This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Stanley Kirk Burrell (born March 30, 1962), better known by his stage name MC Hammer (or simply Hammer), is an American rapper, dancer, record producer and entrepreneur. He had his greatest commercial success and popularity from the late 1980s, until the early 1990s. Remembered for his rapid rise to fame, Hammer is known for hit records (such as "U Can't Touch This" and "2 Legit 2 Quit"), flashy dance movements, choreography and eponymous Hammer pants.
Hammer at TechCrunch in July 2008.
|Birth name||Stanley Kirk Burrell|
|Also known as|
|Born||March 30, 1962|
Oakland, California, U.S.
A multi-award winner, M.C. Hammer is considered a "forefather/pioneer" and innovator of pop-rap (incorporating elements of freestyle music), and is the first hip hop artist to achieve diamond status for an album. BET ranked Hammer as the No. 7 "Best Dancer Of All Time". Vibe's "The Best Rapper Ever Tournament" declared him the 17th favorite of all-time during the first round.
Burrell became a preacher during the late 1990s with a Christian ministry program on TBN called M.C. Hammer and Friends. Additionally, he starred in a Saturday-morning cartoon called Hammerman in 1991, and was executive producer of his own reality show called Hammertime, which aired on the A&E Network during the summer of 2009. Hammer was also a television show host and dance judge on Dance Fever in 2003, was co-creator of a dance website called DanceJam.com, and is a record label CEO while still performing concerts at music venues and assisting with other social media, ministry and outreach functions. Prior to becoming ordained, Hammer signed with Suge Knight's Death Row Records by 1995.
Throughout his career, Hammer has managed his own recording business. As a result, he has created and produced his own acts including Ho Frat Hoo!, Oaktown's 3.5.7, Special Generation, Analise, DRS, B Angie B, and Wee Wee. A part of additional record labels, he has associated, collaborated and recorded with Psy, VMF, Tupac Shakur, Teddy Riley, Felton Pilate, Tha Dogg Pound, The Whole 9, The Hines Brother, Deion Sanders, Big Daddy Kane, BeBe & CeCe Winans and Jon Gibson. In 1992, Doug E. Fresh was signed to M.C. Hammer's Bust It Records label.
Early life and educationEdit
Stanley Kirk Burrell was born on March 30, 1962 in Oakland, California. His father was a professional poker player and gambling casino manager (at Oaks Card Club's cardroom), as well as warehouse supervisor. He grew up poor with his mother (a secretary) and eight siblings in a small apartment in East Oakland. He recalled that six children were crammed into a three-bedroom housing project apartment. The Burrells would also frequent thoroughbred horse races, eventually becoming owners and winners of several graded stakes.
In the Oakland Coliseum parking lot the young Burrell would sell stray baseballs and dance accompanied by a beatboxer. Oakland A's team owner Charles O. Finley saw the 11-year-old doing splits and hired him as a clubhouse assistant and batboy as a result of his energy and flair. Burrell served as a "batboy" with the team from 1973 to 1980. In 2010, Hammer discussed his lifelong involvement with athletes on ESPN's First Take as well as explained that his brother Louis Burrell Jr. (who would later become Hammer's business manager) was actually the batboy while his job was to take calls and do "play-by-plays" for the A's absentee owner during every summer game. The colorful Finley, who lived in Chicago, used the child as his "eyes and ears." Reggie Jackson, in describing Burrell's role for Finley, took credit for his nickname:
Hell, our chief executive, the guy that ran our team, uh, that communicated [with] Charlie Finley, the top man there, was a 13-year old kid. I nicknamed him "Hammer," because he looked like Hank Aaron [whose nickname was "The Hammer"].
Team players, including Milwaukee Brewers second baseman Pedro Garcia, also dubbed Burrell "Little Hammer" due to his resemblance to Aaron. Ron Bergman, at the time an Oakland Tribune writer who covered the A's, recalled that:
He was an informant in the clubhouse, an informant for Charlie, and he got the nickname "Pipeline."
According to Hammer:
Charlie said, "I'm getting you a new hat. I don't want you to have a hat that says "A's" on it. I'm getting you a hat that says 'Ex VP,' that says 'Executive Vice President.' You're running the joint around here." ... Every time I come down to the clubhouse, you know, Rollie would yell out "Oh, everybody be quiet! Here comes Pipeline!"
He acquired the nickname "M.C." for being a "Master of Ceremonies" which he used when he began performing at various clubs while on the road with the A's, and eventually in the military. Hammer, who played second base in high school, dreamed of being a professional baseball player but did not make the final cut at a San Francisco Giants tryout. However, he has been a participant/player in the annual Taco Bell All-Star Legends and Celebrity Softball Game wearing an A's cap to represent Oakland (American League).
Burrell went on to graduate from high school in Oakland and took undergraduate classes in communications. Discouraged by his studies at a local college and failing to win a place in a professional baseball organization. He joined the United States Navy for three years, serving with PATRON (Patrol Squadron) FOUR SEVEN (VP-47) of NAS Moffett Field in Mountain View, CA as a Petty Officer Third Class Aviation Store Keeper (AK3) until his honorable discharge.
Music and entertainment careerEdit
Before Hammer's successful music career (with his mainstream popularity lasting approximately between 1988 and 1998) and his "rags-to-riches-to-rags-and-back saga", Burrell formed a Christian rap music group with CCM's Jon Gibson (or "J.G.") called Holy Ghost Boys. Some songs produced were called "Word" and "B-Boy Chill". "The Wall", featuring Burrell (it was originally within the lyrics of this song he first identified himself as K.B. and then eventually M.C. Hammer once it was produced), was later released on Gibson's album Change of Heart (1988). This was Contemporary Christian music's first rap hit ever. Burrell also produced "Son of the King" at that time, releasing it on his debut album. "Son of the King" showed up on Hammer's debut album Feel My Power (1987), as well as the re-released version Let's Get It Started (1988).
With exception to later remixes of early releases, Hammer produced and recorded many rap songs that were never made public, yet are now available on the Internet. Via his record labels such as Bust It Records, Oaktown Records and Full Blast, Hammer has introduced, signed and produced new talent including Oaktown's 3.5.7, Ho Frat Hoo!, the vocal quintet Special Generation, Analise, James Greer, One Cause One Effect, B Angie B, The Stooge Playaz, DASIT (as seen on ego trip's The (White) Rapper Show), Teabag, Common Unity, Geeman and Pleasure Ellis; both collaborating with him and producing music of their own during his career.
Feel My Power (1986)Edit
In the mid-1980s while rapping in small venues and after a record deal went sour, Hammer borrowed US$20,000 each from former Oakland A's players Mike Davis and Dwayne Murphy to start a record label business called Bust It Productions. He kept the company going by selling records from his basement and car. Bust It spawned Bustin' Records, the independent label of which Hammer was CEO. Together, the companies had more than 100 employees. Recording singles and selling them out of the trunk of his car, he marketed himself relentlessly. Coupled with his dance abilities, Hammer's style was unique at the time.
Now billing himself as "M.C. Hammer", he recorded his debut album, Feel My Power, which was produced between 1986 and 1987 and released independently in 1987 on his Oaktown Records label (Bustin'). It was produced by Felton Pilate (of Con Funk Shun). It sold over 60,000 copies and was distributed by City Hall Records. In the spring of 1988, a 107.7 KSOL Radio DJ Tony Valera played the track "Let's Get It Started" in his mix-shows—a song in which he declared he was "second to none, from Doug E. Fresh, LL Cool J, or DJ Run"—after which the track began to gain popularity in clubs. (He would continue to call out other East Coast rappers in future projects as well.)
Hammer also released a single called "Ring 'Em", and largely on the strength of tireless street marketing by Hammer and his wife, plus continued radio mix-show play, it achieved considerable popularity at dance clubs in the San Francisco Bay Area. Heartened by his rising prospects, Hammer launched into seven-day-a-week rehearsals with the growing troupe of dancers, musicians, and backup vocalists he had hired. It was Hammer's stage show, and his infectious stage presence, that led to his big break in 1988 while performing in an Oakland club. There he impressed a record executive who "didn't know who he was, but knew he was somebody", according to the New Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll.
M.C.Hammer had received several offers from major record labels before (which he initially declined due to his personal success), but after the successful release of this independent album and elaborate live dance show amazed the Capitol Records executive, Hammer agreed to sign a record deal soon after. Hammer took home a US$1,750,000 advance and a multi-album contract. It didn't take long for Capitol to recoup its investment.
Let's Get It Started (1988)Edit
Once signed to Capitol Records, Hammer re-issued his first record (a revised version of Feel My Power) with additional tracks added and sold over 2 million copies. "Pump It Up" (also performed during Showtime at the Apollo on September 16, 1989), "Turn This Mutha Out", "Let's Get It Started" and "They Put Me in the Mix" were the most popular singles from this album which all charted. But not quite satisfied with this first multi-platinum success, Hammer's music underwent a metamorphosis, shifting from the standard rap format in his upcoming album. "I decided the next album would be more musical," he says. Purists chastised him for being more dancer than rapper. Sitting in a leopard-print bodysuit before a concert, he defended his style: "People were ready for something different from the traditional rap style. The fact that the record has reached this level indicates the genre is growing."
M.C. Hammer was very good friends with Arsenio Hall (as well as a then-unknown teen named Robert Van Winkle, aka Vanilla Ice, despite later rumors that there was a "beef" between the two rappers which was addressed during the height of both their careers on Hall's show, and who he would later reunite with in a 2009 concert in Salt Lake City, Utah). Therefore, Hammer was first invited to perform the song "U Can't Touch This", prior to its release, on The Arsenio Hall Show in 1989. He also performed "Dancing Machine" in a version that appeared in the same-titled movie.
In 1989, Hammer was featured on "You've Got Me Dancing" (with Glen Goldsmith), which appeared on the Glen Goldsmith album Don't Turn This Groove Around (RCA Records). The track was Hammer's first release in the UK. Hammer also appeared in Glen Goldsmith's music video for this song. The single failed to chart.
Please, Hammer, Don't Hurt 'Em (1990)Edit
Notorious for dissing rappers in his previous recordings, Hammer appropriately titled his third album (and second major-label release) Please Hammer, Don't Hurt 'Em, which was released February 12, 1990 (with an original release date of January 1, 1990). It included the successful single "U Can't Touch This" (which sampled Rick James' "Super Freak"). It was produced, recorded, and mixed by Felton Pilate and James Earley on a modified tour bus while on tour in 1989. Despite heavy airplay and a No. 27 chart debut, "U Can't Touch This" stopped at No. 8 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart because it was released only as a twelve-inch single.[clarification needed] However, the album was a No. 1 success for 21 weeks, due primarily to this single, the first time ever for a recording on the pop charts. The song has been and continues to be used in many filmmaking and television shows to date, and appears on soundtrack/compilation albums as well.
Follow-up successes included a cover of the Chi-Lites' "Have You Seen Her" and "Pray" (a beat sampled from Prince's "When Doves Cry" and Faith No More's "We Care a Lot"), which was his biggest hit in the US, peaking at No. 2. "Pray" was also a major UK success, peaking at No. 8. The album went on to become the first hip-hop album to earn diamond status, selling more than 18 million units to date. During 1990, Hammer toured extensively in Europe which included a sold-out concert at the National Exhibition Centre in Birmingham. With the sponsorship of PepsiCo International, Pepsi CEO Christopher A. Sinclair went on tour with him during 1991.
The album was notable for sampling other high-profile artists and gave some of these artists a new fanbase. "Dancin' Machine" sampled The Jackson 5, "Help the Children" (also the name of an outreach foundation Hammer started) interpolates Marvin Gaye's "Mercy Mercy Me (The Ecology)", and "She's Soft and Wet" also sampled Prince's "Soft and Wet". All of these songs proved to be successful on radio and video television, with "U Can't Touch This," "Pray" (most successful), "Have You Seen Her," "Here Comes the Hammer," and "Yo!! Sweetness" (UK only) all charting. The album increased the popularity of hip-hop music. It remains the genre's all-time best-selling album.
A movie also accompanied the album and was produced in 1990, called Please Hammer, Don't Hurt 'Em: The Movie (with portions of his music videos included within the movie). At the same time, he also appeared in The West Coast Rap All-Stars posse cut "We're All in the Same Gang." Music videos from this album and the previous albums began to receive much airplay on MTV and VH1.
A critical backlash began over the repetitive nature of his lyrics, his clean-cut image, and his perceived over-reliance on sampling others' entire hooks for the basis of his singles—criticisms also directed to his contemporary, Vanilla Ice. He was mocked in music videos by 3rd Bass (including a rap battle with MC Serch), The D.O.C., DJ Debranz, and Ice Cube. Oakland hip-hop group Digital Underground criticized him in the CD insert of their Sex Packets album by placing Hammer's picture in it and referring to him as an unknown derelict. Q Tip criticized him in "Check the Rhyme," asking, "What you say Hammer? Proper. Rap is not pop, if you call it that then stop." LL Cool J dissed him in "To tha Break of Dawn" (from the Mama Said Knock You Out album), calling Hammer an "amateur, swinging a Hammer from a bodybag [his pants]," and saying, "My old gym teacher ain't supposed to rap.", though this could have been seen as a response to Hammer calling him out in "Let's Get it Started", when he was mentioned along with Run-DMC and Doug E. Fresh as rappers that Hammer claimed to be better than. (LL Cool J would later compliment and commend Hammer's abilities/talents on VH-1's 100 Greatest Songs of Hip Hop, which aired in 2008). However, Ice-T came to his defense on his 1991 album O.G. Original Gangster: "A special shout out to my man M.C. Hammer: a lot of people dis you, man, but they just jealous." Ice-T later explained that he had nothing against people who were pop-rap from the start, as Hammer had been, but only against emcees who switch from being hardcore or dirty to being pop-rap so that they can sell more records.
Despite the criticisms, Hammer's career continued to be highly successful including tours in Asia, Europe, Australia, and Russia. Soon after, M.C. Hammer Mattel dolls, lunchboxes, and other merchandise were marketed. He was also given his own Saturday morning cartoon, called Hammerman, which he hosted and voiced.
Too Legit to Quit (1991)Edit
After publicly dropping the "M.C." from his stage name, Hammer released Too Legit to Quit (also produced by Felton Pilate) in 1991. Hammer answered his critics within certain songs from the album. Sales were strong (over five million copies), with the title track being the biggest hit single from this record. The album peaked in the Top 5 of the Billboard 200. Another hit came soon after, with "Addams Groove" (which appeared on both The Addams Family motion picture soundtrack and the vinyl and cassette versions of 2 Legit 2 Quit), reaching No. 7 in the U.S. and No. 4 in the UK. His video for the song appeared after the movie.
Hammer set out on a tour for this album, but the stage show had become as lavish as his lifestyle. Loaded with singers, dancers, and backup musicians, the supporting concert tour was too expensive for the album's sales to finance, and it was canceled partway through. In 1992, Boyz II Men joined Hammer's high-profile 2 Legit 2 Quit tour as an opening act. While traveling the country, their tour manager Khalil Roundtree was murdered in Chicago, and the group's future performances of "It's So Hard to Say Goodbye to Yesterday" were dedicated to him. As a result of this unfortunate experience, the song would help advance their success.
Music videos were produced for all four singles released from this album (including "Do Not Pass Me By" and "This Is The Way We Roll"), all which charted. The "2 Legit 2 Quit" video featured many celebrity appearances. It's been ranked as one of the most expensive videos ever made. The hand motions used within the song and video also became very popular. The song proved to be successful in the U.S., peaking in the Top 10 of the Billboard Hot 100, at #5. Despite the album's multi-platinum certification, the sales were one-third of Please Hammer, Don't Hurt 'Em.
At the end of the "2 Legit 2 Quit" video, after James Brown enlists Hammer to get the famous glove of Michael Jackson, a silver-white sequined glove is shown on the hand of a Michael Jackson look-alike doing the "2 Legit 2 Quit" hand gesture. In a related story, M.C. Hammer appeared on The Wendy Williams Show (July 27, 2009) and talked about his hit reality show Hammertime on A&E, his marriage, his role as a dad and the reasons he eventually went bankrupt. He told an amusing story about a phone call he received from "M.J.", regarding the portion of the "2 Legit 2 Quit" video that included a fake Michael Jackson, giving his approval and inclusion of it. He explained how Michael had seen the video and liked it, and both expressed they were fans of one another. Hammer and Jackson would later appear, speak and/or perform at the funeral service for James Brown in 2006.
The artwork featured in the album was created by James B. Young and accompanying studios.
New venture with Oaktown/Giant Records (1992–1993)Edit
In 1992, after a four-year hiatus, Doug E. Fresh signed with Hammer's label, Bust It Records and issued one album, Doin' What I Gotta Do, which (despite some minor acclaim for his single "Bustin' Out (On Funk)" which sampled the Rick James 1979 single "Bustin' Out") was a commercial failure.
Prior to Hammer's next album, The Funky Headhunter, rumors from critics and fans began claiming Hammer had quit the music/entertainment business or had suffered a financial downfall (since a couple of years were passing between his two records), which Hammer denied. Hammer claimed rumors falsely heralded his downfall were most likely a result of the fact he turned over his "trimmed-down" Bust It Records to his brother and manager Louis Burrell Jr., and his horse racing interests to his brother Chris and their father, Louis Burrell Sr.
During his hiatus between albums, Hammer consequently signed a multimillion-dollar deal with a new record company. He said there were a lot of bidders, but "not too many of them could afford Hammer". Therefore, Hammer parted ways with Felton Pilate (who had previously worked with the successful vocal group Con Funk Shun) and switched record labels to Giant Records, taking his Oaktown label with him. Hammer was eventually sued by Pilate. Additionally, Hammer launched a new enterprise, called Roll Wit It Entertainment & Sports Management, with clients such as Evander Holyfield, Deion Sanders and Reggie Brooks. In 1993, his production company released a hit rap song by DRS.
By this time, he also parted ways with his only female executive, music business administration consultant and songwriter, Linda Lou McCall (who previously worked with The Delfonics and her husband Louis A. McCall, Sr.'s band Con Funk Shun). She went on to work with artists such as Puff Daddy, Faith Evans, Notorious B.I.G., Mýa, Black Eyed Peas and Eminem. A music industry vet who attended Howard University's College of Fine Arts and the University of California-Davis School of Law, McCall was hired by Hammer's brother and manager, Louis K. Burrell, in 1990 to help set up his corporate operations and administration at Bust It Management and Productions Inc. in Oakland, California. She later became Vice President of Hammer's talent management company, overseeing artists like Heavy D, B Angie B and Ralph Tresvant. While at Bust It, she and her husband Louis A. McCall, Sr. brought their artist Keith Martin to Felton's attention who hired him as a backup musician and vocalist for Hammer's Please Hammer, Don't Hurt 'Em and Too Legit to Quit world tours. In 1993 and 1994, Linda Lou was also involved in several lawsuits against Hammer which were eventually settled out of court.
With a new home and daughter, a new record soon to be released, and his new business, Hammer claimed he was happy and far from being broke during a tour of his mansion for Ebony. "Today there is a more aggressive Hammer, because the '90s require you to be more aggressive", Hammer said of his music style. "There is a harder edge, but I'm no gang member. Hammer in the '90s is on the offense, on the move, on the attack. And it's all good".
The Funky Headhunter and Prime Time (1994)Edit
In 1993, Hammer began recording his fifth official album. To adapt to the changing landscape of hip-hop, this album was a more aggressive sounding album entitled The Funky Headhunter. He co-produced this record with funky rapper and producer, Stefan Adamek. While Hammer's appearance changed to keep up with the gangsta rap audience, his lyrics still remained honest and somewhat clean with minor profanity. Yet, as with previous records, Hammer would continue to call out and disrespect other rappers on this album. As with some earlier songs such as "Crime Story" (from the album Please Hammer, Don't Hurt 'Em), the content and reality about "street life" remained somewhat the same, but the sound was different, resulting in Hammer losing favor with fans. Nonetheless, this harder-edged, more aggressive record went gold, but failed to win him a new audience among hardcore hip-hop fans.
In another appearance on The Arsenio Hall Show during the mid-1990s, Hammer debuted the video for "Pumps and a Bump". Talk show host Arsenio Hall said to M.C. Hammer, "Women in the audience want to know, what's in your speedos in the 'Pumps and a Bump' video?" A clip from the video was then shown, to much approval from the audience. Hammer didn't give a direct answer, but instead laughed. Arsenio then said, "I guess that's why they call you 'Hammer.' It ain't got nothin' to do with Hank Aaron."
The accompanying video to the album's first single, "Pumps and a Bump", was banned from heavy rotation on MTV with censors claiming that the depiction of Hammer in Speedos (and with what appeared to be an erection) was too graphic. This led to an alternative video being filmed (with Hammer fully clothed) that was directed by Bay Area native Craig S. Brooks.
"It's All Good" was the second single released, which would become a pop culture phrase as a result of its success. It was also the most successful song by this title. Within this album, Hammer disses rappers such as A Tribe Called Quest (Q-Tip), Redman and Run DMC for previous attacks they made against him on wax. This quite possibly led to a decrease in his popularity after this record responded to his critics.
On December 20, 1994, Deion Sanders released Prime Time, a rap album on Hammer's Bust It Records label which featured the minor hit "Must Be The Money". "Prime Time Keeps on Tickin'" was also released as a single. Sanders, a friend of Hammer's, had previously appeared in his "Too Legit to Quit" music video, and his alter-ego "Prime Time" is also used in Hammer's "Pumps and a Bump" video.
The song "Help Lord (Won't You Come)" appeared in Kingdom Come. This album peaked at number two on the R&B charts and remained in the Top 30 midway through the year. To date, it has managed to become certified platinum.
Inside Out, Death Row Records and Too Tight (1995–1996)Edit
In 1995, Hammer released the album Inside Out V (or inside out V). The album sold poorly compared to previous records (peaking at 119 on the Billboard Charts) and Giant Records dropped him and Oaktown Records from their roster. Songs "Going Up Yonder" and "Sultry Funk" managed to get moderate radio play (even charting on national radio station countdowns).
Along with a fickle public, Hammer would go on to explain in this album that he felt many of his so-called friends he helped staff, used and betrayed him which contributed to a majority of his financial loss (best explained in the song "Keep On" and the bio from this album). He would also hint about this again in interviews, including The Ellen DeGeneres Show in 2009.
Hammer's relationship with Suge Knight dates back to 1988. Hammer signed with Death Row Records by 1995, then home to Snoop Dogg and his close friend, Tupac Shakur. The label did not release the album of Hammer's music (titled Too Tight) while he had a career with them, although he did release versions of some tracks on his next album. However, Burrell did record tracks with Shakur and others, most notably the song "Too Late Playa" (along with Big Daddy Kane and Danny Boy). After the death of Shakur in 1996, Burrell left the record company. He later explained his concern about this circumstance in an interview on Trinity Broadcasting Network since he was in Las Vegas with Tupac the night of his death.
Return to EMI and Family Affair (1996–1998)Edit
In October 1996, Burrell and Oaktown signed with EMI, which saw the release of a compilation album of Hammer's chart topping songs prior to The Funky Headhunter. The album, titled Greatest Hits, featured 12 former hits. In 1998, another "greatest hits" album, called Back 2 Back Hits, was produced and released by CEMA. (Another compilation version of Back 2 Back was later released by Capitol Records in 2006.) As Hammer's empire began to collapse when his last album failed to match the sales of its predecessors, and since he unsuccessfully attempted to recast himself in the "streetwise/hardcore rap" mold of the day, Hammer turned to a gospel-friendly audience.
In 1998, MC Hammer released his first album in his new deal with EMI, titled Family Affair, because it was to introduce the world to the artists he had signed to his Oaktown Records (Geeman, Teabag, and Common Unity) as they made their recording debut. Technically his seventh album since his debut EP, this record was highly promoted on Trinity Broadcasting Network (performing a more gospel version of "Keep On" from his album Inside Out V), yet featured no charting singles and selling about 1,000 copies worldwide.
A double album mostly about faith and family values, additional tracks from Family Affair are: "Put It Down", "Put Some Stop in Your Game", "Big Man", "Set Me Free", "Our God", "Responsible Father Shout", "He Brought Me Out", (Geeman Intro), "Eye's Like Mine", "Never Without You", "Praise Dance Theme Song", "Shame of the Name", (Smoothout Intro), (Teabag Intro), "Silly Heart", "I Wish U Were Free", (Common Unity Intro), "Someone to Hold to You", "Pray" (1998), "Let's Get It Started" (1998), and with "Hammer Music/Shouts/Tour Info" announcements between songs. The compact disks are also "PC Ready" with interactive features.
After this album, new projects were rumored to be in the works, including an album (War Chest: Turn of the Century) and a soundtrack to the film Return to Glory: The Powerful Stirring of the Black Man, but neither appeared.
The Hits and Active Duty (2000–2001)Edit
Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, M.C. Hammer released his 8th studio album, Active Duty, on his own World Hit Music Group label (the musical enterprise under his Hammertime Holdings Inc. umbrella) to pay homage to the ones lost in the terrorist attacks. The album followed that theme, and featured two singles (with accompanying videos), "No Stoppin' Us (USA)" and "Pop Yo Collar" (featuring Wee Wee) which demonstrates "The Phat Daddy Pop", "In Pop Nito", "River Pop", "Deliver The Pop" and "Pop'n It Up" dance moves. The album, like its predecessor, failed to chart and would not sell as many copies as previous projects. Hammer did however promote it on such shows as The View and produced a video for both singles.
This patriotic album, originally planned to be titled The Autobiography Of M.C. Hammer, donated portions of the proceeds to 9/11 charities. Hammer shot a video for the anthem "No Stoppin' Us (USA)" in Washington, D.C., with several members of the United States Congress, who sang in the song and danced in the video. Present members of the United States House of Representatives included J. C. Watts, Eddie Bernice Johnson, Thomas M. Davis, Earl Hilliard, Alcee Hastings, Rep. Diane Watson (D-Calif.), Rep. Corrine Brown (D-Fla.) and Jesse Jackson, Jr.
Full Blast (2004)Edit
After leaving Capitol Records and EMI for the second time in his career, M.C. Hammer decided to move his Oaktown imprint to an independent distributor and released his ninth studio album, Full Blast (which was completed in late 2003 and released as a complete album in early 2004). The album would feature no charting singles and was not certified by the RIAA. A video was produced for "Full Blast", a song that attacks Eminem and Busta Rhymes for previous disrespect towards him.
Some of the original songs didn't end up making the final album release. Guest artists included The Stooge Playaz, Pleasure, Rain, JD Greer and DasIt.
Look Look Look and Platinum MC Hammer (2006–2008)Edit
After going independent, Hammer decided to create a digital label to release his tenth studio album, Look Look Look. The album was released in February 2006 and featured production from Scott Storch. The album featured the title-track single (Look Look Look) and a music video. It would sell much better than his previous release (300,000 copies worldwide).
"YAY" was produced by Lil Jon. "What Happened to Our Hood?" (featuring Sam Logan) was originally from Active Duty. "I Got It From The Town" was used in the movie but is only present in one scene instead of the originally planned two on The Fast and the Furious: Tokyo Drift (soundtrack).
Between 2006 and 2007, Hammer released a military-inspired rap song with a political message to President George W. Bush about sending American troops back home from war, called "Bring Our Brothers Home". The video was filmed at the Santa Monica Pier.
In 2008, Platinum MC Hammer was released by EMI Records. The compilation consists of 12 tracks from Hammer's previous albums, with a similar playlist as former "greatest hits" records (with the exception of including a remix of "Hammer Hammer, They Put Me In A Mix" which includes rap lyrics that "They Put Me In A Mix" originally did not). An import was released by Capitol Records.
Since his 2006 album, Hammer continued to produce music and released several other raps that appeared on his social websites (such as Myspace and Dancejam.com) or in commercials, with another album announced to be launched in late 2008 (via his own record label Fullblast Playhouse). Talks of the tour and a new album were expected in 2009.
"Getting Back to Hetton" was made public in 2008 as a digital single. It was a departure for Hammer, bringing in funky deep soul and mixing it with a more house style. Released through licence on Whippet Digital Recordings, media reviews were said to be "disappointing". However, the song "I Got Gigs" from this album was used in a 2009 ESPN commercial and performed during Hammertime (as well as played while he danced just prior to introducing Soulja Boy during YouTube Live on November 22, 2008).
Other tracks and videos from the album included: "I Go" (produced by Lil Jon), "Keep It In Vegas", "Lookin' Out The Window", "Dem Jeans" (by DASIT), "Stooge Karma Sutra" (by The Stooge Playaz) and "Tried to Luv U" (by DASIT featuring Pleasure Ellis).
In March 2009, M.C. Hammer and Vanilla Ice had a one-off concert at the McKay Events Center in Orem, Utah. This concert aided in the promotion of Hammer's new music and television show. During the concert (as shown during an episode of Hammertime), it was mentioned between the two rappers that this was their first headline show together in nearly 20 years, since the time when they were touring together at the peak of their hip-hop careers. Hammer said: "Contrary to popular belief, Ice and I are not only cool with each other, we are like long lost friends. I've known him since he was 16, before he had a record contract and before I had a record contract. It is a great reunion." Vanilla Ice, real name Robert Van Winkle, said: "It's like no time has passed at all. We set the world on fire back in the day - it gives me goose bumps to think about. The concert wouldn't have been so packed if it wasn't us together. I'm so happy right now, the magic is here."
Most recent releases (2010–present)Edit
Hammer has occasionally released singles over the past few years. Below are the most publicized:
"Better Run Run" (2010)Edit
M.C. Hammer promised to release a track (expected on October 31, 2010) responding to a song by Kanye West featuring Jay-Z which attacked him. On the "So Appalled" track, which features Swizz Beatz and RZA, Jay-Z raps a verse targeting Hammer about his financial dilemma in the 1990s. On it Jay says: 'Hammer went broke so you know I'm more focused / I lost 30 mil' so I spent another 30 / 'Cause unlike Hammer 30 million can't hurt me'. Hammer addressed his displeasure about the diss on Twitter, claiming he will react to Jay-Z on Halloween.
Hammer released a sample of his "beef" with Jay-Z (aka 'Hell Boy' according to Hammer) in a brief teaser trailer called "Better Run Run" by 'King Hammer'. At one point, it was uncertain if his reaction would be a film video, a music video or a combination of both. Regardless, he claimed he would show evidence that 'Jigga worships the devil'. It's possible that Jay-Z was offended by an analogy Hammer was conveying in an earlier interview in response to "D.O.A. (Death of Auto-Tune)" on AllHipHop.
On November 1, Hammer's song with video called "Better Run Run!" hit the web in retaliation to Jay-Z's September 2010 diss towards him. M.C. accuses Jigga of being in league (and in the studio) with Satan—and then Hammer defeats the devil and forces Jay to be baptized. Speaking on the video, Jacob O'Gara of Ethos Magazine wrote: "What's more likely is that this feud is the last chapter in the tragic cautionary tale of M.C. Hammer, a tale that serves as a warning to all present and future kings of hip-hop. Keep your balance on the pedestal and wear the crown strong or you'll have the Devil to pay."
In an interview with BBC's DJ Semtex, Jay said he didn't mean the verses as a personal attack. "I didn't know that [Hammer's financial status] wasn't on the table for discussion!" he said. "I didn't know I was the first person ever to say that..." He continued, "When I say things, I think people believe me so much that they take it a different way — it's, like, not rap anymore at that point. I say some great things about him in the book I have coming out [Decoded] — that wasn't a cheap plug," he laughed. "He's gonna be embarrassed, I said some really great things about him and people's perception of him. But it is what it is, he took it that wrong way, and I didn't know I said anything wrong!"
"See Her Face" (2011)Edit
On February 3, 2011, M.C. Hammer appeared on The Oprah Winfrey Show premiering the track "See Her Face" via Flipboard. It was the first time Flipboard included music in the application.
"Raider Nation" and "All In My Mind" (2013–2014)Edit
Among other singles, Hammer released "Raider Nation (Oakland Raiders Anthem)" along with a video in late 2013 and "All In My Mind" (which samples "Summer Breeze" by The Isley Brothers) in early 2014 with his newly formed group called Oakland Fight Club featuring Mistah F.A.B.
"Help the Children" (2017)Edit
Additional business venturesEdit
In 1991, M.C. Hammer established Oaktown Stable that would eventually have nineteen Thoroughbred racehorses. That year, his outstanding filly Lite Light won several Grade I stakes races including the prestigious Kentucky Oaks. His D. Wayne Lukas-trained colt Dance Floor won the Grade II Kentucky Jockey Club Stakes and the Breeders' Futurity Stakes in 1991, then the following year won the Fountain of Youth Stakes and finished 3rd in the 1992 Kentucky Derby. He continues to attend shows as well as many sporting events alongside celebrities.
In the late 1990s into the early 2000s, along with a new clothing line called "J Slick", Hammer began creating and working on M.C. Hammer USA, an interactive online portal.
In 2002, Hammer signed a book contract with publishing company Simon & Schuster which called for a release the following year. However, a manuscript for an inspirational book called Enemies of the Father: Messages from the Heart on Being a Family Man (addressing the situation of African American men), for which Hammer received advance money to write, was never submitted in 2003. This resulted in Hammer being sued by the book company over claims that he never finished the book as promised. The company's March 2009 lawsuit sought return of the US$61,000 advance given to Hammer for the unwritten book about fatherhood.
Hammer was a popular web mogul and activist, becoming involved in several Internet projects (including TechCrunch40 conferences). In 2007, Hammer was co-founder and chief strategy officer of Menlo Park-based (Silicon Valley) DanceJam.com along with Geoffrey Arone. The community site (valued at $4.5 million) was exclusively dedicated to dancing video competitions, techniques and styles which Hammer sometimes judged or rated. After receiving $4.5 million in total equity funding, the site closed on January 1, 2011.
In July 2010, Hammer started a mixed martial arts management company to manage, market, promote, and brand-build for fighters such as Nate Marquardt, Tim F. Kennedy, and Vladimir Matyushenko, among others. According to MMAWeekly.com and Bizjournals, his new company is Alchemist Management in Los Angeles. It now manages 10 fighters. That same month, Hammer also announced his latest venture called Alchemist Clothing. The brand described as a colorful new lifestyle clothing line debuted during an Ultimate Fighting Championship fight in Austin. Middleweight fighter Nate "The Great" Marquardt wore an Alchemist shirt as he walked out to the ring. Hammer has shown an interest in boxing throughout his career.
Hammer appeared on The Oprah Winfrey Show in February 2011 to discuss his tech-media-mogul status, as well as his creation, demonstration and consulting of social applications/sites/media (such as having an involvement with the Internet since 1994 including YouTube and Twitter), and devices such as iPad and ZAGGmate. He also explained how employing/helping so many people in the past never really caused him to be broke in terms of the average person, as the media made it seem, nor would he have changed any experiences that has led him to where he is today. During the "Whatever Happened to M.C. Hammer" episode, he discussed his current home, family and work life as well.
In October 2011, Hammer announced a new internet venture called WireDoo - a "deep search engine" that planned to compete with the major search engines including Google and Bing. With the motto, "Search once and see what's related", Hammer's team planned to eventually open up the site to a select number of beta testers. Wiredoo failed, having never left beta testing, and officially went offline in early 2012.
Television and film careerEdit
M.C. Hammer produced and starred in his own movie, Please Hammer, Don't Hurt 'Em: The Movie (1990). The film is about a rapper returning to his hometown who defeats a drug lord using kids to traffic his product. For this project, Hammer earned a Grammy Award for Best Long Form Music Video at the 33rd Grammy Awards (having been nominated for two). He later produced MC Hammer: 2 Legit (The Videos), which included many actors and athletes.
In 1991, Hammer hosted, sang/rapped and voiced a Saturday-morning cartoon called Hammerman. That same year, he and Bust It Productions (including B Angie B, Special Generation and Ho Frat Hoo!) appeared in concert from New Orleans on BET
Hammer has made cameos and/or performed on many television shows such as Saturday Night Live (as host and musical guest), Amen and Martin. He also made a cameo in the 1993 Arnold Schwarzenegger film Last Action Hero. Hammer would also go on to appear as himself on The History of Rock 'N' Roll, Vol. 5 (1995). Additionally, he has been involved in movies as an actor such as, One Tough Bastard (1996), Reggie's Prayer (1996), the Showtime film The Right Connections (1997), Deadly Rhapsody (2001), Finishing the Game (2007) and 1040 (2010), as well as a television and movie producer.
Despite public attacks about his financial status, after meeting at the National Association of Broadcasters convention in Las Vegas in April 2001, it was Hammer (credited as a producer) who provided the much needed funding to filmmaker Justin Lin for Better Luck Tomorrow (2002). In its first ever film acquisition, MTV Films eventually acquired Better Luck Tomorrow after it debuted at The Sundance Film Festival. The director said, "Out of desperation, I called up MC Hammer because he had read the script and liked it. Two hours later, he wired the money we needed into a bank account and saved us."
Hammer appeared in two cable television movies. At the age of 39, he was one of the producers for the VH1 movie Too Legit: The M.C. Hammer Story, starring Romany Malco and Tangi Miller as his wife, which aired on December 19, 2001. The film is a biopic which chronicles the rise and fall of the artist. "2 Legit To Quit: The Life Story of M.C. Hammer" became the second highest-rated original movie in the history of VH1 and broadcast simultaneously on BET. "The whole script came from me," says Hammer, "I sat down with a writer and gave him all the information."
In 2003, Hammer appeared on The WB's first season of The Surreal Life, a reality show known for assembling an eclectic mix of celebrities to live together. He was also a dance judge on the 2003 ABC Family TV series Dance Fever. Additionally, he appeared on VH1's And You Don't Stop: 30 Years of Hip-Hop (2004) as well as in 100 Greatest Songs of the 90s (2008), a countdown which he was also commentator on. His eldest child, A'Keiba Burrell, was a contestant on MTV's Rock the Cradle in April 2008 (which Hammer also made appearances on).
Hammer had shown an interest in having his own reality show with specific television networks at one point. Already being a part of shows for VH1 and The WB (I Married... M.C. Hammer and The Surreal Life), it was later confirmed he would appear in Hammertime on A&E Network in the summer of 2009. This reality show was about his personal, business and family life. The following year, Hammer appeared on Live with Regis and Kelly June 3, 2009 to promote his show which began June 14, 2009 at 10 PM EST.
In August 2008, a new ESPN ad featured Hammer in it, showcasing his single "I Got Gigs'" (from his DanceJamtheMusic album). The commercial was for Monday Night Football's upcoming football season. This is not the first commercial in more recent years that Hammer has been in, or his songs/raps/dancing was used for and included in such as Lay's, Hallmark Cards, Purell, Lysol, Nationwide Mutual Insurance Company, Citibank, etc. On February 1, 2009, Hammer and Ed McMahon were featured in a Super Bowl XLIII commercial for Cash4Gold.
In addition to appearing in television commercials, M.C. Hammer's music has also been used in television shows and movies, especially "U Can't Touch This" during The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air (1990), Hot Shots! (1990), The Super (1991), Doogie Howser, M.D. (1992), Don't Be a Menace to South Central While Drinking Your Juice in the Hood (1996), Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle (2003), Into the Wild (2007), Tropic Thunder (2008), Dancing with the Stars (2009), Glee (2010) and many more. Additionally, "This Is What We Do" was a 1990 track by Hammer (featuring B Angie B) for the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles film and soundtrack. Tracks "That's What I Said" and "Feel My Power" were used for the Rocky V film and soundtrack. Some examples of other raps by Hammer used in movies and television were "Addams Groove" (The Addams Family), "Pray" (License to Wed), "2 Legit 2 Quit" (Hot Rod), "I Got It From The Town" (The Fast and the Furious: Tokyo Drift), "Help Lord, Won't You Come" (Kingdom Come), "Let's Go Deeper" (Beverly Hills, 90210) and "Straight to My Feet" (Street Fighter), among others.
Along with Betty White, Hammer was a voice actor on the September 17, 2010 episode of Glenn Martin, DDS called "Step-brother". In 2016, MC Hammer appeared as himself in an episode of Uncle Grandpa on Cartoon Network.
Dancer, choreographer and entertainerEdit
M.C. Hammer's dance style not only helped pave the way for the Bay Area movement called Hyphy, but also helped to bring hip-hop and rap to the Bay Area. His dancing skills are still taught to this day. With his popular trademark Hammer Pants, one phenomenal difference from Hammer versus other performers during his heyday was that he was an entertainer, both during live shows and in music videos. His flamboyant dancing was as much a part of his performances as rapping and musical instruments were. With high-energy dance routines, he is often considered one of the greatest dancers. While adding his own techniques, Hammer adopted styles from James Brown and The Nicholas Brothers such as the splits, and feverish choreographed dance routines including leaps and slides, most notably. His creation of such dances as "Hammer Dance" (or the "Typewriter Dance"), "The Bump" (from "U Can't Touch This") and the use of "The Running Man" and the "Butterfly," among others, made his flashy and creative dance skills unlike any others at the time.
Hammer's showmanship and elaborate stage choreography, involving fifteen dancers, twelve backup singers, seven live musicians and two disc jockeys, gave him a powerful visual appeal. Hammer was the first rap artist to put together a choreographed show of this type, and his visual flair attracted heavy airplay for his videos on MTV, which at the time had a predominantly white viewership that had aired little rap music before Hammer.
At the height of his career, Hammer had his legs insured for a substantial amount of money (into the millions), as mentioned in an interview by Maria Shriver in the early 1990s. He later suffered an injury to his knee that halted his dancing career for a period of time. Eventually, BET ranked Hammer as the 7th Best Dancer Of All Time. Some of Hammer's entourage, or "posse" as he called them, were also trained/skilled dancers (including Tiffany Patterson). They participated in videos and at concerts, yet too many dancers and band members eventually contributed to Hammer's downfall, proving to be too much for him to finance.
Hammer stayed active in the dance media/genre, both on television shows and as co-founder of DanceJam.com (which showcased dance competitions and instructional videos on all the latest dance styles) until he and his partner Geoffrey Arone sold it to Grind Networks. Well known for bringing choreography to hip-hop, many of his dancing skills can still be seen on dance-focused and social networking sites. "Dance is unlike any other social medium. It's the core of our culture", Burrell told Wired News.
In addition to his websites and other Internet appearances, Hammer has also appeared demonstrating much of his dancing abilities on talk shows such as The Arsenio Hall Show, Soul Train, Late Night with Conan O'Brien (performing O'Brien's famous "string dance" together as well), The Ellen DeGeneres Show, The View and was a dance judge on Dance Fever. On June 3, 2009, he performed the "Hammer dance" on Live with Regis and Kelly with Will Ferrell as co-host.
While Hammer may have challenged and competed with Michael Jackson during the height of his career, they were friends, proven by a phone call Hammer had with Jackson about his "Too Legit to Quit" video which he shared on The Wendy Williams Show (July 2009). Hammer wanted to ensure he was not offended by the ending of the video where a purported Michael Jackson (seen only from behind) does the "2 Legit 2 Quit" hand gesture with his famous glove. They also appeared together at the funeral service for James Brown in 2006, where Hammer danced in honor of The Godfather of Soul. After Jackson's death, Hammer posted his remembrance and sympathy of the superstar on Twitter. Michael's friend and fellow pop culture icon Hammer told Spinner that, "now that the King of Pop has passed, it's the duty of his fans and loved ones to carry Jackson's creative torch." He went on to say, "Michael Jackson lit the fuse that ignited the spirit of dance in us all. He gave us a song and a sweet melody that will never die. Now we all carry his legacy with joy and pride."
At the time of his first album, M.C. Hammer opened his own music management firm. As a result of the success of his third album, Please Hammer, Don't Hurt 'Em, Hammer had amassed approximately US$33 million. US$12 million was used to build his Xanadu-like home in Fremont, California, 30 miles (50 km) south of where he grew up. Jet reported Hammer once employed 200 people, with an annual payroll of US$6.8 million. The estate was sold for $5.3 million after Hammer lived in it for six years.
Hammer currently resides in a large ranch-style abode situated on a two-acre corner lot in Tracy, California  with his wife Stephanie of over 30 years (whom he met at a church revival meeting and married December 21, 1985). They have five children: three boys (Bobby, Jeremiah, Sammy) and two girls (Sarah, A'keiba), along with a nephew (Jamaris) and cousin (Marv) having lived with them. It was reported in July 2012, that Hammer was encouraged to marry Whitney Houston by her father at the Super Bowl in 1991.
Hammer frequently posts about his life and activities on his blog "Look Look Look", as well as other social websites such as Facebook, Myspace and Twitter (being one of the earliest celebrities to contribute and join). A self-described "super geek" who's presently consulting for or investing in eight technology companies, Hammer claims to spend 10–12 hours daily working on his technology projects, and tweets 30-40 times a day.
Bankruptcy, lawsuits and media reactionEdit
Contrary to public rumor, Hammer claimed he was really never "down-and-out" as reported by the media (eventually expressed on The Opie & Anthony Show and The Ellen DeGeneres Show in 2009). Originally having an estimated net worth of over $33 million according to Forbes magazine, speculations about Hammer's status first emerged during delays between albums Too Legit to Quit and The Funky Headhunter, with Hammer having spent much of his money on staff and personal luxuries. In addition to excessive spending while supporting friends and family, Hammer ultimately became $13 million in debt. With dwindling album sales, unpaid loans, a large payroll, and a lavish lifestyle, Hammer eventually filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in the U.S. Bankruptcy Court in Oakland, California on April 1, 1996. The case was converted to Chapter 7 on September 23, 1998, but Hammer was denied a bankruptcy discharge on April 23, 2002.
Hammer's mansion was sold for a fraction of its former price. "My priorities were out of order," he told Ebony. He claimed, "My priorities should have always been God, family, community, and then business. Instead they had been business, business, and business." Along with Felton Pilate and other group members, Rick James sued Hammer for infringement of copyright, but the suit was settled out of court when Hammer agreed to credit James as co-composer, effectively cutting James in on the millions of dollars the record was earning. By the late 1990s, though, Hammer seemed to stabilize himself and made himself ready to undertake new projects.
In 1992, Hammer had admitted in depositions and court documents to getting the idea for the song "Here Comes the Hammer" from a Christian recording artist in Dallas, Texas named Kevin Christian. Christian had filed a 16 million dollar lawsuit against Hammer for copyright infringement of his song entitled "Oh-Oh, You Got the Shing". This fact, compounded with witness testimony from both Hammer's and Christian's entourages, and other evidence (including photos), brought about a settlement with Capitol Records in 1994. The terms of the settlement remain sealed. Hammer settled with Christian the following year.
In 1997, just prior to beginning his ministry, M.C. Hammer (who by that time had re-adopted "M.C.") was the subject of an episode of The Oprah Winfrey Show and the VH1 series Behind the Music (music from his album Inside Out V was featured in this documentary). In these appearances, Burrell admitted "that [he] had already used up most of [his] fortune of over $20 million, proving that money is nothing if it doesn't bring peace and if priorities are wrong". He would go on to express a similar point in other interviews as well.
During numerous interviews on radio stations and television channels throughout the years, Hammer was constantly questioned about his bankruptcy. For example, during an interview by WKQI-FM (95.5) for the promotion of his "Pioneers Of Hip Hop 2009" gig at the Fox Theatre (Detroit, Michigan) which featured 2 Live Crew, Naughty by Nature, Too Short, Biz Markie, and Roxanne Shanté, Hammer was asked about his finances by the Mojo in the Morning host. Hammer responded on Twitter that Mojo was a "coward" and threatened to cancel commercials for his upcoming show.
On November 21, 2011, the U.S. government filed a lawsuit in Federal District Court in California against Hammer to obtain a court judgment on his unpaid taxes for years 1996 and 1997. In December 2011, this litigation was reported in the media. Hammer owed the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) $779,585 in back taxes from his earnings dating back to 1996–1997 - during the years Hammer was believed to be facing his worst financial problems. After years of public and media ridicule regarding his financial problem, Hammer tried to assure fans and "naysayers" via Twitter, claiming that he had proof he had already taken care of his debt with the IRS. "700k … Don't get too excited .. I paid them already and kept my receipt. Stamped by a US Federal Judge", Hammer tweeted from his account @MCHammer. However, the District Court ruled against Hammer. He appealed but, on December 17, 2015, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit rejected Hammer's argument that because the government had not listed those taxes in the government's proof of claim filed with the Bankruptcy Court, the government should be estopped from collecting the taxes. According to a 2017 episode of the Reelz TV series Broke & Famous, the situation was eventually resolved. As of the making of the aforementioned Broke & Famous episode, Hammer had a reported net worth of $1.5 million.
M.C. Hammer was arrested on February 21, 2013 in Dublin, California for allegedly obstructing an officer in the performance of his duties and resisting an officer (according to "stop and identify" statutes). Hammer claims he was a victim of racial profiling by the police, stating an officer pulled out his gun and randomly asked him: "Are you on parole or probation?" Hammer stated that as he handed over his ID, the officer reached inside the car and tried to pull him out. Police in Dublin, east of Oakland, said Hammer was 'blasting music' in a vehicle with expired registration and he was not the registered owner. "After asking Hammer who the registered owner was, he became very argumentative and refused to answer the officer's questions," police spokesman Herb Walters typed in an e-mail to CNN. Hammer was booked and released from Santa Rita Jail in Dublin. A court date was scheduled, however, all charges were dropped in early March. Hammer tweeted that he wasn't bitter and considered what happened "a teachable moment."
Christian beliefs and pastoral ministryEdit
In 1984, Burrell began attending Bible studies, joined a street ministry and formed a gospel rap group known as Holy Ghost Boys featuring Jon Gibson. In 1986, Burrell along with Tramaine Hawkins, performed with Gibson's band doing several concerts at various venues such as the Beverly Theatre in Beverly Hills and recorded several rap songs. They collaborated on a song for Gibson's 1988 album (Change of Heart) called "The Wall", prior to M.C. Hammer's mainstream success. This was Contemporary Christian music's first rap hit ever. Burrell also produced "Son of the King" at that time, releasing it on his debut album.
Raised Pentecostal, Hammer strayed from his Christian faith during his success, before returning to ministry. His awareness of this can be found in a film he wrote and starred in called Please Hammer, Don't Hurt 'Em: The Movie (1990), in which he also plays the charismatic preacher character named "Reverend Pressure". Nonetheless, as a tribute to his faith, Hammer vowed/promised to dedicate at least one song on each album to God.
Hammer later reaffirmed his beliefs in October 1997, and began a television ministry called M.C. Hammer and Friends on the Trinity Broadcasting Network, as well as appearing on Praise the Lord programs where he went public about his devotion to ministry as an ordained minister. Hammer officiated at the celebrity weddings of actor Corey Feldman and Susie Sprague on October 30, 2002 (as seen on VH1's The Surreal Life), and also at Mötley Crüe's Vince Neil and Lia Gerardini's wedding in January 2005.
During an interview on TBN (between 1997 and 1998), Hammer claimed he adopted the "M.C." back into his name which now stood for 'Man of Christ'. Hammer continued to preach while still making music, running a social media business and television show, and devotes time to prison and youth ministries.
From 2009 to 2010, Hammer joined Jaeson Ma at a crusade in Asia. Minister and mentor to Ma for more than a decade, Hammer assisted and co-starred in his documentary film 1040, which explores the spread of Christianity throughout Asia.
Legacy and pop culture fameEdit
Widely considered the first "mainstream" rapper, Hammer continues to entertain while sharing his legacy with other rappers (as cited on BET.com). Hammer became a fixture of the television airwaves and the big screen, with his music being used in many popular shows, movies and commercials still to this day. Hammer appeared in major marketing campaigns for companies to the point that he was criticized as a "sellout", including commercials for British Knights during the height of his career. The shoe company signed him to a $138 million deal.
Hammer's impression on the music industry appeared almost instantaneous, as Digital Underground's rap "The Humpty Dance," which was released when Hammer was still early in his career, included the lyrics "People say ya look like M.C. Hammer on crack, Humpty!", boasting about Hammer's showmanship versus Humpty Hump (Shock G)'s inability to match it in dance. Additionally, Hammer had several costly videos, two in particular were "Too Legit to Quit" or "2 Legit 2 Quit" (which many celebrities appeared in) and "Here Comes the Hammer".
Hammer is well-known for his fashion style during the late 80s and early 90s. Hammer would tour, perform and record with his hype man 2 Bigg MC or Too Big (releasing a song in which he claimed "He's the King of the Hype"). This duo introduced the "shiny suit" and popularized Hammer pants to mainstream America, as seen in videos such as "(Hammer Hammer) They Put Me In A Mix", in which Hammer also claimed Too Big was the "King of Hype" and in an unspoken competition with Flavor Flav (hype man for Public Enemy) during the height of their careers.
Hammer also established a children's foundation, which first started in Hammer's own community, called Help The Children (HTC was named after and based on his song by the same name which included a music video with a storyline from his film Please Hammer, Don't Hurt 'Em: The Movie).
In 1994, British TV presenter Mark Lamarr interrupted Hammer repeatedly with Hammer's catch phrase ("Stop! Hammer Time!") in an interview filmed for The Word, which he took in good humour. He claimed Hammer was a "living legend". It was also within this interview that Hammer explained the truth about his relationship with "gangsta rap" and that he was merely changing with the times, not holding onto his old image nor becoming a "hardcore gangsta". By some accounts, this change contributed to his decline in popularity.
In 2005, Hammer appeared in a commercial for Nationwide Mutual Insurance Company which made a humorous reference to his career. First he is shown in his distinctive clothing with his dance troupe performing "U Can't Touch This" in front of a mansion representative of his former house with a monogram H on the gable. Then there is silence and a screen card saying "Fifteen Minutes Later" appears with a view of Hammer sadly sitting on the curb in front of the same house as a crane removes the monogram H and tow trucks pull away sports cars that were parked in front. After a large "Foreclosed" sign appears, the voiceover said "Life comes at you fast. Be ready with Nationwide!"
In 2006, M.C. Hammer's music catalog (approximately 40,000 songs) was sold to the music company Evergreen/BMG for nearly $3 million. Evergreen explained that the collection was "some of the best-selling and most popular rap songs of all time." Speaking for Evergreen Copyrights, David Schulhof stated the songs "will emerge as a perfect fit for licensing in movies, television shows, and corporate advertising." According to VH1, "Hammer was on the money. Hit singles and videos like "U Can't Touch This" and "Too Legit To Quit" created a template of lavish performance values that many rap artists still follow today."
Hammer continues to give media interviews, such as being a guest on Chelsea Lately (June 16, 2009), where he discussed his relationship with Vanilla Ice, his stint on The Surreal Life, his show Hammertime, his family, his mansion, about him being in shape, his positive financial status and other "colorful topics" (subliminal jokes) regarding his baggy pants.
To celebrate Hammer's 50th birthday, San Francisco game maker Zynga offered up some recent player's Draw Something drawings from his fans. Other sources/services offered "props" on behalf of his special occasion and to show appreciation for his memorable persona/gimmicks used during the peak of his career.
During the 2013 Oakland Athletics season, the "2 Legit 2 Quit" music video played on the Diamond Vision in between innings, usually during the middle of the 8th inning. The video featured prominent players from the San Francisco Bay Area's sports championships, such as former A's players Jose Canseco and hall of fame inductee Rickey Henderson.
Influences and impactEdit
M.C. Hammer's impact in rap and entertainment has influenced and been influenced by such artists as: Kool Moe Dee, Big Daddy Kane, James Brown, Prince, Michael Jackson, Kurtis Blow, Earth, Wind & Fire, Rick James, Doug E. Fresh (who joined Hammer's Bust It Records label in 1992 and issued the album Doin' What I Gotta Do with the track "Bustin' Out (On Funk)" sampling the Rick James single "Bustin' Out") & The Get Fresh Crew (Barry Bee and Chill Will), Run-DMC and Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five.
Hammer was followed by related musicians: Will Smith, dc Talk, BB Jay, Diddy (aka "Puffy" or "Puff Daddy"), Young MC, B Angie B, M.C. Brains, MC Breed, Marky Mark and the Funky Bunch, C+C Music Factory, Mystikal, Bell Biv DeVoe, Kris Kross, Ho Frat Hoo! and Oaktown's 357.
Some critics complained of a lack of originality in Hammer's early productions. Entertainment Weekly described "U Can't Touch This" as 'shamelessly copying its propulsive riff from Rick James ("Super Freak"). Hammer admits, "When I look at Puffy with a choir, I say, 'Sure that's a take-off of what I do."
Notable feuds/beefs Hammer had with other rappers include: LL Cool J, Vanilla Ice, Too Short, Redman, 3rd Bass, Jay-Z, Eminem, A Tribe Called Quest and Run-DMC. Several diss tracks were featured on The Funky Headhunter.
Award recipient, appearances and recognitionEdit
Throughout the years, Hammer has been awarded for his music, videos and choreography. He has sold more than 50 million records worldwide. He has won three Grammy Awards (one with Rick James and Alonzo Miller) for Best Rhythm and Blues Song (1990), Best Rap Solo (1990) and Best Music Video: Long Form (1990) taken from Please Hammer, Don't Hurt 'Em: The Movie. He also received eight American Music Awards, a People's Choice Award, an NAACP Image Awards and the Billboard Diamond Award (the first for a hip hop artist).
The International Album of the Year validated Hammer's talent as a world-class entertainer. Additionally, Hammer was also honored with a Soul Train Music Award (Sammy Davis, Jr. Award for Entertainer of the Year) in 1991. He has also been a presenter/performer at Soul Train's Music Awards several times, including The 5th Annual Soul Train Music Awards (1991), The 9th Annual Soul Train Music Awards (1995) and Soul Train's 25th Anniversary (1995).
On June 12, 2008, Hammer gave his support to Warren Beatty by attending the 36th AFI Life Achievement Awards. In August 2008, at the World Hip Hop Dance Championships, Hammer won a Living Legends of Hip Hop Award from Hip Hop International in Las Vegas.
Hammer, Gary Vaynerchuk, Shaquille O'Neal and Rick Sanchez (host) celebrated the Best of Twitter in Brooklyn at the first Shorty Awards on February 11, 2009, which honored the top short-form content creators on Twitter. In September 2009, Hammer made the "accomplishment appearance" in Zombie Apocalypse for the downloadable Smash TV/Left 4 Dead hybrid for the Xbox 360. Hammer attended the 2009 Soul Train Music Awards which aired on BET November 29, 2009.
On January 5, 2010, Hammer (along with Alyssa Milano and others) was a member of panel judges for the Real-Time Academy of Short Form Arts & Sciences at the Second Annual Shorty Awards. On October 2 (televised October 12), Hammer opened the 2010 BET Hip Hop Awards performing "2 Legit 2 Quit" in Atlanta along with Rick Ross, Diddy and DJ Khaled (all performing together during "MC Hammer" from the Teflon Don album as well).
With over 2.6 million Twitter followers in 2010, his contribution to social media and as a co-founder of his own Internet businesses (such as DanceJam.com), Hammer was announced as the recipient of the first Gravity Summit Social Media Marketer of the Year Award. The award was presented to him at the 3rd Annual Gravity Summit on February 22, 2011 at the UCLA Covel Commons.
At the 40th American Music Awards in November 2012, Hammer danced to a mashup of "Gangnam Style" and "2 Legit 2 Quit" along with South Korean pop star Psy, both wearing his signature Hammer pants. The collaboration was released on iTunes. The performance idea with Hammer came from Psy's management. They both performed it together again on December 31, 2012 during Dick Clark's New Year's Rockin' Eve with Ryan Seacrest.
Hammer received the George and Ira Gershwin Award for Lifetime Musical Achievement (not to be mistaken for the Gershwin Prize), presented during the UCLA Spring Sing in Pauley Pavilion on May 17, 2013.
Tours and concertsEdit
Notable tours and concerts include: A Spring Affair Tour (1989), Summer Jam '89 (1989), Please Hammer, Don't Hurt 'Em World Tour (1990 & 1991), Lawlor Events Center at University of Nevada, Reno (1990-2017), Too Legit World Tour (1992), Red, White, and Boom (2003), The Bamboozle Festival (2007), Hardly Strictly Bluegrass (2008–2013), McKay Events Center with Vanilla Ice (2009), Illinois State Fair with Boyz II Men (2011), MusicFest (2012), Jack's Seventh Show at Verizon Wireless Amphitheatre (2012), Kool & the Gang Superjam at Outside Lands (2014) and Hammer's All-star House Party Tour (2019).
- "'It's Hammer time!' M.C. Hammer: upbeat performer with high-voltage stage show broadens rap's appeal". Ebony. December 1990.
- "Please Hammer, Don't Hurt 'Em: Overview". AllMusic.
- "Hammertime Holdings Retains OTC Financial Network To Direct Investor Relations Campaign". PR Newswire. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- "article". time.com. June 24, 2001. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
- Cassidy, John (January 7, 2009). "The Talk of the Town: Under the Hammer". The New Yorker. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- "The Legendary James Brown Rightfully Peaks List of BET's TOP 25 DANCERS of All Time". BET. Archived from the original on June 3, 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "The Best Rapper Ever: Recapping Round One". how-to-become-an-entrepreneur.blogspot.com/. April 12, 2015.
- "Hammertime" (official website). A&E Network.
- Hammertime on IMDb
- "MC Hammer - DanceJam - The GigaOm Show". Revision3.com. Archived from the original on November 9, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "MC Hammer to take on YouTube". The Sydney Morning Herald. January 2, 2008.
- "FNV Newsletter December 15".
-  Archived January 24, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- Beyer, Andrew (May 20, 2007). "Hammer Time : When Big Money Comes Down From His Son, Lewis Burrell's Dream Sees the Light of Day". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- "MC Hammer: Biography from". Answers.com. Retrieved October 22, 2010.
- Company, Johnson Publishing (October 1990). Ebony - Google Books. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- Norment, Lynn (1994). "Hammer's hilltop mansion". Ebony.
- "Hammer Time On First Take - ESPN Video - ESPN". Espn.go.com. August 30, 2010. Archived from the original on February 26, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Rebels of Oakland: The A's, the Raiders, the '70s. HBO. December 10, 2003.
- Steph (July 12, 2008). "2008 MLB All-Star Week Taco Bell All-Star Legends & Celebrity Softball Game". Celebrity Mound. Archived from the original on July 8, 2011. Retrieved October 2, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- McCalvy, Adam (July 22, 2010). "Legends, celebrities hammer home fun". Major League Baseball. Retrieved October 2, 2010.
- "MC Hammer - Taco Bell All-Star Legends And Celebrity Softball Game - Photo". LIFE. July 11, 2010. Retrieved October 2, 2010.[dead link]
- "MC Hammer in the US Navy". Military.com. December 20, 2006. Retrieved October 22, 2010.
- Strauss, Gary (June 11, 2009). "MC Hammer opens his home to viewers in new reality show". USA Today.
- "MC Hammer: B-Boy Chill". new.music.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on January 5, 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Change of Heart - Jon Gibson - Songs, Reviews, Credits - AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
- "Jon Gibson: Soulful Hymns". cdbaby.com.
- "Jon Gibson: Love Education". amazon.com.
- "Jon Gibson: Hits". amazon.com.
- "Jon Gibson: Change of Heart". music.aol.com. Archived from the original on July 14, 2012. Retrieved June 11, 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Inc., Darren Beckett -- Threemagination,. "Jon Gibson - Frontline Records". www.frontlinerecords.us. Retrieved March 1, 2018.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
- "MC Hammer". connectionmagazine.org.
- "MC Hammer 'Let's Get It Started' track listing". rhapsody.com.
- "Jon Gibson profile". soultracks.com.
- "MC Hammer Songs - Yahoo! Music". New.music.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on December 3, 2012. Retrieved March 31, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "An Artist's Experience". Rapcoalition.org. December 12, 1992. Archived from the original on June 12, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Hammer - Rhapsody Music Downloads". VH1.com. Archived from the original on October 22, 2012. Retrieved March 31, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "MC Hammer releases message to America". CNN. November 22, 2001. Archived from the original on June 2, 2009. Retrieved May 12, 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- ""If You Want It" video at". Dancejam.com. Archived from the original on August 20, 2008. Retrieved March 31, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Mchammer - Sets". SoundCloud. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- "Dasit on Yahoo! Music". New.music.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on July 29, 2012. Retrieved March 31, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Family Affair - MC Hammer". Music.aol.com. June 23, 1998. Archived from the original on July 11, 2012. Retrieved March 31, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- ""ESPN Mondy Night Football Commercial with MC Hammer And Pleasure Ellis" video at". Dancejam.com. August 18, 2008. Archived from the original on February 6, 2010. Retrieved March 31, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Discography". billboard.com.[dead link]
- "Mchammer.Com". Mchammer.Com. Archived from the original on April 2, 2010. Retrieved March 31, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Hall, Rashaun (December 9, 2004). "Keyshia Cole Has Kanye, Shyne On LP, Proof That Stalking MC Hammer Pays Off - Music, Celebrity, Artist News". MTV. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- J.R. (March 5, 2009). "Keyshia Cole on Chelsea Lately: Talks Tupac, MC Hammer and Kissing!". Hiphoprx.com. Archived from the original on September 26, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Q&A: What was it like to work with MC Hammer? Video by Keyshia Cole - AOL Music". Music.aol.com. Archived from the original on September 27, 2009. Retrieved May 10, 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Keisha Cole". Sheknows.com. Archived from the original on September 28, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- [dead link]
- "It's Showtime at the Apollo" Episode dated 16 September 1989 (TV episode 1989) - IMDb Archived March 12, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
- "Video of MC Hammer". Archived from the original on July 18, 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "MC Hammer and Vanilla Ice Rock Utah". Newsweek.com. March 16, 2009. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- "MC Hammer - U Can't Touch This(Live @ Arsenio Hall) - Video". Metacafe.com. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- "M.C. Hammer :: Please Hammer Don't Hurt 'Em :: Capitol Records". Rapreviews.com. June 24, 2008. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- "Please Hammer Don't Hurt Em". music.msn.com. Retrieved January 18, 2011.
- "MC Hammer: Biography from". Answers.cwom. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- IMDb - M.C. Hammer Archived November 2, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
- Corcoran, Michael (May 17, 1990). "MC Hammer: Please Hammer, Don't Hurt 'Em : Music Reviews". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on April 28, 2009. Retrieved March 31, 2010.ead
- "Recent Press Releases". Macysinc.com. Retrieved March 31, 2010.[dead link]
- "MC Hammer Biography". sing365.com. Archived from the original on July 15, 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Please Hammer, Don't Hurt 'Em: The Movie on IMDb
- MC Hammer To Perform At Reds Game Archived August 18, 2016, at the Wayback Machine SB-Nation
- "Hammer's hilltop mansion | Ebony | Find Articles at BNET". Findarticles.com. 1994. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- "MC Hammer - Upcoming Shows & Peformances [sic]". Zvents. March 17, 2010. Archived from the original on March 24, 2010. Retrieved March 31, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Ep. 180 | Boyz II Men | Behind The Music | Episode Summary, Highlights, and Recaps". VH1.com. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- Leland, John (December 9, 1991). "Superstars And Super Hype To The Rescue". Newsweek.
- "The "Two Legit to Quit" Challenge". Spudart.org. February 22, 1999. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- "Video | The Wendy Williams Show". Wendyshow.com. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- Reid, Shaheem (December 30, 2006). "James Brown Saluted By Michael Jackson At Public Funeral Service - News Story | Music, Celebrity, Artist News | MTV News". Mtv.com. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- "Evander Holyfield". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved December 25, 2012.
- "Roll Wit It Entertainment". Discogs.com. Retrieved December 25, 2012.
- "Hammer's hilltop mansion - page 2 | Ebony". Findarticles.com. 1994. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- Sandow, Greg (February 16, 1990). "Please Hammer Don't Hurt 'Em | Music". EW.com. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- "Mc Hammer - Crime Story Lyrics". Metrolyrics.com. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- Hammer. "The Funky Headhunter: Information from". Answers.com. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- Morgan, Damien (2008). Hip Hop Had a Dream: Vol. 1 the Artful Movement. AuthorHouse. p. 141. ISBN 978-1-4389-0204-3.
- "Bang Thy Head Carefully". SF Weekly.
- "Slam Dunks". CNN. November 8, 2005.
- Kingdom Come (2001/I) - Soundtracks Archived January 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
- "Inside Out: Hammer: Music". Amazon.com. Retrieved April 16, 2012.
- "It's Hammer Time". warnerbros.com. Archived from the original on April 29, 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "MC Hammer Interview - part 1". daveyd.com. June 1997. Retrieved March 20, 2009.
- "MC Hammer". MTV.
- "MC Hammer". MTV.
- "2pac Too Late Playa Feat Mc Hammer, Big Daddy Kane, Nutt-so Danny Boy". Wn.com. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- Burgess, Omar (March 18, 2009). "Death Row Records: The Pardon | Rappers Talk Hip Hop Beef & Old School Hip Hop". HipHop DX. Archived from the original on May 26, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "MC Hammer Interview - part 2". daveyd.com. June 1997. Retrieved March 20, 2009.
- "What had happened was MC Hammer". vibe.com. March 2009. Archived from the original on January 6, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Greatest Hits by MC Hammer Specs". DealTime.
- "MC Hammer Albums: Family Affair". yahoo.com. Archived from the original on July 11, 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "MC Hammer". pandora.com.
- "MC Hammer To Perform Hip Hop Honors". DallasBlack.com. September 22, 2004. Archived from the original on July 8, 2011. Retrieved March 31, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "VH1 Hip Hop Honors: Hip Hop Honors : 2004 episode on". Tv.com. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- "Family Affair | MC Hammer Album | Yahoo! Music". Music.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on February 10, 2013. Retrieved December 17, 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Information Not Found". Billboard.com. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- "Hammer Music Videos - Watch Hammer Videos at". Mtvmusic.com. March 30, 1962. Archived from the original on October 12, 2009. Retrieved March 31, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "MC Hammer and Wee Wee - Pop Your Collar • VideoSift: Online Video *Quality Control". Issykitty.videosift.com. Retrieved April 16, 2012.
- "Active Duty – MC Hammer". music.aol.com. Archived from the original on February 18, 2009. Retrieved May 11, 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "MC Hammer News - Yahoo! Music". New.music.yahoo.com. August 1, 2001. Archived from the original on July 10, 2012. Retrieved March 31, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Rap News Network - Hip-Hop News: MC Hammer is Back 'Full Blast'". Rapnews.net. January 29, 2004. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- "MC Hammer Blog: Bring Our Brothers Home: Hannity's America". Mchammer.blogspot.com. June 11, 2007. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- "MC Hammer: Bring Our Brothers Home" (video). mtv.com.
- "MC Hammer: Bring Our Brothers Home". vh1classic.com. Archived from the original (video) on July 2, 2009. Retrieved May 11, 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Platinum | MC Hammer Album | Yahoo! Music". Music.yahoo.com. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- "Platinum (Dig): Music". Amazon.com. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- "The Hammer Comes A-Knockin'". adage.com.
- "Too Legit To Quit? MC Hammer Goes Another Round With New Album". singersroom.com.
- "MC Hammer - I Go (produced by Lil Jon)". hiphoprx.com. February 14, 2009. Archived from the original on April 20, 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "MC Hammer Puts New Single in ESPN Commercial". Billboard.biz. August 15, 2008. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- "Dancejam: The Music by M. C. Hammer : Reviews and Ratings". Rate Your Music. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- Hammer, MC (October 29, 2008). "DanceJamtheMusic by MCHAMMER". SoundCloud. Archived from the original on February 19, 2010. Retrieved May 10, 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Furbush, James. "MC Hammer and Vanilla Ice perform in Utah last week. Wait, what?". Slyoyster.com. Archived from the original on March 12, 2012. Retrieved May 10, 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Alston, Joshua (March 6, 2009). "MC Hammer and Vanilla Ice Rock Utah". Newsweek. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- "MC Hammer Promises Jay-Z Diss Track For Hov's Lines On 'So Appalled' Track". BallerStatus.com. September 29, 2010. Retrieved October 22, 2010.
- "MC Hammer's Comeback: May have Jay-Z in his sights!!". TheUrbanTwist.com. September 30, 2010. Retrieved October 22, 2010.
- Steele, Nick (September 27, 2010). "MC Hammer VS. Jay-Z". KLUC. Archived from the original on July 15, 2011. Retrieved October 22, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Rumors : Hip-Hop Rumors: MC Hammer Releases Jay-Z Diss Trailer". Allhiphop.com. Archived from the original on February 4, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Rapper MC Hammer Claims That He HAS PROOF That Jay Z Is A DEVIL WORSHIPPER!!! (Details)". Mediatakeout.com. September 26, 2010. Archived from the original on July 10, 2012. Retrieved May 10, 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "MC Hammer Takes Offense At Jay-Z Diss, Planning Retaliation Record [Video]". Hiphopwired.com. September 26, 2010. Archived from the original on November 28, 2010. Retrieved May 10, 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Rumors : Hip-Hop Rumors: Jay-Z Disses Hammer? Hammer Replies!". Allhiphop.com. Archived from the original on February 4, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "MC Hammer Releases Jay-Z Diss Video". Billboard.com. September 14, 2009. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- Canada, Danielle (November 1, 2010). "MC Hammer Releases Jay-Z Diss "Better Run Run" [Video]". Hiphopwired.com. Archived from the original on July 24, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Sympathy for the Hova". Ethos Magazine. November 12, 2010. Archived from the original on November 26, 2010. Retrieved May 10, 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "MC Hammer News". Yahoo! Music. November 3, 2010. Archived from the original on July 21, 2012. Retrieved May 10, 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Special Feature – MC Hammer on Flipboard". Inside Flipboard. February 3, 2011. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- "Whatever Happened to MC Hammer?". Oprah.com. February 3, 2011. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- Steinberg, Scott. "New MC Hammer Song Debuts on Flipboard". Rolling Stone. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 26, 2016. Retrieved April 15, 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter
|deadurl=(help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 6, 2016. Retrieved April 15, 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter
|deadurl=(help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "MC Hammer News - Yahoo! Music". New.music.yahoo.com. October 31, 2001. Archived from the original on July 14, 2012. Retrieved March 31, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Black Entertainment | Black News | Urban News | Hip Hop News | Black Entertainment". EURweb.com. March 16, 2009. Archived from the original on May 5, 2009. Retrieved March 31, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "NYC Publisher Sues MC Hammer Over US$61K Advance". NBC San Diego. March 14, 2009. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- McElroy, Justin (December 17, 2008). "MC Hammer says he's working on 'secret project' with Activision". Joystiq. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- "10 Questions for New Social Networking Mogul M.C. Hammer". Popular Mechanics. November 20, 2007. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- Arrington, Michael (November 12, 2007). "Wired Covers DanceJam Without Trashing M.C. Hammer". Techcrunch.com. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- Needleman, Rafe (November 21, 2007). "The economy of DanceJam | Webware - CNET". News.cnet.com. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- Heater, Brian. "Hammer's DanceJam Gets $3.5 Million Worth of Legitimacy". PC Magazine.
-  Archived November 18, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- "MC Hammer News - Yahoo! Music". New.music.yahoo.com. January 3, 2008. Archived from the original on July 11, 2012. Retrieved March 31, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "DanceJam". CrunchBase Inc. Retrieved February 7, 2016.
- "Can't Touch This: MC Hammer Starts MMA Firm". MMAWeekly.com. Archived from the original on September 23, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "MC Hammer launches apparel line in Austin". Austin Business Journal. September 16, 2010. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- MC Hammer Rocks A Perfect Day At TechCrunch Disrupt Archived April 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine techcrunch.com
- "MC Hammer – ZAGGmate by ZAGG Revealed on Oprah". News.lalate.com. March 30, 2011. Retrieved December 25, 2012.
- "ZAGGmate Appears on The Oprah Winfrey Show". Business Wire. February 4, 2011. Retrieved December 25, 2012.
- "Special Feature – MC Hammer on Flipboard". Inside Flipboard. February 3, 2011. Retrieved December 25, 2012.
- "Whatever Happened to MC Hammer, Bo Derek and Pam Grier?". Oprah.com. February 3, 2011. Retrieved December 25, 2012.
- Steinberg, Scott. "New MC Hammer Song Debuts on Flipboard | Scott Steinberg". Rolling Stone. Retrieved December 25, 2012.
- Gross, Doug (October 20, 2011). "MC Hammer launching his own search engine". CNN. Retrieved January 17, 2012.
- Prescott, Patrick. "MC Hammer Connects WireDoo For Alternative Search". Newsoxy.com. Archived from the original on November 2, 2011. Retrieved December 17, 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Technology". Los Angeles Times. October 20, 2011.
- "WireDoo". CrunchBase Inc. Retrieved February 7, 2016.
- Please Hammer, Don't Hurt 'Em: The Movie (1990) (V) Archived March 20, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
- M.C. Hammer - Awards Archived January 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
- MC Hammer: 2 Legit - The Videos (Video 2002) - IMDb Archived January 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
- "MC Hammer: Biography". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on May 29, 2009. Retrieved January 17, 2012.
- "article". Michigan Daily Online. February 8, 1996. Archived from the original on May 29, 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Concert Preview: MC Hammer @ Woodrow Wilson Plaza". Archived from the original on March 16, 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Ad Rock | Kempt". Getkempt.com. Archived from the original on January 13, 2010. Retrieved March 31, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Company, Johnson Publishing (April 15, 1991). Jet - Google Books. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- The History of Rock 'N' Roll, Vol. 5 (TV 1995) - IMDb Archived January 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
- IMDb - Deadly Rhapsody (2001) Archived January 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
- MC Hammer on IMDb
- "New movie displays original view of Asian American films". The Daily Princetonian. May 9, 2003. Archived from the original on June 14, 2011. Retrieved March 31, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "MC Hammer: Biography". fandango.com.
- Horgan, Richard. "Perseverance Leads to Better Luck Tomorrow". Filmstew.com. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- "Press : Articles". Better Luck Tomorrow. April 11, 2003. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- "Contact Details". FilmStew.com. September 30, 2005. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- "Too Legit: The MC Hammer Story Synopsis". Fandango.com. December 19, 2001. Archived from the original on February 10, 2010. Retrieved March 31, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Kinon, Cristina; Huff, Richard (February 19, 2009). "Rapper MC Hammer bringing new show". New York: nydailynews.com.
- "MC Hammer, family to star in A&E reality series this year – The TV Guy – Orlando Sentinel". Blogs.orlandosentinel.com. Archived from the original on April 20, 2009. Retrieved March 31, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "A&E News - "Hammertime" premieres Sunday, June 14 at 10 PM ET/PT on A&E". Aetv.com. Archived from the original on May 26, 2009. Retrieved March 31, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "This Week on Live with Regis and Kelly - 3/26/10 - New York News and Tri-State News - 7online.com". Abclocal.go.com. March 26, 2010. Archived from the original on January 24, 2013. Retrieved March 31, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Ashton Trades Tweets for Football; Owen & Reese Hook Up". E! Online. February 18, 2009. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- "MC Hammer Puts New Single in ESPN Commercial". billboard.com.
- "Too Legit To Quit? MC Hammer Goes Another Round With New Album". musicheatxl.com.[dead link]
- "Super Bowl AD Wizards Ed McMahon MC Hammer Get Cash 4 Comedy Gold". bestweekever.tv. January 30, 2009. Archived from the original on June 9, 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Glenn Martin, DDS Episodes - Glenn Martin, DDS Season 2 2011 Episode Guides - Watch Glenn Martin, DDS Episodes from Nickelodeon". TVGuide.com. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- "Ghostride the Whip: The Hyphy Movement". fandago.com. Archived from the original (Synopsis) on May 28, 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- ""Hammerdance" .dancejam.com". Archived from the original on November 18, 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Mills, Michelle J. "Hammer-ing a new message". dabelly.com.
- "News". Aetv.com. Archived from the original on May 7, 2010. Retrieved March 31, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Live with Regis and Kelly - Guest Guide". Regisandkelly.go.com. Archived from the original on February 12, 2010. Retrieved March 31, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "MC Hammer Remembers His Friend Michael Jackson". Spinner. June 26, 2009. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- "Bankrupt M.C. Hammer Puts Home On The Market. - Free Online Library". Thefreelibrary.com. May 13, 1997. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- "vhreg.com". vhreg.com. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- "M. C. Hammer Sells Mansion, Moves to Tracy / Rap star leaves Fremont hills for rental house - SFGate". Articles.sfgate.com. August 21, 1997. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- "Hammer Time Mansion". Wikimapia.org. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- "M.C. Hammer's estate sells for $5 million in Fremont, California | Jet | Find Articles at BNET". Findarticles.com. September 8, 1997. Archived from the original on June 11, 2008. Retrieved May 10, 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Hammer Time On House Sale - Music, Celebrity, Artist News". MTV.com. September 3, 1997. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- "MC Hammer lets world in on his quiet home life". pressofAtlanticCity.com. June 13, 2009. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- "The M.C. Hammer Picture Pages". Superiorpics.com. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- "Hammertime: Meet the Family" (official website). A&E Network.
- "A&E bails out MC Hammer, orders 'Hammertime'". latimesblogs.latimes.com. February 18, 2009. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
- "Hammers Reality Show". hiphophoney.com. Archived from the original on January 18, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "MC Hammer urged to marry Whitney Houston | Daily Dish | an SFGate.com blog". Blog.sfgate.com. July 13, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- "MC Hammer Says He Was Encouraged To Marry Whitney Houston". Huffingtonpost.com. July 17, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- "MC Hammer Blog". blogspot.com.
- "MC Hammer the Super-Geek - Video". Oprah.com. February 3, 2011. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- Hammer, Mc (June 14, 2012). "This November: It's SAFE California Time". Huffington Post.
- Anderson, Gordon T. (May 31, 2003). "Celebs who go broke - May. 31, 2003". Money.cnn.com. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- "MC Hammer". Rhapsody.
- In re Stanley Kirk Burrell, case no. 96-42564, U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District of California (Oakland Div.).
- "Mc Hammer $33 Million 1991 ~ News 24 by 7". News24by7.us. February 11, 2012. Archived from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved December 17, 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- See generally Complaint, docket entry 1, November 21, 2011, United States v. Stanley K. Burrell, case no. 2:11-cv-03079-GEB-EFB, U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of California.
- "Hammer's hilltop mansion | Ebony | Find Articles at BNET". Findarticles.com. 1994. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- "Songwriter claims Hammer stole his song: sues him. (Muhammad Bilal Abdullah)". Jet. February 1, 1993. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Weitz, Matt (February 26, 1998). "Hammered". Dallas Observer.
- "Behind the Music Episodes - Behind the Music Full Episode Guides on VH1". TVGuide.com. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- "Behind the Music returning". TV Series Finale. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- "Hammer". s9.com. Archived from the original on May 31, 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "MC Hammer Ellen Degeneres Interview: March 24". tv.popcrunch.com. Archived from the original (video) on May 31, 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "MC Hammer". TV Guide.
- Tobin, Jim (February 5, 2009). "How MC Hammer went from caricature to human being--the social media story". Ignite Social Media. Archived from the original on May 25, 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Graham, Adam (May 14, 2009). "Grapevine: Hammer, Mojo go at it". The Detroit News.[dead link]
- Chick Chop Suey. "Rediscovering the Spirit of Detroit with the 'Pioneers of Hip Hop' Review". lasplash.com.
- "MC Hammer Returns". WJBK FOX 2 Detroit, MI. May 13, 2009. Archived from the original (video) on July 19, 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- See Complaint, docket entry 1, November 21, 2011, United States v. Stanley K. Burrell, case no. 2:11-cv-03079-GEB-EFB, U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of California.
- Crates, Jake (December 12, 2011). "MC Hammer Pays Off Financial Debt to IRS". AllHipHop.com. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- United States v. Stanley K. Burrell, December 17, 2015, case no. 14-15015, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.
- "MC Hammer: Broke & Famous." Broke & Famous. Exec. Prod. Joe Houlihan and Simon Lloyd. Reelz, September 29, 2017. Television.
- "MC Hammer's obstruction charges dropped | Story | Wonderwall". Wonderwall.msn.com. March 10, 2013. Archived from the original on July 29, 2014. Retrieved July 29, 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "MC Hammer Charges Dropped After Arrest Last Month". Huffingtonpost.com. March 10, 2013. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- "MC Hammer arrested in obstructing officer case". CNN.com. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- "MC Hammer - Arrested for Obstruction, But Claims Profiling". TMZ.com. February 23, 2013. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- "MC Hammer arrested in California". Fox News. February 24, 2013. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- "MC Hammer Arrested For Obstructing An Officer, Claims He's A Victim Of Racial Profiling". Huffingtonpost.com. February 24, 2013. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- "MC Hammer Tracks" (track listing). new.music.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on July 17, 2012. Retrieved June 11, 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Doucet, Daina. "Christianity.ca - MC Hammer Returns to Faith". Evangelicalfellowship.ca. Archived from the original on July 27, 2014. Retrieved July 29, 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Rap Artist MC Hammer Returns to Faith in God". christianity.ca. Archived from the original on July 28, 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "MC Hammer on Praise". tbn.org.
- "MC Hammer". TBN.
- "Address book: M". tbn.org.
- "Corey Feldman Wed by MC Hammer". buzzle.com. November 27, 2002. Archived from the original on July 29, 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Shady, Bethany. "Feldman Gets Hitched by Hammer". tlchicken.com.
- "McHammer Marries Vince Neil". undercover.com.au. January 11, 2005. Archived from the original on August 10, 2007. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "TBN goes after Hispanic market". religionnewsblog.com. Associated Press. September 13, 2002.
- "M.C. Hammer" (newsletter). tbn.org.
- "Jaeson Ma | 1040". 1040movie.com. September 8, 2010. Archived from the original on January 26, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "DOCUMENTARY EXPLORES MODERN ASIAN REVIVAL – 1040 - Blog - Jaeson Ma - My official artist profile". alivenotdead.com. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- "The Year in Review: Top Spiritual Trends of 2010". Charismamag.com. December 31, 2010. Archived from the original on April 20, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- 1040: Christianity in the New Asia (2010) - IMDb Archived March 6, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
- "Performers | Hip-Hop Awards 2010 Official Site". BET.com. October 12, 2010. Archived from the original on September 27, 2010. Retrieved October 22, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Farber, Jim (March 8, 1991). "Flesh Forward | Music". EW.com. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- "whose the best hype man of all time??? [Archive] - My Block Community - Hip-Hop & Entertainment Forum". Wordofsouth.com. Archived from the original on February 9, 2013. Retrieved May 10, 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "MC Hammer Lyrics: Break 'Em Off Somethin' Proper". audiolunchbox.com. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Crime Story". new.music.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on January 5, 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Life in Spain Videos". Spainherewecome.com. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved March 31, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Celebrities | Detnews.com | This article is no longer available online | The Detroit News[dead link]
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Opr3uHOdA10 Also an article in Ad Week, 25 Oct 2004: https://www.adweek.com/brand-marketing/itll-be-hammer-time-05-nationwide-insurance-75680/ .
- "MC Hammer News - Yahoo! Music". New.music.yahoo.com. July 21, 2006. Archived from the original on July 15, 2012. Retrieved March 31, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "MC Hammer". twitter.com.
- "The Ellen Show". twitter.com.
- "MC Hammer Tells Chelsea He Helped Launch Vanilla Ice Career's". Hollyhoodhdtv.Com. June 17, 2009. Retrieved March 31, 2010.[dead link]
- "MC Hammer Credits". Tvguide.com. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- "Chelsea Lately - Starring Chelsea Handler". E! Online. March 26, 2010. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- Budman, Scott (March 30, 2012). "Zynga Shares MC Hammer Drawings". NBC Bay Area. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- [dead link]
- Olson, Lauren (March 30, 2012). "The Ultimate MC Hammer 50th Birthday GIF Wall – | VH1 Celebrity". Bestweekever.tv. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- "Ho Frat Ho!". Album Credits. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Kerr, Dara. "U Can't Touch This | Feature | Oakland, Berkeley & Bay Area News & Arts Coverage". Eastbayexpress.com. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- "MC Hammer: Bio". vh1.com. Retrieved January 2, 2012.
- Bellafante, Ginia (June 12, 2009). "Where a Fallen Rap Star Is Still No. 1". The New York Times. Retrieved January 1, 2011.
- "– The Largest Entertainment Photo & Video Archive". Wireimage.com. November 3, 2009. Archived from the original on January 11, 2010. Retrieved March 31, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "MC Hammer News - Yahoo! Music". New.music.yahoo.com. August 29, 2005. Archived from the original on July 13, 2012. Retrieved March 31, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "MC Hammer - 36th AFI Life Achievement Award - Audience - Photo". LIFE. Retrieved May 10, 2011.[dead link]
- "Hip Hop Living Legends Award to Toni Basil in Las Vegas" (blog). vbablogger.com. May 30, 2009.
- "Snap Judgment: 2009 Shorty Awards | MC Hammer, Rick Sanchez and the REAL Shaq celebrate the best of Twitter in Brooklyn | Photo 1/20 | Metromix New York". Newyork.metromix.com. February 11, 2009. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- "Zombie Apocalypse features MC Hammer Accomplishment". Techorade.com. September 1, 2009. Archived from the original on June 16, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Home | Soul Train Awards | 2009 Soul Train Awards Official Site". BET.com. January 27, 2010. Archived from the original on March 15, 2010. Retrieved March 31, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Rick Ross, Diddy and MC Hammer Kick Off 2010 BET Hip-Hop Awards". The Boombox. October 3, 2010. Retrieved October 22, 2010.
- Racha, Ronda (October 12, 2010). "2010 BET Hip-Hop Awards: What you won't see on TV | Atlanta Music Blog | Atlanta Concerts & Shows | Crib Notes | Creative Loafing Atlanta". Clatl.com. Retrieved October 22, 2010.
- "MC Hammer Joins Rick Ross On Stage At BET Hip Hop Awards - Hip-Hop Media Training". New.music.yahoo.com. October 13, 2010. Archived from the original on October 17, 2010. Retrieved October 22, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "MC Hammer to Receive Gravity Summit 'Social Media Marketer of the Year' Award". Gravity Summit. December 14, 2010. Archived from the original on December 18, 2010. Retrieved May 10, 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Hip Hop Legend and Twitter Star MC Hammer to Receive Gravity Summit 'Social Media Marketer of the Year' Award at UCLA Event on February 22, 2011 - Online Investment Community". World Market Media. Archived from the original on June 16, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "PSY & MC Hammer AMA 2012 – Gangnam Style & Too Legit To Quit". Hollywood Life. November 18, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- "MC Hammer Goes 'Gangnam' With PSY At American Music Awards (VIDEO)". Huffingtonpost.com. November 19, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- "iTunes Music - Gangnam Style / 2 Legit 2 Quit Mashup (feat. MC Hammer) - Single by PSY". iTunes Store. November 19, 2012. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- "PSY & MC Hammer Explain How AMAs Dance Mash-Up Came To Be - Yahoo! TV". Tv.yahoo.com. November 19, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- Erickson, Christine (November 19, 2012). "MC Hammer and Psy's 'Gangnam Style' Duet Is 2 Legit [VIDEO] - Yahoo! News". News.yahoo.com. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- Gershwin Award 2013 Recipient Archived June 1, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, UCLA Alumni Association, 2013