2005.[26]

Racially, Maduro has indicated that he identifies as mestizo ("mixed [race]"), stating that he includes as a part of his mestizaje ("racial mixture") admixture from the Indigenous peoples of the Americas and Africans.[27] He stated in a 2013 interview that “my grandparents were Jewish, from a Sephardic Moorish background, and converted to Catholicism in Venezuela."[28]

Early life and educationEdit

Officially, Maduro was born into a leftist family, with his father being a union leader[21][29] and "militant dreamer of the Movimiento Electoral del Pueblo (MEP)."[30] The only male of four siblings, he had "three sisters, María Teresa, Josefina, and Anita".[30]

Maduro was raised in "Calle 14", a street in Los Jardines, El Valle, a working-class neighborhood on the western outskirts of Caracas.[25] He attended a public high school, the Liceo José Ávalos, in El Valle.[22][31] His introduction to politics was when he became a member of his high school's student union.[21] According to school records, Maduro never graduated from high school.[29]

At 24 years of age, "Maduro travelled through the streets of Havana with other militants of leftist organizations in South America that moved to Cuba in 1986, to attend a one year course in the Escuela Nacional de Cuadros Julio Antonio Mella, a centre of political indoctrination directed by the Union of Communist Youth."[25]

Marriage and familyEdit

Maduro is married to Cilia Flores, a lawyer and politician who replaced Maduro as President of the National Assembly in August 2006, when he resigned to become Minister of Foreign Affairs, becoming the first woman to serve as President of the National Assembly.[32] The two had been in a romantic relationship since the 1990s when Flores was Hugo Chávez's lawyer following the 1992 Venezuelan coup d'état attempts[33] and were married in July 2013 months after Maduro became president.[34]

Maduro has one son, Nicolás Maduro Guerra, whom he appointed to senior government posts: Chief of the presidency's Special Inspectors Body, head of the National Film School, and a seat in the National Assembly,[35] while Flores has an adopted son, Efraín Campos, who is her nephew from her deceased sister.[33] He has two granddaughters, Paula and Sofía.[36]

Early political careerEdit

Maduro found employment as a bus driver for many years for the Caracas Metro company. He began his political career in the 1980s, by becoming an unofficial trade unionist representing the bus drivers of the Caracas Metro system. He was also employed as a bodyguard for José Vicente Rangel during Rangel's unsuccessful 1983 presidential campaign.[29][37]

MBR-200Edit

 
MBR-200 members meeting in 1997. Maduro is on the far left and Chávez is in the center.
 
Maduro, beside Tareck El Aissami, present Vladimir Putin the Key to the City of Caracas in April 2010.

In the early 1990s, he joined MBR-200 and campaigned for the release of Hugo Chávez when Chávez was jailed for his role in the 1992 Venezuelan coup d'état attempts.[29] In the late 1990s, Maduro was instrumental in founding the Movement of the Fifth Republic, which supported Chávez in his run for president in 1998.[31]

National AssemblyEdit

Maduro was elected on the MVR ticket to the Venezuelan Chamber of Deputies in 1998, to the National Constituent Assembly in 1999, and finally to the National Assembly in 2000, at all times representing the Capital District. The Assembly elected him as Speaker, a role he held from 2005 until 2006.

Foreign MinisterEdit

On 9 August 2006, Maduro was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs. According to Rory Carroll, Maduro did not know how to speak any foreign languages while serving as the Minister of Foreign Affairs.[38] During his time as Minister of Foreign Affairs, Venezuela's foreign policy stances included support for Libya under Muammar Gaddafi, and a turnaround in relations with Colombia.[39] Maduro served as the Venezuelan Minister of Foreign Affairs until he was appointed to the vice presidency by President Chavez in 2012.

Vice President of VenezuelaEdit

Prior to his appointment to the vice presidency, Maduro had already been chosen by Chávez in 2011 to succeed him in the presidency if he were to die from cancer. This choice was made due to Maduro's loyalty to Chávez and because of his good relations with other chavista hard-liners such as Elías Jaua, former minister Jesse Chacón and Jorge Rodríguez. Bolivarian officials predicted that following Chávez's death, Maduro would have more difficulties politically and that instability in the country would arise.[40]

Chávez appointed Maduro Vice President of Venezuela on 13 October 2012, shortly after his victory in that month's presidential election. Two months later, on 8 December 2012, Chávez announced that his recurring cancer had returned and that he would be returning to Cuba for emergency surgery and further medical treatment. Chávez said that should his condition worsen and a new presidential election be called to replace him, Venezuelans should vote for Maduro to succeed him. This was the first time that Chávez named a potential successor to his movement, as well as the first time he publicly acknowledged the possibility of his demise.[41][42]

Chávez's endorsement of Maduro sidelined Diosdado Cabello, a former Vice President and powerful Socialist Party official with ties to the armed forces, who had been widely considered a top candidate to be Chávez's successor. After Maduro was endorsed by Chávez, Cabello "immediately pledged loyalty" to both men.[43]

Interim presidentEdit

 
Maduro serving as interim president
My firm opinion, as clear as the full moon – irrevocable, absolute, total – is...that you elect Nicolas Maduro as President. I ask this of you from my heart. He is one of the young leaders with the greatest ability to continue, if I cannot.
Hugo Chávez (December 2012)[39]

Upon the death of Hugo Chávez on 5 March 2013, Maduro assumed the powers and responsibilities of the president. He appointed Jorge Arreaza to take his place as vice president. Since Chávez died within the first four years of his term, the Constitution of Venezuela states that a presidential election had to be held within 30 days of his death.[44][45][46] Maduro was unanimously adopted as the Socialist Party's candidate in that election.[47] At the time of his assumption of temporary power, opposition leaders argued that Maduro violated articles 229, 231, and 233 of the Venezuelan Constitution, by assuming power over the President of the National Assembly.[48][49]

In his speech during the short ceremony in which he formally took over the powers of the president, Maduro said: "Compatriots, I am not here out of personal ambition, out of vanity, or because my surname Maduro is a part of the rancid oligarchy of this country. I am not here because I represent financial groups, neither of the oligarchy nor of American imperialism... I am not here to protect mafias nor groups nor factions."[50][51]

President of VenezuelaEdit

 
Nicolás Maduro assuming office as President of Venezuela on 19 April 2013

The succession to the presidency of Maduro, according to Corales and Penfold, was due to multiple mechanisms that were established by Maduro's predecessor, Hugo Chávez. Initially, oil prices were high enough for Maduro to maintain necessary spending for support, specifically with the military. Foreign ties that were established by Chávez were also utilised by Maduro as he applied skills that he had learned while serving as a foreign minister for his advantage. Finally, the PSUV and government institutions aligned behind Maduro, and "the regime used the institutions of repression and autocracy, also created under Chávez, to become more repressive vis-à-vis the opposition".[52]

 
Maduro in February 2017

On 14 April 2013, Maduro was elected President of Venezuela, narrowly defeating opposition candidate Henrique Capriles with just 1.5% of the vote separating the two candidates. Capriles immediately demanded a recount, refusing to recognize the outcome as valid.[53] Maduro was later formally inaugurated as President on 19 April, after the election commission had promised a full audit of the election results.[3][54] On 24 October 2013, he announced the creation of a new agency, the Vice Ministry of Supreme Happiness, to coordinate all the social programmes.[55]

On 2 May 2016, opposition leaders in Venezuela handed in a petition to the National Electoral Council (CNE) calling for a recall referendum, with the populace to vote on whether to remove Maduro from office.[56] On 5 July 2016, the Venezuelan intelligence service detained five opposition activists involved with the recall referendum, with two other activists of the same party, Popular Will, also arrested.[57] After delays in verification of the signatures, protestors alleged the government was intentionally delaying the process. The government, in response, argued the protestors were part of a plot to topple Maduro.[58] On 1 August 2016, CNE announced that enough signatures had been validated for the recall process to continue. While opposition leaders pushed for the recall to be held before the end of 2016, allowing a new presidential election to take place, the government vowed a recall would not occur until 2017, ensuring the current vice president would potentially come to power.[59]

 
President Nicolás Maduro speaking at a Venezuelan Constituent Assembly session on 10 August 2017.

In May 2017, President Maduro proposed the 2017 Venezuelan Constituent Assembly election, which was later held on 30 July 2017 despite wide international condemnation.[60][61] Upcoming presidential elections, which Maduro would most likely lose, have the possibility of being delayed from their planned dates under a new constitution since no timeline was given for the rewrite.[62][63][64][65] The United States sanctioned President Maduro following the election, labeling him as a "dictator", preventing him from entering the United States.[20]

Rule by decreeEdit

Beginning six months after being elected, Maduro has ruled by decree for the majority of his presidency: from 19 November 2013 to 19 November 2014,[4] 15 March 2015 to 31 December 2015, 15 January 2016 to present.[66][67]

PoliciesEdit

 
UNASUR special meeting to discuss the diversion of Bolivian President Evo Morales' plane in Europe, 4 July 2013

Many of the policies that were in action throughout Maduro's presidency were the same or similar to policies created by his predecessor Hugo Chávez. Maduro stuck to Chávez's policies in order to remain popular to those who find a connection between the two. Despite the increasingly difficult crises facing Venezuela such as a faltering economy and high crime rate, Maduro continued the use of Chávez's policies.[68] According to Marsh, instead of making any policy changes, Maduro placed attention on his "hold on power by closing off the legal channels through which the opposition can act".[69] Shannon K. O'Neil of the Council on Foreign Relations stated that "After Chavez's death, Maduro has just continued and accelerated the authoritarian and totalitarian policies of Chavez".[70]

According to Professor Ramón Piñango, a sociologist from the Venezuelan University of IESA, "Maduro has a very strong ideological orientation, close to the Communist ideology. Contrary to Diosdado, he is not very pragmatic."[22]

DomesticEdit

CrimeEdit

One of the first important presidential programs of Maduro became the "Safe Homeland" program, a massive police and military campaign to build security in the country. 3,000 soldiers were deployed to decrease homicide in Venezuela, which has one of the highest rates of homicide in Latin America.[71] Most of these troops were deployed in the state of Miranda (Greater Caracas), which has the highest homicide rate in Venezuela. According to the government, in 2012, more than 16,000 people were killed, a rate of 54 people per 100,000, although the Venezuela Violence Observatory, a campaign group, claims that the homicide rate was in fact 73 people per 100,000.[71] The government claims that the Safe Homeland program has reduced homicides by 55%.[72][73] The program had to be reinitiated one year later after the program's creator, Miguel Rodríguez Torres, was replaced by Carmen Melendez Teresa Rivas.[74] Murder also increased over the years since the program's initiation according to the Venezuela Violence Observatory, with the murder rate increasing to 82 per 100,000 in 2014.[75]

Economic policiesEdit

When elected in 2013, Maduro continued the majority of existing economic policies of his predecessor Hugo Chávez. When entering the presidency, Maduro's Venezuela faced a high inflation rate and large shortages of goods[76][77][78] that was left over from the previous policies of President Chávez.[79][80][81][11]

Maduro blamed capitalism for speculation that is driving high rates of inflation and creating widespread shortages of staples, and often said he was fighting an "economic war", calling newly enacted economic measures "economic offensives" against political opponents he and loyalists state are behind an international economic conspiracy.[82][83][84][85][86][87] However, Maduro has been criticized for only concentrating on public opinion instead of tending to the practical issues economists have warned the Venezuelan government about or creating any ideas to improve the economic situation in Venezuela such as the "economic war".[88][89]

Venezuela was ranked as the top spot globally with the highest misery index score in 2013,[90] 2014,[91] 2015[92][93] and 2016.[94] In 2014, Venezuela's economy entered an economic depression[95] that has continued as of 2017.[69]

Foreign policyEdit

 
Maduro meeting with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, 26 September 2016
 
ALBA summit in Caracas, March 2017

Maduro has accused the United States of intervention in Venezuela several times with his allegations ranging from post-election violence by "neo-Nazi groups", economic difficulties from what he called an "economic war" and various coup plots.[96][97][98] The United States denied such accusations[98] while analysts have called such allegations by Maduro as a way to distract Venezuelans from their problems.[99]

In early 2015 the Obama administration signed an executive order which imposed targeted sanctions on 7 Venezuelan officials whom the White House argued were instrumental in human rights violations, persecution of political opponents and significant public corruption and said that the country posed an "unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States."[100] Maduro responded to the sanctions in a couple of ways. He wrote an open letter in a full page ad in The New York Times in March 2015, stating that Venezuelans were "friends of the American people" and called President Obama's action of making targeted sanctions on the alleged human rights abusers a "unilateral and aggressive measure".[35][101] Examples of accusations of human rights abuses from the United States to Maduro's government included the murder of a political activist prior to legislative elections in Venezuela.[102] Maduro threatened to sue the United States over an executive order issued by the Obama Administration that declared Venezuela to be a threat to American security.[103] He also planned to deliver 10 million signatures, or signatures from about 1/3 of Venezuela's population, denouncing the United States' decree declaring the situation in Venezuela an "extraordinary threat to US national security".[104][105] and ordered all schools in the country to hold an "anti-imperialist day" against the United States with the day's activities including the "collection of the signatures of the students, and teaching, administrative, maintenance and cooking personnel".[105] Maduro further ordered state workers to apply their signatures in protest, with some workers reporting that firings of state workers occurred due to their rejection of signing the executive order protesting the "Obama decree".[105][106][107][108][109][110] There were also reports that members of Venezuelan armed forces and their families were ordered to sign against the United States decree.[105]

On 6 April 2015, twenty-five (25) ex-presidents issued called Declaración de Panamá,[111] a statement denouncing the VII Cumbre de las Américas, what they called "democratic alteration" in Venezuela, promoted by the government of Nicolas Maduro. The statement calls for the immediate release of "political prisoners" in Venezuela. Among the former heads of government that have called for improvements in Venezuela are: Jorge Quiroga (Bolivia); Sebastián Piñera (Chile): Andrés Pastrana, Álvaro Uribe and Belisario Betancur (Colombia); Miguel Ángel Rodríguez, Rafael Ángel Calderón Guardia, Laura Chinchilla, Óscar Arias, Luis Alberto Monge (Costa Rica), Osvaldo Hurtado (Ecuador); Alfredo Cristiani and Armando Calderón (EL Salvador); José María Aznar (Spain); Felipe Calderón and Vicente Fox (México), Mireya Moscoso (Panamá), Alejandro Toledo (Perú) and Luis Alberto Lacalle (Uruguay).[112]

Maduro has reached out to China for economic assistance while China has funneled billions of dollars from multiple loans into Venezuela.[113] China is Venezuela's second largest trade partner with two-thirds of Venezuelan exports to China composed of oil.[113] According to Mark Jones, a Latin American expert of the Baker Institute, China was "investing for strategic reasons" rather than ideological similarities.[113] The Venezuelan military has also used military equipment from China using the NORINCO VN-4 armoured vehicle against protesters during the 2014–15 Venezuelan protests, ordering hundreds more as a result of the demonstrations.[114][115]

ControversiesEdit

2014–2017 Venezuelan protestsEdit

CLAP programEdit

 
A food box provided by CLAP, with the supplier receiving government funds owned by President Nicolas Maduro

Luisa Ortega Díaz, Chief Prosecutor of Venezuela from 2007 to 2017 revealed that President Maduro had been profiting from the shortages in Venezuela. The government-operated Local Supply and Production Committee (CLAP) that provides food to Venezuelans in need made contracts with Group Grand Limited, a group owned by Maduro through frontmen Rodolfo Reyes, Álvaro Uguedo Vargas and Alex Saab. Group Grand Limited, a Mexican entity owned by Maduro, would sell foodstuffs to CLAP and receive government funds.[116][117][118]

Conspiracy theoriesEdit

Maduro and members of his entourage have voiced on several occasions of alleged conspiracies against Maduro and his government. Maduro continued the practice of his predecessor, Hugo Chávez, of denouncing alleged conspiracies and in a period of fifteen months following his election, dozens of conspiracies, some supposedly linked to assassination and coup attempts, were reported by Maduro's government.[119][120] In this same period, the number of attempted coups claimed by the Venezuelan government outnumbered all attempted and executed coups occurring worldwide in the same period.[121] In TV program La Hojilla, Mario Silva, a TV personality of the main state-run channel Venezolana de Televisión, stated in March 2015 that President Maduro had received about 13 million psychological attacks.[122]

Analysts and observers of such allegations state that Maduro uses such conspiracy theories as a strategy to distract Venezuelans from the root causes of some problems facing his government.[99][119][123][124] According to Foreign Policy, Maduro's predecessor, Hugo Chávez, "relied on his considerable populist charm, conspiratorial rhetoric, and his prodigious talent for crafting excuses" to avoid backlash from troubles Venezuela was facing, with Foreign Policy further stating that for Maduro, "the appeal of reworking the magic that once saved his mentor is obvious".[121] Such conspiracy theories presented by the Venezuelan government have never involved any substantial evidence.[105][119][124]

Andrés Cañizales, researcher from the Andrés Bello Catholic University, pointed that, as a result of the lack of reliable mainstream news broadcasting, most Venezuelan stay informed with social networking services. As a result, fake news and internet hoaxes have a higher impact in Venezuela than in other countries.[125]

United States involvement accusationsEdit

 
Maduro among troops during a May 2016 exercise

In early 2015, the Maduro government accused the United States of attempting to overthrow him. The Venezuelan government performed elaborate actions to respond to such alleged attempts and to convince the public that its claims were true.[121] The reactions included the arrest of Antonio Ledezma in February 2015, forcing American tourists to go through travel requirements and holding military marches and public exercises "for the first time in Venezuela's democratic history".[121] After the United States ordered sanctions to be placed on seven Venezuelan officials for alleged human rights violations, Maduro used anti-US rhetoric to bump up his approval ratings.[126][127] However, according to Venezuelan political scientist Isabella Picón, only about 15% of Venezuelans believed in the alleged coup attempt accusations at the time.[121]

In 2016, Maduro again claimed that the United States was attempting to assist the opposition with a coup attempt. On 12 January 2016, Secretary General of the Organization of American States (OAS), Luis Almagro, threatened to invoke the Inter-American Democratic Charter, an instrument used to defend democracy in the Americas when threatened, when opposition National Assembly member were barred from taking their seats by the Maduro-aligned Supreme Court.[128] Human rights organizations such as Human Rights Watch,[129] and the Human Rights Foundation[130] called for the OAS to invoke the Democratic Charter. After more controversies and pursuing a recall on Maduro, on 2 May 2016, opposition members of the National Assembly met with OAS officials to ask for the body to implement the Democratic Charter.[131] Two days later on 4 May, the Maduro government called for a meeting the next day with the OAS, with Venezuelan Foreign Minister Delcy Rodriguez stating that the United States and the OAS were attempting to overthrow Maduro.[132] On 17 May 2016 in a national speech, Maduro called OAS Secretary General Luis Almagro "a traitor" and stated that he worked for the CIA.[133] Almagro sent a letter rebuking Maduro, and refuting the claim.[134]

Drug trafficking and money laundering incidentsEdit

Narcosobrinos incidentEdit

Two nephews of Maduro's wife, Efraín Antonio Campo Flores and Francisco Flores de Freitas, were found guilty of involvement in illicit activities such as drug trafficking in November 2016, with some of their funds possibly assisting Maduro's presidential campaign in the 2013 Venezuelan presidential election and potentially for the 2015 Venezuelan parliamentary elections, with the funds mainly used to "help their family stay in power".[135][136][137] One informant stated that the two often flew out of Terminal 4 of Simon Bolivar Airport, a terminal reserved for the president.[135][136] Due to the fact that the nephews were arrested for narcotics trafficking, the media described the nephews as the "narcosobrinos".[138][139][140][141][142][143]

After Maduro's nephews were apprehended by the US Drug Enforcement Agency for the illegal distribution of cocaine on 10 November 2015, Maduro posted a statement on Twitter criticizing "attacks and imperialist ambushes", which was viewed by many media outlets as being directed towards the United States.[144][145] Diosdado Cabello, a senior official in Maduro's government, was quoted as saying the arrests were a "kidnapping" by the United States.[146]

Secretary of the President investigationEdit

In December 2015 following controversial investigations of money laundered drug money by the Bal Harbour Police Department and Glades County Police without the cooperation of the United States Department of Justice, a report from Miami Herald revealed that much of the drug money was ultimately funneled from multiple banks into the Venezuelan Banesco Bank with some of the largest payments wired to the bank. It was found that William Amaro Sanchez, a secretary and longtime friend of Maduro who was described as his "right-hand-man", had over $200,000 of the drug money transferred to his account. Juan Carlos Escort, head of Banesco, denied the allegations, although unnamed Banesco employees told The Miami Herald that it was Amaro's account and provided information that included his account number, full name and Venezuelan government identification number.[147][148]

Following these revelations, Panamanian lawyer and politician Guillermo Cochez called on Panama's Public Ministry to investigate accounts in Banesco related to the Venezuelan government, including accounts belonging to Willam Amaro Sanchez and also possible accounts belonging to relatives of President Maduro's wife, Cilia Flores. After Flores' nephews were arrested by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration, it was discovered that one of the arrested nephews, Efraín Campo Flores, owned a Panamanian company, with Cilia Flores and other relatives belonging to the company's board of directors.[149]

Homophobic statementsEdit

During a tenth anniversary gathering commemorating the 2002 Venezuelan coup d'état attempt going into the 2012 Venezuelan presidential election, Maduro called opposition members "snobs" and "big faggots".[150][151]

During the presidential campaign of 2013, Maduro used homophobic attacks as a political weapon, calling representatives of the opposition "faggots".[152] Maduro used homophobic speech toward his opponent Henrique Capriles calling him a "little princess" and saying "I do have a wife, you know? I do like women!"[152][153][154]

In December 2014, amid the celebration of 15 years of the "Bolivarian Constitution", Maduro commented on the American drafted bill that would potentially penalize some government officials involved in corruption, drug trafficking and violation of human rights, saying on radio and television, "they grab their visa and where the mess has to shove, insert the visa in the ass".[155]

In April 2015, the Spanish Congress, held criticism of the situation in Venezuela, to which Maduro said "go to yours mother's" .[156]

Jose Zalt wedding incidentEdit

At the wedding of Jose Zalt, a Syrian-Venezuelan businessman who owns the clothing brand Wintex, on 14 March 2015, Maduro's son, Nicolas Ernesto Maduro Guerra, was seen being showered with American dollars at a gathering in the luxurious Gran Melia Hotel in Caracas.[35] The incident caused outrage among Venezuelans, who believed this to be hypocritical of President Maduro, especially since many Venezuelans were experiencing hardships due to the poor state of the economy and Maduro's public denouncements of capitalism.[35][157][158][159][160][161] The incident took place hours after the Venezuelan government military parade conducted against the United States which Maduro's government claims is behind an "economic war" with Venezuela.[96][159][162]

Odebrecht bribesEdit

In an investigative interview with Euzenando Prazeres de Azevedo, president of Constructora Odebrecht in Venezuela, the executive revealed how Odebrecht paid $35 million to fund Maduro's 2013 presidential campaign if Odebrecht projects would be prioritized in Venezuela.[163] Americo Mata, Maduro's campaign manager, initially asked for $50 million for Maduro, though the final $35 million was settled.[163][164]

SanctionsEdit

Announcement of sanctions against Maduro by National Security Advisor, H. R. McMaster and Secretary of the Treasury, Steven Mnuchin.

CanadaEdit

On 22 September 2017, the Canadian government sanctioned members of the Maduro government, including Maduro, preventing Canadian nationals from participating in property and financial deals with him due to the rupture of Venezuela's constitutional order.[165][166]

United StatesEdit

On 26 July 2017, thirteen Bolivarian officials were sanctioned by the United States Department of Treasury due to their involvement with the 2017 Venezuelan Constitutional Assembly election.[167]

After continuing with the Constitutional Assembly election, the United States sanctioned Maduro, becoming one of the few heads of state sanctioned by the United States, with Secretary of the Treasury Steven Mnuchin stating "Maduro is a dictator who disregards the will of the Venezuelan people".[20] Maduro responded, saying he was "proud" of being sanctioned by the United States government.[168]

RecognitionEdit

Awards and orders Country Date Place Notes Ref
  Order of the Liberator   Venezuela 19 April 2013 Caracas, Venezuela Highest decoration of Venezuela, given to every president. [169]
  Order of the Liberator General San Martín   Argentina 8 May 2013 Buenos Aires, Argentina Highest decoration of Argentina awarded by political ally Cristina Kirchner. Revoked on 11 August 2017 by President Mauricio Macri for human rights violations. [170]
[171]
[172]
  Order of the Condor of the Andes   Bolivia 26 May 2013 La Paz, Bolivia Highest decoration of Bolivia. [173]
  Bicentenary Order of the Admirable Campaign   Venezuela 15 June 2013 Trujillo, Venezuela Venezuelan order. [174]
  Star of Palestine   Palestine 16 May 2014 Caracas, Venezuela Highest decoration of Palestine. [175]
  Order of Augusto César Sandino   Nicaragua 17 March 2015 Managua, Nicaragua Highest decoration of Nicaragua. [176]
  Order of José Martí   Cuba 18 March 2016 La Habana, Cuba Cuban order. [177]
  • In 2014, Maduro was named as one of TIME magazine's 100 Most Influential People. In the article, it explained that whether or not Venezuela collapses "now depends on Maduro" saying it also depends on whether Maduro "can step out of the shadow of his pugnacious predecessor and compromise with his opponents".[178]
  • In 2016, the Reporters Without Borders (RSF) Top 35 Predators of Press Freedom list placed Maduro as a "predator" to press freedom in Venezuela, with RSF noting his method of "carefully orchestrated censorship and economic asphyxiation" toward media organizations.[179][180]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Venezuela's Chavez Says Cancer Back, Plans Surgery". USA Today. 27 August 2014. Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  2. ^ de Córdoba, José; Vyas, Kejal (9 December 2012). "Venezuela's Future in Balance". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 10 December 2012. 
  3. ^ a b "Nicolas Maduro sworn in as new Venezuelan president". BBC News. 19 April 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2013.</% of votess
  4. ^ a b Diaz-Struck, Emilia; Forero, Juan (19 November 2013). "Venezuelan president Maduro given power to rule by decree". The Washington Post. Retrieved 27 April 2015. 
  5. ^ "Venezuela: President Maduro granted power to govern by decree". BBC News. 16 March 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2015. 
  6. ^ Brodzinsky, Sibylla (15 January 2016). "Venezuela president declares economic emergency as inflation hits 141%". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 24 February 2016. 
  7. ^ Worely, Will (18 March 2016). "Venezuela is going to shut down for a whole week because of an energy crisis". The Independent. Retrieved 12 May 2016. 
  8. ^ Osmary Hernandez, Mariano Castillo and Deborah Bloom (February 21, 2017). "Venezuelan food crisis reflected in skipped meals and weight loss". CNN. Retrieved May 28, 2017. 
  9. ^ Anders Aslund (May 2, 2017). "Venezuela Is Heading for a Soviet-Style Collapse". Foreign Policy. Retrieved May 28, 2017. 
  10. ^ Loris Zanatta (May 30, 2017). "Cuando el barco se hunde" [When the ship sinks]. La Nación (in Spanish). Retrieved May 28, 2017. 
  11. ^ a b Scharfenberg, Ewald (1 February 2015). "Volver a ser pobre en Venezuela". El Pais. Retrieved 3 February 2015. 
  12. ^ a b Washington, Richard (22 June 2016). "'The Maduro approach' to Venezuelan crisis deemed unsustainable by analysts". CNBC. Retrieved 23 June 2016. 
  13. ^ a b Lopez, Linette. "Why Venezuela is a nightmare right now". Business Insider. Retrieved 23 June 2016. 
  14. ^ "A 2016 Presidential Recall Seems Less and Less Likely". Stratfor. Retrieved 23 June 2016. 
  15. ^ Corrales, Javier; Penfold, Michael (2014). Dragon in the tropics : Hugo Chavez and the political economy of revolution in Venezuela (Second ed.). [S.l.]: Brookings Institution Press. p. xii. ISBN 0815725930. 
  16. ^ "Venezuela Dialogue". TeleSUR. Retrieved 10 December 2016. 
  17. ^ Corrales, Javier. "Venezuela's Odd Transition to Dictatorship". Americas Quarterly. Retrieved 10 December 2016. 
  18. ^ Brodzinsky, Sibylla (21 October 2016). "Venezuelans warn of 'dictatorship' after officials block bid to recall Maduro". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 December 2016. 
  19. ^ "Almagro: Maduro se transforma en dictador por negarles a venezolanos derecho a decidir su futuro". CNN en Español. 24 August 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2016. 
  20. ^ a b c "Treasury Sanctions the President of Venezuela". United States Department of the Treasury. 31 July 2017. Retrieved 1 August 2017. 
  21. ^ a b c "Perfil | ¿Quién es Nicolás Maduro?". El Mundo (in Spanish). 27 December 2012. Retrieved 9 March 2013. 
  22. ^ a b c "Profile: Nicolas Maduro – Americas". Al Jazeera. March 2013. Retrieved 9 March 2013. 
  23. ^ Lamb, Peter (17 December 2015). Historical Dictionary of Socialism. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 289. ISBN 978-1-442-25827-3. 
  24. ^ Turner, Barry (2013). The Statesman's Yearbook 2014: The Politics, Cultures and Economies of the World. Springer. p. 1486. ISBN 978-1-349-59643-0. 
  25. ^ a b c Oropeza, Valentina (15 April 2013). "Perfil de Nicolás Maduro: El 'delfín' que conducirá la revolución bolivariana". El Tiempo (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2016-03-06. 
  26. ^ Neuman, William (22 December 2012). "Waiting to See if a 'Yes Man' Picked to Succeed Chávez Might Say Something Else". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 November 2013. 
  27. ^ Maduro: Rectifique presidente Obama, somos mestizos. 10 February 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2016 – via YouTube. 
  28. ^ "Venezuela's 'anti-Semitic' leader admits Jewish ancestry". 
  29. ^ a b c d Lopez, Virginia; Watts, Jonathan (15 April 2013). "Who is Nicolás Maduro? Profile of Venezuela's new president". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 March 2015. 
  30. ^ a b "MinCI – Maduro: perfecto heredero de Chávez". MinCI. Retrieved 27 April 2016. 
  31. ^ a b Lopez, Virginia (13 December 2012). "Nicolás Maduro: Hugo Chávez's incendiary heir". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 9 March 2013. 
  32. ^ Cawthorne, Andrew; Naranjo, Mario (9 December 2012). "Who is Nicolas Maduro, Possible Successor to Hugo Chávez?". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 10 December 2012. 
  33. ^ a b Dreier, Hannah (12 November 2015). "US Court: Nephews of Venezuela First Lady Held Without Bail". Associated Press. Retrieved 14 November 2015. 
  34. ^ Guererro, Kay; Dominguez, Claudia; Shoichet, Catherine E. (12 November 2015). "Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro's family members indicted in U.S. court". CNN. Retrieved 14 November 2015. 
  35. ^ a b c d "Venezuelan president's son, Nicolas Maduro Jr., showered in dollar bills as economy collapses". Fox News Latino. 19 March 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2015. 
  36. ^ "Biografía – Blog de Nicolas Maduro". Retrieved 27 April 2016. 
  37. ^ "Nicolás Maduro a la cabeza de la revolución" Archived 29 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine. (in Spanish). Últimas Noticias. 9 December 2012.
  38. ^ Carroll, Rory (2013). "5: Survival of the fittest". Comandante: Inside Hugo Chávez's Venezuela. Penguin Press. p. 120. ISBN 978-1-59420-457-9. LCCN 2012039514. 
  39. ^ a b Shoichet, Catherine E. (9 December 2012). "Venezuela: As Chavez Battles Cancer, Maduro Waits in the Wings". CNN. 
  40. ^ "Publicista brasileña revela que en 2011 ya se sabía que Maduro sería el sucesor de Chávez". Diario Las Americas (in Spanish). 15 May 2017. Retrieved 20 May 2017. 
  41. ^ James, Ian (8 December 2012). "Venezuela's Chavez Says Cancer Back, Plans Surgery". USA Today. Retrieved 8 December 2012. 
  42. ^ Crooks, Nathan (8 December 2012). "Venezuela's Chavez Says New Cancer Cells Detected in Cuba Exams". Bloomberg. Retrieved 8 December 2012. 
  43. ^ "Profile: Nicolas Maduro". BBC News. 13 December 2012. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
  44. ^ Shoichet, Catherine E.; Ford, Dana (5 March 2013). "Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez dies". CNN.
  45. ^ CBS/AP (6 March 2013). "Hugo Chavez's handpicked successor at helm in Venezuela, for time being". CBS News. 
  46. ^ "Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela" Archived 21 August 2011 at WebCite.
  47. ^ "Venezuela's foreign minister says VP Maduro is interim president". Fox News Channel. 5 March 2013.
  48. ^ Carroll, Rory; Lopez, Virginia (9 March 2013). "Venezuelan opposition challenges Nicolás Maduro's legitimacy". The Guardian. London. 
  49. ^ "Constitución de la República de Venezuela" (in Spanish). 
  50. ^ "Maduro convoca a elecciones inmediatas – Pim pom papas noticias". Noticias.pimpompapas.com. 8 March 2013. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
  51. ^ "Presidente Maduro: Asumo está banda de Chávez para cumplir el juramento de continuar la Revolución (+Fotos+Video) – Venezolana de Televisión". Vtv.gob.ve (in Spanish). VTV. 8 March 2013. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
  52. ^ Corrales, Javier; Penfold, Michael (2 April 2015). Dragon in the Tropics: The Legacy of Hugo Chávez. Brookings Institution Press. p. 13. ISBN 0815725930. 
  53. ^ Shoichet, Catherine (15 April 2013). "Chavez's Political Heir Declared Winner; Opponent Demands Recount". CNN. Retrieved 15 April 2013. 
  54. ^ Kroth, Olivia (18 April 2013). "Delegations from 15 countries to assist Maduro's inauguration in Venezuela". Pravda.ru. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  55. ^ "Venezuela Fights Shortage Blues With New Happiness Agency". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 27 October 2013. 
  56. ^ "Venezuela starts validating recall referendum signatures". BBC. 21 June 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  57. ^ Kurmanaev, Anatoly (6 July 2016). "Venezuela Detains Activists Calling for Maduro's Ouster". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  58. ^ Sibylla Brodzinsky (27 July 2016). "Venezuela government stalling recall vote to keep power, opposition claims". The Guardian. 
  59. ^ Cawthorne, Andrew (1 August 2016). "Venezuela election board okays opposition recall push first phase". Reuters. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  60. ^ "La lista de los 40 países democráticos que hasta el momento desconocieron la Asamblea Constituyente de Venezuela". Infobae (in Spanish). 31 July 2017. Retrieved 1 August 2017. 
  61. ^ "Fear spreads in Venezuela ahead of planned protest of controversial election". The Washington Post. 28 July 2017. Retrieved 29 July 2017. 
  62. ^ Virginia López and Sibylla Brodzinsky (July 25, 2017). "Venezuela to vote amid crisis: all you need to know". The Guardian. Retrieved July 29, 2017. 
  63. ^ "Venezuela's embattled socialist president calls for citizens congress, new constitution". USA TODAY. Associated Press. 1 May 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2017. 
  64. ^ "What are Venezuelans voting for and why is it so divisive?". BBC News. 30 July 2017. Retrieved 30 July 2017. 
  65. ^ "¿Qué busca Nicolás Maduro con el nuevo autogolpe que quiere imponer en Venezuela?" [What is Maduro seeking with the new self-coup that he tries to impose in Venezuela?] (in Spanish). La Nación. May 2, 2017. Retrieved May 1, 2017. 
  66. ^ Kraul, Chris (17 May 2017). "Human rights activists say many Venezuelan protesters face abusive government treatment". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 22 May 2017. 
  67. ^ "Gobierno extiende por décima vez el decreto de emergencia económica". La Patilla (in Spanish). 18 July 2017. Retrieved 19 July 2017. 
  68. ^ Porzucki, Nina (13 January 2016). "It's not Hugo Chavez's Venezuela anymore, or is it?". Public Radio International. Retrieved 14 January 2016. 
  69. ^ a b "Marsh Political Risk Map | 2017". Marsh. Retrieved 6 May 2017. 
  70. ^ "What's behind Venezuela's crippling crisis, and why it matters to the U.S". NBC News. 8 May 2017. Retrieved 11 May 2017. 
  71. ^ a b "Venezuela launches massive street security operation". BBC News. 13 May 2013. 
  72. ^ "Venezuelan Anti-Crime Program Records 55% Homicide Reduction". Retrieved 27 April 2016. 
  73. ^ "Safe Homeland plan reduced murder by 55% in Caracas parish". AVN. Retrieved 27 April 2016. 
  74. ^ Carmen Melendez (1 November 2014). "Relanzado Plan Patria Segura este sábado en todo el territorio nacional (+Fotos)". Venezolana de Television. Retrieved 4 November 2014. 
  75. ^ "Venezuela Ranks World's Second In Homicides: Report". NBC News. 29 December 2014. Retrieved 3 January 2015. 
  76. ^ "Venezuela's economy: Medieval policies". The Economist. Retrieved 23 February 2014. 
  77. ^ "Venezuela's April inflation jumps to 5.7 percent: report". Reuters. 17 May 2014. Retrieved 18 May 2014. 
  78. ^ "Venezuela's black market rate for US dollars just jumped by almost 40%". Quartz (publication). 26 March 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014. 
  79. ^ Kevin Voigt (6 March 2013). "Chavez leaves Venezuelan economy more equal, less stable". CNN. Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
  80. ^ Corrales, Javier (7 March 2013). "The House That Chavez Built". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 6 February 2015. 
  81. ^ Siegel, Robert (25 December 2014). "For Venezuela, Drop In Global Oil Prices Could Be Catastrophic". NPR. Retrieved 4 January 2015. 
  82. ^ "Mr. Maduro in His Labyrinth". The New York Times. 26 January 2015. Retrieved 26 January 2015. 
  83. ^ "Venezuela's government seizes electronic goods shops". BBC. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  84. ^ "Maduro anuncia que el martes arranca nueva "ofensiva económica"". La Patilla. 22 April 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014. 
  85. ^ "Maduro insiste con una nueva "ofensiva económica"". La Nacion. 23 April 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014. 
  86. ^ "Decree powers widen Venezuelan president's economic war". CNN. 20 November 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  87. ^ Yapur, Nicolle (24 April 2014). "Primera ofensiva económica trajo más inflación y escasez". El Nacional. Retrieved 25 April 2014. 
  88. ^ Gupta, Girish (3 November 2014). "Could Low Oil Prices End Venezuela's Revolution?". The New Yorker. Retrieved 15 November 2014. 
  89. ^ "New Year's Wishes for Venezuela". The Washington Post. Bloomberg. 2 January 2015. Retrieved 4 January 2015. 
  90. ^ Hanke, John H. "Measuring Misery around the World". The Cato Institute. Retrieved 30 April 2014. 
  91. ^ "Amid Rationing, Venezuela Takes The Misery Crown". Investors Business Daily. Retrieved 1 September 2014. 
  92. ^ Anderson, Elizabeth (3 March 2015). "Which are the 15 most miserable countries in the world?". The Telegraph. Retrieved 4 March 2015. 
  93. ^ Saraiva, A Catarina; Jamrisko, Michelle; Fonseca Tartar, Andre (2 March 2015). "The 15 Most Miserable Economies in the World". Bloomberg. Retrieved 4 March 2015. 
  94. ^ "The World's Most – And Least – Miserable Countries in 2016 – Zero Hedge". www.zerohedge.com. 7 January 2013. 
  95. ^ Pons, Corina; Cawthorne, Andrew (30 December 2014). "Recession-hit Venezuela vows New Year reforms, foes scoff". Reuters. 
  96. ^ a b "Venezuela Launches Reforms to Tackle Economic War". TeleSUR. 30 December 2014. Retrieved 20 March 2015. 
  97. ^ "Maduro blames US for violence over Venezuela vote". Associated Press. 16 April 2013. Retrieved 20 March 2015. 
  98. ^ a b Otis, John (8 March 2015). "Venezuela's President Sees Only Plots As His Economy Crumbles". NPR. Retrieved 20 March 2015. 
  99. ^ a b Mogollon, Mery; Kraul, Chris (5 March 2015). "Venezuela commemorates Hugo Chavez amid economic and other woes". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  100. ^ "Seven Venezuelan officials targeted by US". BBC. 10 March 2015. 
  101. ^ "Venezuela launches anti-American, in-your-face propaganda campaign in the U.S". Fox News Latino. 18 March 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2015. 
  102. ^ "Venezuela lashes U.S., opposition amid blame over activist's slaying". Reuters. 27 November 2015. Retrieved 30 November 2015. 
  103. ^ Vyas, Kejal. "Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro Says He Will Sue U.S". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 30 November 2015. 
  104. ^ "Expresidentes iberoamericanos piden cambios en Venezuela". Panamá América. Retrieved 27 April 2016. 
  105. ^ a b c d e Tegel, Simeon (2 April 2015). "Venezuela's Maduro is racing to collect 10 million signatures against Obama". GlobalPost. Retrieved 6 April 2015. 
  106. ^ "Trabajadores petroleros que no firmen contra el decreto Obama serán despedidos". Retrieved 27 April 2016. 
  107. ^ "Despiden a dos trabajadores de Corpozulia por negarse a firmar contra decreto Obama". Retrieved 27 April 2016. 
  108. ^ "Confirman despido de dos trabajadores de Corpozulia por no firmar contra decreto Obama". Retrieved 27 April 2016. 
  109. ^ "Diario El Vistazo". Diario El Vistazo. Retrieved 27 April 2016. 
  110. ^ Sabrina Martín. "Bajo amenazas, chavismo recolecta firmas contra Obama en Venezuela". PanAm Post. Retrieved 27 April 2016. 
  111. ^ "MCM: Declaración de Panamá es un hito histórico en la lucha por la democracia en Venezuela". Retrieved 27 April 2016. 
  112. ^ "25 expresidentes iberoamericanos firmaron Declaración de Panamá". El Mundo Economía y Negocios. Retrieved 27 April 2016. 
  113. ^ a b c Rey Mallén, Patiricia (15 April 2014). "China's Paying Venezuela To Stay Afloat. Now Maduro Wants To Be Friends". International Business Times. Retrieved 20 March 2015. 
  114. ^ "Chinese systems get 'combat experience' in Venezuela". IHS Jane's. Retrieved 21 May 2014. 
  115. ^ "Venezuela will buy 300 new anti-riot vehicles". Army Recognition. Retrieved 29 August 2014. 
  116. ^ "Maduro podría ser dueño de empresa méxicana distribuidora de los CLAP". El Nacional (in Spanish). 23 August 2017. Retrieved 24 August 2017. 
  117. ^ Wyss, Jim (23 August 2017). "Venezuela's ex-prosecutor Luisa Ortega accuses Maduro of profiting from nation's hunger". Miami Herald. Retrieved 24 August 2017. 
  118. ^ Prengaman, Peter (23 August 2017). "Venezuela's ousted prosecutor accuses Maduro of corruption". Associated Press. ABC News. Retrieved 24 August 2017. 
  119. ^ a b c Dreir, Hannah (23 July 2014). "Venezuelan Conspiracy Theories a Threat to Critics". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2014. 
  120. ^ "Hilo histórico: Plan de magnicidio contra Nicolás Maduro en Venezuela". Retrieved 27 April 2016. 
  121. ^ a b c d e Lansberg-Rodríguez, Daniel (15 March 2015). "Coup Fatigue in Caracas". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 10 July 2015. 
  122. ^ "Nicolas Maduro recebeu 13 milhões de ataques psicológicos – lainfo.es". Retrieved 27 April 2016. 
  123. ^ "Maduro dice que telenovelas generan delincuencia". Informe21.com. Retrieved 27 April 2016. 
  124. ^ a b Wallis, Daniel; Buitrago, Deisy (23 January 2013). "Venezuela's vice president says he's target of assassination plot". Reuters. Retrieved 27 August 2014. 
  125. ^ Esteban Rojas (May 6, 2017). "La guerra informativa invade las redes" [The informative war invades the networks]. La Nación (in Spanish). Retrieved May 8, 2017. 
  126. ^ Lee, Brianna (25 March 2015). "Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro's Approval Rating Gets A Tiny Bump Amid Tensions With US". International Business Times. Retrieved 27 April 2015. 
  127. ^ "Woman who hit Venezuelan president with mango given new home". Special Broadcasting Service. 25 April 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2015. 
  128. ^ "Letter of the OAS Secretary General to the President of Venezuela". Organization of American States. 12 January 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
  129. ^ "Venezuela: OAS Should Invoke Democratic Charter". Human Rights Watch. 16 May 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
  130. ^ "The Inter-American Democratic Charter and Mr. Insulza". Human Rights Foundation. Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
  131. ^ Ordonez, Franco (4 May 2016). "Venezuela calls for extraordinary OAS meeting". The Miami Herald. Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
  132. ^ Ordonez, Franco (5 May 2016). "Venezuela accuses U.S. of conspiring to topple Nicolás Maduro". The Kansas City Star. Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
  133. ^ "Maduro sobre Almagro: 'Es un traidor, algún día contaré su historia'". Noticias24. 17 May 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
  134. ^ "Message from the OAS Secretary General to the President of Venezuela". Organization of American States. 18 May 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
  135. ^ a b Yagoub, Mimi. "Venezuela Military Officials Piloted Drug Plane". InSight Crime. Retrieved 25 November 2015. 
  136. ^ a b Blasco, Emili J. (19 November 2015). "La Casa Militar de Maduro custodió el traslado de droga de sus sobrinos". ABC. Retrieved 25 November 2015. 
  137. ^ Raymond, Nate (19 November 2016). "Venezuelan first lady's nephews convicted in U.S. drug trial". Reuters. Retrieved 19 November 2016. 
  138. ^ "Narcosobrinos Archivo". La Patilla. Retrieved 20 May 2016. 
  139. ^ "EEUU: postergaron una vez más la audiencia de los narcosobrinos de Maduro | Nicolás Maduro, Narcotráfico en Venezuela, Nueva York – América". Infobae. Retrieved 20 May 2016. 
  140. ^ "Restan días para el juicio de los "narcosobrinos"". Venezuela al Día. Retrieved 20 May 2016. 
  141. ^ Carrillo Mazzali, Jessica. "Difieren audiencia del caso de los "narcosobrinos" de Cilia". Tal Cual. Retrieved 20 May 2016. 
  142. ^ "La mujer de Maduro acusa a la DEA de secuestrar a sus "narcosobrinos"". ABC (in Spanish). Retrieved 20 May 2016. 
  143. ^ Lozano, Daniel. "Nicolás Maduro, seis días de silencio en torno al escándalo de los 'narcosobrinos'". El Mundo. Retrieved 20 May 2016. 
  144. ^ "What's Wrong with Venezuela?". International Policy Digest. Retrieved 30 November 2015. 
  145. ^ "U.S. arrests Nicolas Maduro's family members". CNN. Retrieved 30 November 2015. 
  146. ^ Kurmanaev, Anatoly. "Arrest of Nicolas Maduro Relatives a 'Kidnapping,' Venezuelan Official Says". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 30 November 2015. 
  147. ^ Sallah, Michael; Delgado, Antonio (26 December 2015). "Bal Harbour to Caracas: Millions in drug money". The Miami Herald. Retrieved 20 May 2016. 
  148. ^ Sallah, Michael (28 December 2015). "Bank denies report that Maduro aide was sent drug money". The Miami Herald. Retrieved 20 May 2016. 
  149. ^ "Denuncian en Panamá a Maduro y a su esposa por posible blanqueo de dólares". El Nuevo Herald. 4 January 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2016. 
  150. ^ "Canciller Maduro llama "sifrinitos" y "fascistas" a dirigentes opositores". El Universal. 12 April 2012. Archived from the original on 2 July 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2015. 
  151. ^ Avery, Dan (13 April 2012). "Hugo Chavez's Foreign Minister Calls Opposition Party "Little Faggots"". Queerty. Retrieved 30 May 2015. 
  152. ^ a b "Nicolás Maduro utiliza la homofobia para captar votos". Espiritu Gay. Retrieved 27 April 2016. 
  153. ^ "Venezuela Says U.S. Plans To Kill Capriles, Maduro Accused Of Homophobic Slur". HuffPost. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2015. 
  154. ^ "Reuters: controversia sobre la sexualidad toma protagonismo en la carrera electoral de Venezuela". Noticias24. Retrieved 27 April 2016. 
  155. ^ "La "tremenda grosería" que se le salió a Maduro en plena cadena nacional". Retrieved 27 April 2016. 
  156. ^ "Maduro a Congreso de España: "Vayan a opinar de su madre"". LARED21. 15 April 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2016. 
  157. ^ "El hijo de Nicolás Maduro bailó bajo una lluvia de dólares en una fiesta". La Nación. 18 March 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2015. 
  158. ^ "Polémica por un video del hijo de Maduro en el que baila entre billetes". Infobae. 17 March 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2015. 
  159. ^ a b "Hijo de Maduro baila bajo lluvia de billetes". La Razón. 16 March 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2015. 
  160. ^ "En video: el hijo de Nicolás Maduro baila en una 'lluvia' de billetes". El Tiempo. 17 March 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2015. 
  161. ^ "Como el hijo de Maduro: Otros escándalos del chavismo". El Comercio. 17 March 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2015. 
  162. ^ "Hijo de Nicolás Maduro baila en boda mientras le lanzan billetes". El Universo. 18 March 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2015. 
  163. ^ a b "Ousted Venezuelan prosecutor leaks Odebrecht bribe video". Washington Post. 12 October 2017. Retrieved 12 October 2017. 
  164. ^ "Américo Mata habría recibido pagos de Odebrecht para campaña de Maduro | El Cooperante". El Cooperante (in Spanish). 25 August 2017. Retrieved 13 October 2017. 
  165. ^ "Venezuela sanctions". Government of Canada. 22 September 2017. Retrieved 22 September 2017. 
  166. ^ "Canada sanctions 40 Venezuelans with links to political, economic crisis". The Globe and Mail. 22 September 2017. Retrieved 22 September 2017. 
  167. ^ "Venezuela-related Designations". United States Department of Treasury. 26 July 2017. Retrieved 27 July 2017. 
  168. ^ "Maduro asegura que no 'lo intimidan' las sanciones de EEUU". La Patilla (in Spanish). 31 July 2017. Retrieved 1 August 2017. 
  169. ^ "Nicolás Maduro asume Presidencia en Venezuela". El Economista. 19 April 2013. Retrieved 4 May 2014. 
  170. ^ "Maduro es condecorado en Argentina con la Orden Libertador de San Martín". Correo del Orinoco. 8 May 2013. Retrieved 4 May 2014. 
  171. ^ "Decreto Nacional 481/2013". Boletín Oficial. SAIJ. 8 May 2013. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  172. ^ "Por decreto, el Gobierno le retiró a Nicolás Maduro la condecoración que le había otorgado Cristina en 2013" [By decree, the Government retired to Nicolás Maduro the decoration that had granted him Cristina in 2013]. La Nación (in Spanish). 11 August 2017. Retrieved 11 August 2017. 
  173. ^ "Presidente Maduro fue condecorado con la orden Cóndor de los Andes en Bolivia". AVN. 26 May 2013. Retrieved 4 May 2014. 
  174. ^ "Otorgan Orden Bicentenaria de Campaña Admirable a Maduro". El Universal. 15 June 2013. Retrieved 4 May 2014. 
  175. ^ "Mahmud Abbas condecoró al Presidente Maduro con la Estrella Palestina". Venezolana de Televisión. 16 May 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2014. 
  176. ^ "Presidente Maduro fue condecorado con orden Augusto Sandino (+Comunicado), por reencarnar y encarnar «ideales de vida y obra de todos los maestros, guías, próceres, y héroes de la Patria Grande como combatiente martiano, bolivariano, sandinista, chavista, antiimperialista, y como irreductible defensor del derecho de su pueblo, y de Nuestra América-Caribeña toda, a la autodeterminación, la soberanía, la unidad, en respeto, reconocimiento y equidad»)". Gobierno Bolivariano de Venezuela. Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Comunicación y la Información. 17 March 2015. Retrieved 29 March 2015. 
  177. ^ "Condecorado Nicolás Maduro con la Orden José Martí (+ Fotos y Videos)". CubaDebate. 18 March 2016. Retrieved 20 March 2016. 
  178. ^ Kumar, Nikhil (23 April 2014). "The man who holds Venezuela's future". Time. Retrieved 25 April 2014. 
  179. ^ "Portrait of Nicolás Maduro | Reporters without borders". Reporters Without Borders (in French). Retrieved 3 November 2016. 
  180. ^ "RSF issues new list of press freedom predators". Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 3 November 2016. 

External linksEdit

Political offices
Preceded by
Francisco Ameliach
President of the National Assembly
2005–2006
Succeeded by
Cilia Flores
Preceded by
Alí Rodríguez Araque
185th Minister of Foreign Affairs
2006–2013
Succeeded by
Elías Jaua
Preceded by
Elías Jaua
Vice President of Venezuela
2012–2013
Succeeded by
Jorge Arreaza
Preceded by
Hugo Chávez
President of Venezuela
2013–present
Incumbent
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Hassan Rouhani
Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement
2016–present
Incumbent
Party political offices
Preceded by
Hugo Chávez
Leader of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela
2013–present
Incumbent