2012 Venezuelan presidential election

The Venezuelan presidential election of 2012 was held on 7 October 2012 (referred by local media as 7-O,)[1] to choose a president for the six-year term beginning January 2013.[2]

2012 Venezuelan presidential election

← 2006 7 October 2012 (2012-10-07) 2013 →
  Chavez141610-2.jpg Henrique Capriles Radonski from Margarita island.jpg
Candidate Hugo Chávez Henrique Capriles
Alliance GPP MUD
Home state Barinas Miranda
States carried 21 + Capital District 2
Popular vote 8,191,132 6,591,304
Percentage 55.1% 44.3%

Results by state.
Presidential election results map. Red denotes states won by Chávez, Blue denotes those won by Capriles.

President before election

Hugo Chávez

Elected President

Hugo Chávez

After the approval of the Amendment No. 1 of the Constitution of Venezuela in 2009, which abolished term limits; incumbent Hugo Chávez, representing the United Socialist Party of Venezuela (Partido Socialista Unido de Venezuela, PSUV) was able to present himself again as a candidate after his reelection in 2006. His main challenger was Governor Henrique Capriles Radonski of Miranda, representing Justice First. The candidates were backed by opposing electoral coalitions; Chávez by the Great Patriotic Pole (Gran Polo Patriótico, GPP), and Capriles by the opposition Coalition for Democratic Unity (Mesa de la Unidad Democrática, MUD). There were four more candidates from different parties.[3] Capriles ran an energetic campaign, and visited each of the country's states. Throughout his campaign, Capriles remained confident that he could win the election and be the country's next President.[4] However, Chávez consistently led most established polls, generally by large margins. In the end, his popularity remained high, and went to win the election by a comfortable margin.

Chávez was elected for a fourth term as President of Venezuela with 55.07% of the popular vote, ahead of the 44.31% of Capriles.[5] The elections showed a historically high turnout, above 80% of the electorate, in a country where voting is not mandatory.[6] Although Chávez did not win the election with a huge landslide as he had previously done in 2006, his 11-point victory over his opponent was decisive. Capriles conceded defeat as the preliminary results were known.[7] Chávez died only two months into his fourth term.

Electoral processEdit

Since 1998 elections in Venezuela have been highly automated,[8] and administered by a non-partisan National Electoral Council, with poll workers drafted via a lottery of registered voters. Polling places are equipped with multiple high-tech touch-screen DRE voting machines, one to a "mesa electoral", or voting "table". After the vote is cast, each machine prints out a paper ballot, or VVPAT, which is inspected by the voter and deposited in a ballot box belonging to the machine's table. The voting machines perform in a stand-alone fashion, disconnected from any network until the polls close.[9] Voting session closure at each of the voting stations in a given polling center is determined either by the lack of further voters after the lines have emptied, or by the hour, at the discretion of the president of the voting table.

Formal registrationEdit

On 10 June 2012, Capriles walked to the election commission to formally register his candidacy, at the head of a march estimated in the hundreds of thousands by international media, while local polling company Hernández Hercon estimated it to between 950,000 and 1,100,000. Capriles had stepped down as Governor of Miranda in early June in order to concentrate on his campaign.[10][11][12][13]


17 September, opposition candidate Yoel Acosta Chirinos withdrew from presidential election and announced support to president Chavez.[14]


Patriotic PoleEdit

Incumbent president Hugo Chávez Frías announced he would seek re-election at a University Students' Day rally held in Caracas in November 2010. Chávez' first mandate began in 1999, and if he had served the complete 2013–19 term, he would have served 20 years as president,[15] having won four presidential elections. In July 2011, Chávez reaffirmed his intent to run in spite of his battle with cancer.[16]

Chávez was supported by the Great Patriotic Pole (GPP), an electoral coalition led by the United Socialist Party of Venezuela (Partido Socialista Unido de Venezuela, PSUV). A member of a GPP collective said to Venezuelanalysis.com that the GPP was created in 2011 to support Chávez' re-election and "formally unites 35,000 Venezuelan movements and collectives" as well as Chávez-supporting political parties.[17]

Democratic UnityEdit

The opposition parties were grouped in the Democratic Unity Roundtable whose candidate was selected through an open primary election held on 12 February 2012.[18] The MUD electoral coalition consists of the parties Justice First (Movimiento Primero Justicia, PJ), Fatherland for All (Patria Para Todos, PPT), Project Venezuela (Proyecto Venezuela), and Popular Will (Voluntad Popular, VP) as the main supporters of Henrique Capriles in the primary elections of February 2012.[18] Other parties in the coalition include A New Era (Un Nuevo Tiempo, UNT), Democratic Action (Acción Democrática, AD), COPEI (Comité de Organización Política Electoral Independiente), and Movement to Socialism (Movimiento al Socialismo, MAS).[19]


Capriles won the opposition primaries with 1,900,528 (64.2%) votes of the 3,059,024 votes cast (votes abroad not included).[20] The other candidates on 12 February primary ballot were:

Leopoldo López was barred from running following corruption charges which he denied and for which he was never tried; in 2011, the Interamerican Court of Human Rights overturned the Venezuelan government ruling and said he should be allowed to run.[21][22] On 24 January, placed "in the awkward position of being able to stand for elections but not hold office",[21] he withdrew his candidacy to support Henrique Capriles Radonski.[23][24]

Candidates César Pérez Vivas (governor of Táchira state), Antonio Ledezma (mayor of the Metropolitan District of Caracas) and Eduardo Fernández (former secretary general of COPEI) withdrew from the race, saying they would support candidates with better chances of winning.[25]

Voter list disputeEdit

A dispute erupted over the disposition of the voter rolls, rising out of concern that opposition voters could incur reprisals.[26][27] Because the names of voters who had participated in the request of the 2004 recall referendum against Chávez had been made public via the Tascón List and, according to opposition leaders, those voters were later targeted for discrimination or lost jobs, the MUD had guaranteed voter secrecy.[26][27] On Tuesday 14 February, in response to "a losing mayoral candidate, who asked that the ballots be preserved for review",[28] the Supreme Court of Venezuela ordered the military to collect the voting rolls "so that electoral authorities could use them to investigate alleged irregularities during Sunday's elections".[26]

An attorney for the opposition said that records are to be destroyed within 48 hours by law.[26] Violence broke out as the opposition attempted to prevent police from collecting the names of voters. One young man, Arnaldo Espinoza, was run over and killed by a police tow truck that backed up suddenly, attempting to separate people who were protecting the vehicle belonging to the vice-president of the regional office for the primary elections in the state of Aragua.[29] Later the opposition declared all voter rolls had been destroyed.[26][27]

Candidate platformsEdit


The GlobalPost says that "housing, health and other programs have been the cornerstone" of President Chávez's tenure, who "remains very popular, largely because of the vast number of social programs he put in place, funded by Venezuela’s vast oil wealth".[21] According to The Washington Times, Chávez said the opposition represents "the rich and the U.S. government"; as part of his campaign, he increased social spending and investments to benefit the poor, and plans to launch a satellite made in China before the elections.[30]


According to Reuters, "Capriles defines himself as a center-left 'progressive' follower of the business-friendly but socially-conscious Brazilian economic model",[31] although he is a member of the center-right[32][33][34] Justice First. He has a youthful and populist style, a sports enthusiast who rides a motorbike into the slums, and has broken with the older guard of Venezuelan politicians.[35] Although he comes from a wealthy family, he espouses helping business thrive through a free market while tackling poverty via strong state policies.[35] In an interview with the GlobalPost, Capriles said his campaign was based on "improving education, which he sees as a long-term solution to the country's insecurity and deep poverty".[21] In November 2011, in response to claims from Chavez that the opposition would end the Bolivarian Missions if elected, Capriles said "he would be 'mad' to end" projects like Mission Barrio Adentro, adding that "the missions belong to the people".[36] In February 2012 Capriles insisted he would keep these programs, saying "I want to expand them, and get rid of the corruption and inefficiency that characterizes them."[37]

In early September 2012 David De Lima, a former governor of Anzoategui, published a document he said showed secret MUD plans to implement much more neoliberal policy, if elected, than their public statements showed. De Lima said the document was a form of policy pact between some of the candidates in the MUD primary, including Capriles.[38] On 6 September 2012 opposition legislator William Ojeda denounced these plans and the "neoliberal obsessions" of his colleagues in the MUD;[39] he was suspended by his A New Era party the following day.[40] Capriles said that his signature on the document was a forgery,[41] while the MUD's economic advisor said that the MUD had "no hidden agenda", and that its plans included the "institutionalisation" of the government's Bolivarian Missions so that they would no longer be "subject to the whims of government".[42] Nonetheless, several days later four small parties withdrew from the MUD coalition.[43] One small coalition party claimed De Lima had offered them money to withdraw from the MUD;[44] De Lima denied the claim.[45] On 30 September, another opposition politician, Aldo Carmeno from the Christian-democratic party COPEI, withdrew support for Capriles, and accused Capriles of "double speak" and "tricking the Venezuelan people". Carmeno announced his support for Hugo Chávez.[46]


The authority of the Venezuelan National Electoral Council (CNE) to oversee the election was recognized by the opposition.[30] Chávez said the fairness of the CNE should not be challenged.[30] The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) noted Chávez's popularity among poor Venezuelans, and that "Chávez dominates the nation's mass media, and has been spending lavishly on social programs to sway Venezuelan voters".[28] A January poll placed Chávez's approval rating at 64 percent.[21] In May Rafael Poleo, owner and publisher of El Nuevo País, warned in a column in his newspaper that the MUD candidacy was lagging in the polls because it "ignores that in Venezuela voting is emotional ... and that the people vote for hope", adding that "Chavismo has taken the place in the heart of the people which AD and Copei have vacated." He concluded that "going down this road, I can already tell them the outcome."[47] Capriles criticized Chávez for expropriating private businesses and for the government's use of the state-controlled media; the Washington Times said it will be hard for Capriles to compete with Chávez's "ability to take over the airwaves of all TV and radio stations when he deems appropriate".[30] In June Chávez said he would not engage in an election debate with Capriles, describing him as a "non-entity" he would be "ashamed" to measure himself against.[48]


It has been reported that funds to social programs increased dramatically before the elections, with Chávez devoting 16% of Venezuela's GDP to the initiatives.[49]

Chávez's healthEdit

Prior to the election, Chávez received treatment for cancer in Cuba[50] including radiation, chemotherapy, and two operations.[51] In a Mass during Easter Week 2012, Chávez wept and asked Jesus Christ to give him life;[52] the Associated Press says that although Chávez often praised socialism and atheism, his cancer caused him to turn to Jesus Christ for inspiration and that "... analysts say his increasing religiosity could pay election-year dividends in a country where Catholicism remains influential".[51] He did not revealed the specifics of the type or location of his cancer, but his illness was a factor in election campaigning.[52]

According to Reuters, some journalists sympathetic to the opposition spread information about Chávez's cancer based on claims that they have access to medical sources.[53] Amid speculation about whether he will live through the elections, there was no clear successor.[50] CNN stated "outlines" of a successor were seen in the appointments of two Chávez allies to top posts;[50] Diosdado Cabello as president of the National Assembly of Venezuela and Henry Rangel Silva as minister of defense.[50] Reuters said additional potential successors or placeholders include Chávez's two daughters and Nicolás Maduro, foreign minister.[54] The Venezuelan constitution provides for the president to appoint vice presidents at his discretion, and for the vice president to assume power in the event of the president's death, but according to CNN, the more likely scenarios range "from a military coup to Chavez naming Cabello or Maduro vice president before he dies."[50] CNN also says that analysts say Cuban politics have a role in the succession questions, with some Cubans supporting the president's brother, Adán Chávez;[50] trained militia in Venezuela may also be a factor if there was a succession crisis.[50]

From mid-April to late May 2012, Chávez was only seen in public twice, spending almost six weeks in Cuba for treatment.[53] On 7 May, he responded to criticism that he had left Venezuela in a power vacuum, saying he would be back soon.[54] On 22 May he took part in a live broadcast of a cabinet meeting lasting several hours.[55] He created a new Council of State, fueling rumors that it would act as a committee to help in the event a transition of government is needed.[53]


In February 2012 Capriles was subject to what were characterized in the press as "vicious"[28] and "anti-semitic"[56] attacks by state-run media sources.[35][57] The Wall Street Journal said that Capriles "was vilified in a campaign in Venezuela's state-run media, which insinuated he was, among other things, a homosexual and a Zionist agent".[28] These comments were in response to an opinion piece on the website of the state-owned Radio Nacional de Venezuela, published on 13 February 2012, and to allegations broadcast on La Hojilla relating to an alleged sexual incident in 2000. Titled "The Enemy is Zionism"[58] the Radio Nacional opinion piece noted Capriles' Jewish ancestry and a meeting he had held with local Jewish leaders,[28][57][59] saying: "This is our enemy, the Zionism that Capriles today represents ... Zionism, along with capitalism, are responsible for 90% of world poverty and imperialist wars."[28] Capriles is the grandson of Jewish Holocaust survivors[59] and a self-professed devout Catholic.[28] The United States-based organisations Simon Wiesenthal Center and the Anti-Defamation League condemned the attacks and voiced concern to Chávez, who vowed in 2009 to punish incidents of anti-Semitism.[56][60]

In early July 2012 Capriles published a document allegedly showing that the government had ordered all military personnel not to view private television networks. The publication coincided with a Capriles political ad aimed at the military;[61] the document was alleged by state-run news agency Agencia Venezolana de Noticias[62][63] to be a crude forgery, showing the document alongside the original and highlighting the changes, with Chávez himself repeating the analysis of the document on television. Based on non-classified military order 4926 from September 2011, the document had been redated to 31 July but was published several weeks before that date, still bearing the original signature of the minister of defense in September 2011, Carlos José Mata Figueroa (who had been replaced in January 2012). The document bore the original document number, and had the "not classified" stamps replaced with "confidential", but retained the original "NOCLAS" ("not classified") classification mark.[62][64] The source of the document was not identified, but Chávez said that it was "nothing new that [the opposition] forges documents and invents things that never happened".[63]


In March 2012, at a Capriles rally, a group of armed men began firing guns "in an apparent effort to break up the rally".[65] According to news reports, five people were injured, including the son of an opposition member of the National Assembly of Venezuela. Capriles was subsequently taken safely from the scene. Journalists for TV channel Globovisión had been covering the rally; according to reporter Sasha Ackerman, both she and her cameraman were threatened by the armed men, who confiscated their equipment and footage of the shootings. A Globovisión statement the next day identified the armed men as PSUV supporters, saying "These groups wore red shirts identifying them with a political tendency. More importantly, it was an armed and organized group that fired weapons against people".[65] Venezuela's justice minister, Tarek El Aissami, said that the attacks were perpetrated by opposition supporters "to generate this show", while some government sources said that Capriles' bodyguards "were the ones to start shooting".[65] The state news service Agencia Venezolana de Noticias reported that a local resident said that a group of individuals arrived on motorbikes, changed from yellow shirts to red in front of her house, and began shooting.[66][67][68]

There have also been reports of opposition supporters attacking journalists at opposition campaign events, including reporters for local public station Catatumbo Television at an event in Zulia,[69][70] and reporters for VTV at events in Aragua,[71][72] Tachira and Barinas.[73] Capriles subsequently told journalists "I'm against any type of violence, no matter where it comes from."[74]

PSUV politician Diosdado Cabello declared that Chávez was the only one who could guarantee peace. He added: "those who want fatherland will go with Chávez; those who are traitors will go with the others". He also said that if the opposition wins, it would take the measures of the IMF.[75]

Alleged plotsEdit

On 20 March Chávez declared he had intelligence reports about an alleged plot to assassinate Capriles, and said the government was monitoring security for Capriles, with the Director of the Bolivarian Intelligence Service meeting with Capriles' security team. Capriles responded that what the government should do is to guarantee security for all Venezuelans.[76] Chávez said that his government "has nothing to do with" the plot,[76] and according to Reuters, "implied that the plot came from elements in the opposition". Capriles' campaign manager said the announcement was intended to force a change in Capriles' house-by-house campaigning style.[77] In the 2006 presidential election, Chávez similarly declared he had uncovered an assassination plot against his opponent, Manuel Rosales.[35]

Later that same month, Chávez claimed the existence of an opposition plot to disrupt the election with violence and "attack ... the constitution, the people and institutions". Of the "list of actions" he said he was preparing in response, Chávez said he was willing to nationalise banks or companies that supported the opposition should they "[violate] the constitution and the national plan."[78]

In April, Chávez said Capriles Radonski was behind a conspiracy plan against his government. Reiterating that he would win with at least 70% of the votes, Chávez said that he had created a civil-military command to neutralize any "destabilization plans" in the event that the opposition did not recognise the results. In reference to the events of April 2002, Chávez said that if necessary, "there would not just be the people on the streets, but the people and soldiers".[79]

Opinion pollingEdit

According to Reuters, "Polls are historically controversial in Venezuela", pointing out that "Venezuelan pollsters – who range from a former Chavez minister to an openly pro-opposition figure – also tend to double as political analysts, offering partisan opinions in state media or opposition-linked newspapers."[80] In addition, it said that "As in previous elections, a proliferation of little-known public opinion firms with no discernable track record have emerged from obscurity promoting polls that appear to openly favor one candidate or the other."[80] In June 2012 most pollsters showed Capriles behind by at least 15 percentage points, and intention to vote for Chávez slowly increasing since the end of 2011. One firm, Hinterlaces, was accused by Capriles of publishing "bogus polls".[80] The Chavez campaign accused Datanalisis and Consultores 21 of inventing polls to support opposition plans to claim fraud in the event of defeat.[80]

Although the poll results vary widely, most of the variation is by pollster; results from individual pollsters are quite stable over time. Of the established Venezuelan pollsters, Consultores 21 and Varianzas have consistently shown a close race, while IVAD, GIS XXI, Datanalisis and Hinterlaces have consistently given Chávez a 10 to 20-point lead.

In June the CNE required pollsters publishing polls relating to the election to register with them, and to provide details of their methodology.[81] The list of registered pollsters is available online.[82]

Established Venezuelan pollstersEdit

Voting intention (%)
Pollster Publication date Chávez Capriles Radonski Source
Hinterlaces[83] Jan 2012 50 34 [84]
IVAD[85] Feb 2012 57 30 [86]
Hinterlaces Mar 2012 52 34 [87]
IVAD Mar 2012 56.5 26.6 [88]
Consultores 21[89] Mar 2012 46 45 [90]
Datanálisis[91] Mar 2012 44.7 31.4 [92]
Varianzas April 2012 49.3 45.1 [93]
GIS XXI[94] May 2012 57 21 [95]
Varianzas May 2012 50.5 45.7 [96]
GIS XXI June 2012 57.0 23.0 [citation needed]
Consultores 21 June 2012 47.9 44.5 [97]
Hinterlaces June 2012 51 34 [48]
Consultores 21 July 2012 45.9 45.8 [98]
IVAD July 2012 54.8 32.9 [99]
Varianzas July 2012 50.3 46.0 [100]
Datanálisis July 2012 46.1 30.8 [101]
Hinterlaces July 2012 47 30 [102]
GIS XXI August 2012 56 30 [103]
Varianzas August 2012 49.3 47.5 [104]
Hinterlaces 16 August 2012 48 30 [105]
Datanálisis 20 August 2012 46.8 34.2 [106]
Consultores 21 24 August 2012 45.9 47.7 [107]
IVAD 2 September 2012 50.8 32.4 [108]
Hinterlaces 6 September 2012 50 32 [109]
Consultores 21 19 September 2012 46.2 48.1 [110]
Datanálisis 24 September 2012 47.3 37.2 [111]
Hinterlaces 25 September 2012 50 34 [112]


Candidate Party Votes %
Hugo Chávez Great Patriotic Pole 8,191,132 55.07
Henrique Capriles Radonski Democratic Unity Roundtable 6,591,304 44.31
Reina Sequera Workers' Power 70,567 0.47
Luis Reyes Authentic Renewal Organisation 8,214 0.05
María Bolívar United Democratic Party for Peace 7,378 0.04
Orlando Chirinos Party for Socialism and Liberty 4,144 0.02
Valid votes 14,872,739 98.11
Invalid/blank votes 287,550 1.89
Total 15,162,228 100
Registered voters/turnout 18,854,935 80.48
Source: National Electoral Commission
Popular vote

Results by stateEdit

States/districts won by Hugo Chávez
States/districts won by Henrique Capriles Radonski
Hugo Chávez
Henrique Capriles Radonski
Margin State total
State # % # % # % # % #
Capital District 695,162 54.85 564,312 44.52 7,813 0.62 130,850 10.33 1,267,287
Amazonas 39,056 53.61 33,107 45.46 677 0.93 5,949 8.17 72,840
Anzoátegui 409,499 51.58 378,345 47.65 6,050 0.76 31,154 3.92 793,894
Apure 155,988 66.09 78,358 33.20 1,652 0.70 77,630 32.89 235,998
Aragua 552,878 58.61 384,592 40.77 5,708 0.61 168,286 17.84 943,178
Barinas 243,618 59.23 165,135 40.15 2,526 0.61 78,483 19.08 411,279
Bolívar 387,462 53.73 327,776 45.46 5,766 0.80 59,686 8.28 721,004
Carabobo 652,022 54.49 537,077 44.88 7,419 0.62 114,945 9.61 1,196,518
Cojedes 116,578 65.31 60,584 33.94 1,323 0.74 55,994 31.37 178,485
Delta Amacuro 54,963 66.84 26,506 32.23 758 0.92 28,457 34.61 82,227
Falcón 296,902 59.87 195,619 39.45 3,337 0.67 101,283 20.43 495,858
Guárico 249,038 64.31 135,451 34.97 2,740 0.71 113,587 29.33 387,229
Lara 499,525 51.45 463,615 47.75 7,637 0.79 35,910 3.70 970,777
Mérida 227,276 48.45 239,653 51.09 2,126 0.45 −12,377 −2.64 469,055
Miranda 771,053 49.96 764,180 49.52 7,912 0.51 6,873 0.44 1,543,145
Monagas 272,480 58.35 191,178 40.94 3,238 0.69 81,302 17.41 466,896
Nueva Esparta 132,452 51.02 125,792 48.45 1,349 0.52 6,660 2.57 259,593
Portuguesa 327,960 70.89 131,100 28.33 3,539 0.77 196,860 42.56 462,599
Sucre 280,933 60.23 182,898 39.21 2,565 0.55 98,035 21.02 466,396
Táchira 274,573 43.29 356,713 56.23 2,957 0.47 −82,140 −12.95 634,243
Trujillo 252,051 64.10 139,195 35.40 1,940 0.49 112,856 28.70 393,186
Vargas 127,246 61.47 78,382 37.86 1,374 0.66 48,864 23.61 207,002
Yaracuy 194,412 59.99 127,442 39.32 2,179 0.67 66,970 20.67 324,033
Zulia 971,889 53.34 843,032 46.27 7,038 0.39 128,857 7.07 1,821,959
Foreign 5,716 8.45 61,229 90.54 679 1.00 −55,513 −82.09 67,624
Inhospitable 400 92.16 33 7.60 1 0.23 367 68.19 434
Totals: 8,191,132 55.07 6,591,304 44.31 90,303 0.61 1,599,828 10.76 14,872,739

Source: National Electoral Council

Close statesEdit

Red font color denotes states won by President Chávez; blue denotes those won by Governor Capriles.

States where the margin of victory was under 5%:

  1. Miranda 0.45%
  2. Nueva Esparta 2.57%
  3. Mérida 2.64%
  4. Lara 3.70%
  5. Anzoátegui 3.92%

States where margin of victory was more than 5% but less than 10%:

  1. Zulia 7.07%
  2. Amazonas 8.17%
  3. Bolívar 8.28%
  4. Carabobo 9.61%




  1. ^ "Zambrano: Partidos serán fundamentales en victoria del 7-0". El Universal (in Spanish). 16 February 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
  2. ^ "Venezuela sets 2012 presidential election date". BBC. 13 September 2011. Retrieved 14 September 2011.
  3. ^ El Mundo: Estos son los ocho candidatos para las presidenciales del 7 de octubre Archived 17 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Laclase.info (15 June 2012).
  4. ^ "Venezuela.- Capriles desea "larga vida" a Chávez en medio de la polémica por la salud del presidente". Expansion.com.
  5. ^ "Divulgación Elecciones Presidenciales - 07 de Octubre de 2012". 4.cne.gob.ve.
  6. ^ "Chávez Wins a Third Term in Venezuela Amid Historically High Turnout". NYT. 7 October 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  7. ^ "Capriles a Chávez: Espero que lea con grandeza la expresión del pueblo". El Universal. 7 October 2012. Archived from the original on 10 October 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  8. ^ "Venezuela's presidential election, 2012". Smartmatic.com.
  9. ^ Consejo Nacional Electoral Manual Operativo para Miembros, Secretaria o Secretario de Mesa Electoral Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 28 November 2006 (in Spanish)
  10. ^ Chinea, Eyanir. (10 June 2012) "Capriles rallies Venezuelans to challenge Chavez". Reuters.
  11. ^ "Chavez foe leads massive march in Venezuela". Fox News.
  12. ^ "CARACAS: Venezuela opposition floods streets in support of presidential candidate" Archived 7 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Miami Herald.
  13. ^ "Capriles Radonski quiere ser 'el Presidente de los rojos'" Archived 15 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine. El Tiempo (1 June 1999).
  14. ^ Venezuelan Presidential Elections: One Contestant Withdraws, Further Internal Opposition Criticism. venezuelanalysis.com.
  15. ^ "Hugo Chávez se postulará para las Presidenciales del 2012". Noticias 24 (in Spanish). 23 November 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
  16. ^ "Chavez to run in 2012 poll, says Venezuela minister". BBC. 18 July 2011. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
  17. ^ Pernia, Jessica & Pearson, Tamara (28 February 2012). "Interview: the Great Patriotic Pole (GPP): how thousands of movements are constructing their revolutionary organisation". Venezuelanalysis.com. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  18. ^ a b de la Rosa, Alicia (12 February 2012). "Henrique Capriles wins opposition primaries in Venezuela". El Universal. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
  19. ^ "De oposicion a unidad". Tal Cual (in Spanish). 13 February 2012. Archived from the original on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
  20. ^ a b c d e "A total of 3,040,449 votes were cast in opposition primary election". El Universal. 13 February 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
  21. ^ a b c d e Gupta, Girish (10 February 2012). "Meet Henrique Capriles, Chavez's first real challenger". Global Post. Retrieved 21 February 2012.
  22. ^ Rueda, Jorge (16 September 2011). "Rights court sides with Chavez opponent". The Guardian. Associated Press. Retrieved 16 September 2011. Also available from Rights court sides chavez opponent, Yahoo! news
  23. ^ "Venezuela's López pulls out of presidential race". Buenos Aires Herald. Retrieved 21 February 2012.
  24. ^ "Chavez opponents in drive for unity". Google. UK Press Association. 24 January 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
  25. ^ "Otro candidato menos: Antonio Ledezma anuncia que se retira de la contienda electoral". Informe21.com (in Spanish). 31 October 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2012.
  26. ^ a b c d e Romo, Rafael (14 February 2012). "Political crisis erupts in Venezuela after primary elections". CNN. Retrieved 21 February 2012.
  27. ^ a b c "Venezuela opposition: Row erupts over voter list". BBC News. 14 February 2012. Retrieved 21 February 2012.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g Vyas, Kejal & Jose de Cordoba (15 February 2012). "Chávez rival hit by state attacks". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 21 February 2012.
  29. ^ Guillen, Erika (14 February 2012). "Muere joven durante decomiso de cuadernos electorales en Aragua". El Universal (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 February 2012.
  30. ^ a b c d Toothaker, Christopher & Ian James (20 February 2012). "Venezuelan challenger aims to oust Chavez". The Washington Times. Associated Press. Retrieved 21 February 2012.
  31. ^ "Factbox: What does Henrique Capriles want for Venezuela?". Reuters. 1 April 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
  32. ^ "Venezuela's presidential campaign: And then there were five", The Economist, 26 January 2012
  33. ^ de Córdoba, José (11 February 2012), "Venezuelans Aim to Challenge Chávez", The Wall Street Journal
  34. ^ Sullivan, Mark P.; Olhero, Nelson (11 January 2008), "Venezuela: Political Conditions and U.S. Policy" (PDF), CRS Report for Congress, p. 12
  35. ^ a b c d Cawthorne, Andrew (1 April 2012). "Insight: The man who would beat Hugo Chavez". Reuters. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
  36. ^ Andrew Cawthorne, Reuters, 6 November 2011, Chavez says foes would harm slums, see off Cubans
  37. ^ Andrew Cawthorne, Reuters, 14 February 2012, Chavez still feels the love in Venezuela slums
  38. ^ (in Spanish) Últimas Noticias, 6 September 2012, Aseguran que Capriles R. tiene un plan distinto al que dice Archived 1 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  39. ^ (in Spanish) Últimas Noticias, 6 September 2012, UNT: Ojeda "se puso al margen" de este partido Archived 1 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  40. ^ (in Spanish) El Tiempo, 7 September 2012, UNT suspendió a William Ojeda tras criticar supuesto "paquete" de la MUD Archived 1 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  41. ^ Venezuelanalysis.com, 11 September 2012, "Electoral Campaign in Venezuela Advances, Chavez Rejects Opposition's Neoliberal Package". venezuelanalysis.com
  42. ^ (in Spanish) noticias24.com, 7 September 2012, José Guerra: "Capriles no tiene ninguna agenda oculta, está jugando con las cartas sobre la mesa" Archived 1 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  43. ^ Venezuelanalysis.com, 12 September 2012, Venezuelan Opposition "Falling to Pieces" as Four Parties Withdraw Electoral Support
  44. ^ (in Spanish) Últimas Noticias, 11 September 2012, Denuncian que De Lima pagó a partidos para retirar apoyo a HCR Archived 1 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  45. ^ (in Spanish) Últimas Noticias, 12 September 2012, De Lima niega haber ofrecido dinero a partidos minoritarios Archived 1 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  46. ^ Another Venezuelan Opposition Leader Withdraws Support, Claiming Capriles is a "Photocopy" of Chavez. venezuelanalysis.com.
  47. ^ "Rafael Poleo: Las encuestas muestran a un Capriles flojo con una estrategia equivocada". NoticieroDigital (in Spanish). 21 May 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2012. ignora que en Venezuela el voto es emocional (…) y que la gente vota por la esperanza". ... "el chavismo llegó al corazón del pueblo que AD y Copei, sifrinizados, habían dejado vacío" ... "Por este camino puedo desde ya decirles los resultados.
  48. ^ a b Reuters, 18 June 2012, Venezuela's Chavez rejects poll debate, irking rival
  49. ^ López Maya, Margarita (2016). El ocaso del chavismo: Venezuela 2005-2015. pp. 349–351. ISBN 9788417014254.
  50. ^ a b c d e f g Brice, Arthur (1 May 2012). "Chavez health problems plunge Venezuela's future into doubt". CNN. Archived from the original on 24 June 2012. Retrieved 8 May 2012. Article extends to 11 pages.
  51. ^ a b "Hugo Chavez's cross: Venezuelan leader turns to Christianity during struggle with cancer". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 7 May 2012. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
  52. ^ a b "Hugo Chavez ahead in Venezuela presidential race even as he fights cancer, prays for life". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 12 April 2012. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
  53. ^ a b c Cawthorne, Andrew (4 May 2012). "Talk of Chavez cancer downturn rattles Venezuela". Chicago Tribune. Reuters. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
  54. ^ a b Ellsworth, Brian & Andrew Cawthorne (7 May 2012). "Chavez breaks silence, says governing Venezuela". Chicago Tribune. Reuters. Retrieved 8 May 2012.[permanent dead link]
  55. ^ Reuters, 22 May 2012, UPDATE 1-Venezuela's Chavez reappears, leads cabinet meeting
  56. ^ a b Toothaker, Christopher (17 February 2012). "Henrique Capriles Radonski: Hugo Chavez foe a target of anti-Semitism". HuffPost. Retrieved 21 February 2012.
  57. ^ a b Devereux, Charlie (20 February 2012). "Chavez media say rival Capriles backs plots ranging from Nazis to Zionists". Bloomberg. Retrieved 21 February 2012. Also available from sfgate.com
  58. ^ "Anti-Semitic article appears in Venezuela". Anti-Defamation League. 17 February 2012. Archived from the original on 12 May 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2012. Includes English translation of Venezuelan National Radio article.
  59. ^ a b "Chavez allies attack new opponent Capriles as Jewish, gay". MSNBC. 15 February 2012. Archived from the original on 2 May 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
  60. ^ "Chávez requested to stop anti-Semitic attacks against Capriles". El Universal. 17 February 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
  61. ^ EFE, Fox News, 14 July 2012, Capriles says message to Venezuela military went over "very well"
  62. ^ a b (in Spanish) Agencia Venezolana de Noticias, 13 July 2012, Demostrada falsedad de documento forjado por comando de campaña de Capriles
  63. ^ a b Venezuelanalysis.com, 15 July 2012, Venezuelan Opposition Falsifies Document as Part of Strategy to "Attack" the Armed Forces
  64. ^ (in Spanish) Globovision, 13 July 2012, Chávez: Mensaje de Capriles a la FANB es el "colmo de la hipocresía" Archived 24 January 2013 at Archive.today
  65. ^ a b c "Globovisión journalists attacked in Venezuela". Committee to Protect Journalists. 6 March 2012. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
  66. ^ (in Spanish) Agencia Venezolana de Noticias, March 2012, 200 vecinos de Cotiza se ofrecen como testigos para esclarecer hechos de este domingo
  67. ^ (in Spanish) Tal Cual, 7 March 2012, Pura olla Archived 10 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  68. ^ (in Spanish) Noticias24, 8 March 2012, Vecinos de Cotiza se ofrecieron como testigos para esclarecer los hechos ocurridos el domingo (+fotos)
  69. ^ (in Spanish) YVKE Radio Mundial, 12 March 2012, Agreden a equipo de Catatumbo TV en marcha de Capriles Radonski Archived 16 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  70. ^ Reporters without Borders, 21 March 2012, October election already fuelling threats and violence against media
  71. ^ (in Spanish) El Nacional, 20 March 2012, AN debatirá supuesta agresión del diputado Mardo hacia periodista Ana Francis Colina Archived 21 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  72. ^ (in Spanish) Noticias24, 20 March 2012, AN aprueba propuesta de solicitar a la FGR una investigación "exhaustiva" sobre el caso de Richard Mardo
  73. ^ (in Spanish) Noticias24, 19 May 2012, La Felap rechaza agresiones contra comunicadores de medios públicos
  74. ^ Toothaker, Christopher (12 May 2012). "Chavez returns home after cancer treatment in Cuba". AP. Retrieved 23 May 2012.[permanent dead link]
  75. ^ "Cabello: El único que garantiza la paz en Venezuela se llama Hugo Chávez". El Universal (in Spanish). 10 March 2012. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
  76. ^ a b Hernandez F.; Alejandra M. (20 March 2012). "Chávez reports on plot to kill opposition rival Capriles Radonski". El Universal. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
  77. ^ Wallis, Daniel (21 March 2012). "Venezuela's Capriles to campaign despite talk of plot". Reuters. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
  78. ^ "Chavez threatens banks, firms backing opposition". Yahoo News. Agence France-Presse. 30 March 2012. Retrieved 3 April 2012.[dead link]
  79. ^ "Celebrando con odio". La Nacion (in Spanish). talcualdigital.com. 13 April 2012. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 13 April 2012.
  80. ^ a b c d Brian Ellsworth and Eyanir Chinea, Reuters, 6 June 2012, Venezuela 'poll wars' rage as presidential race heats up
  81. ^ (in Spanish) El Universal, 8 June 2012, CNE establece el registro obligatorio de encuestadoras
  82. ^ (in Spanish) CNE, Listado de Encuestadoras Registradas ante el CNE. Archived 25 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  83. ^ Hinterlaces. Hinterlaces.
  84. ^ "Hinterlaces: 51% think that Venezuela is going the wrong way". El Universal. 30 January 2012. Retrieved 21 February 2012.
  85. ^ IVAD. IVAD.
  86. ^ "Encuesta IVAD: Gestión del presidente Chávez con 74,6% de apoyo" (in Spanish). noticiaaldia.com. 5 February 2012. Archived from the original on 8 February 2012. Retrieved 21 February 2012.
  87. ^ Rosenberg, Mica & Diego Ore (11 March 2012). "Down but not out, sick Chavez seeks re-election in Venezuela". Reuters. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  88. ^ "Jefe de Estado lidera encuestas con intención de voto en 56,5 por ciento" (in Spanish). RNV. 17 March 2012. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
  89. ^ "Consultores 21 S.A. |".
  90. ^ Goodman, Joshua (22 March 2012). "Chavez Turns to Generals to Defend Revolution Amid Illness". Bloomberg. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
  91. ^ Datanalisis. Datanalisis.
  92. ^ Rodriguez, Corina (22 March 2012). "Venezuela's Capriles May Close Gap on Chavez in Polls, Leon Says". Bloomberg. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
  93. ^ "Encuesta: 49,3% votaría por Chávez y 45,1% por Capriles Radonski" (in Spanish). eltiempo.com.ve. 9 April 2012.
  94. ^ "The Pros And Cons of Anabolic Steroid Usage". Gisxxi.org. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
  95. ^ "Candidatos y encuestas, realidad y especulaciones (Jesse Chacón- GISXXI)" (in Spanish). GIS XXI. 13 May 2012. Archived from the original on 17 May 2012. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
  96. ^ "Varianzas da 50,5% de intención de voto a Chávez y 45,7% a Capriles" (in Spanish). El Universal. 29 May 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
  97. ^ "Venezuela poll shows tight race for Chavez". Chicago Tribune. 28 June 2012. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
  98. ^ "Una nueva encuesta da un empate técnico entre Chávez y Capriles" (in Spanish). europapress.es. 3 July 2012. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
  99. ^ "Chávez pone tierra de por medio en las encuestas". El Correo (in Spanish). 9 July 2012. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
  100. ^ "Varianzas: Chávez aventaja a Capriles en 4 puntos a 3 meses del 7-O" (in Spanish). noticias24.com. 7 July 2012. Archived from the original on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  101. ^ "Datanálisis gives Chávez 15.3 points ahead of Capriles Radonski". El Universal. 16 July 2012. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  102. ^ "Hinterlaces: Chávez baja 5 puntos en intención de voto, Capriles 4, indecisos crecen en 300% a 20". Noticierodigital.com%. 18 July 2012.
  103. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 October 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  104. ^ "Poll shows Chavez with slim lead ahead of Venezuela election". Latino.foxnews.com.
  105. ^ "Venezuela poll shows Chavez has slim lead". The Australian. 19 August 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
  106. ^ Daniel Cancel (20 August 2012). "Chavez Lead Narrows in Latest Datanalisis Poll in Venezuela". Bloomberg. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
  107. ^ "Capriles leads in new Venezuela poll". iol.co.za. 24 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
  108. ^ "IVAD: 61,4% de los indecisos considera que el candidato Chavez ganará las elecciones" (in Spanish). AVN. 2 September 2012. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
  109. ^ "Intención de voto a favor de Chávez se ubica en 50%" (in Spanish). AVN. 6 September 2012. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
  110. ^ "Rival tops Hugo Chavez in Venezuela poll". San Francisco Chronicle. 19 September 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
  111. ^ "Opositor reduce brecha con Chávez para elección Venezuela:sondeo" (in Spanish). Reuters. 24 September 2012. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
  112. ^ "Lea completo el más reciente estudio de la encuestadora Hinterlaces, presentado este miércoles" (in Spanish). noticias24.com. 26 September 2012. Archived from the original on 30 September 2012. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
  113. ^ a b c d "Latin American governments congratulate Chavez win in Venezuela". 8 October 2012.
  114. ^ Tehran Times Iranian president congratulates his Venezuelan counterpart
  115. ^ "President Putin Congratulates Venezuelas’s Chaves on Re-Election". En.rian.ru.
  116. ^ Feller, Ben (8 October 2012). "White House salutes Venezuelan people on election". Associated Press via The Huffington Post. Retrieved 9 October 2012.

External linksEdit