The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) is a trade organization that represents the recording industry in the United States. Its members consist of record labels and distributors that the RIAA says "create, manufacture, and/or distribute approximately 85% of all legally sold recorded music in the United States". RIAA is headquartered in Washington, D.C.
|Type||Licensing and royalties, technical standards|
|Headquarters||Washington, D.C., U.S.|
Chairman and CEO
RIAA was formed in 1952. Its original mission was to administer recording copyright fees and problems, work with trade unions, and do research relating to the record industry and government regulations. Early RIAA standards included the RIAA equalization curve, the format of the stereophonic record groove and the dimensions of 33 1/3, 45, and 78 rpm records.
RIAA says its current mission includes:
- to protect intellectual property rights and the First Amendment rights of artists
- to perform research about the music industry
- to monitor and review relevant laws, regulations, and policies
Between 2001 and 2020, RIAA spent between $2.4 million and $6.5 million annually on lobbying in the United States. RIAA also participates in the collective rights management of sound recordings, and it is responsible for certifying gold and platinum albums and singles in the United States.
Company structure and salesEdit
Mitch Glazier has been the RIAA's chairman and CEO since 2019. Glazier joined the RIAA 20 years ago and has played a role in the music industry's transition to streaming and "anywhere, anytime" access to music. He was the RIAA's senior executive vice president from 2011 to 2019 and served as executive vice president for public policy and industry relations from 2000 to 2011.
The 26-member board of directors is composed of these record executives:
- Mitch Glazier (Recording Industry Association of America)
- Michele Ballantyne (Recording Industry Association of America)
- Michele Anthony (Universal Music Group)
- Glen Barros (Exceleration Music)
- Michael L. Nash (Universal Music Group)
- Eric Berman (Universal Music Group)
- David Bither (Nonesuch Records)
- Ken Bunt (Disney Music Group)
- John Esposito (Warner Music Nashville)
- Victor Gonzalez (Universal Music Latin Entertainment)
- Camille Hackney (Atlantic Records)
- Rani Hancock (Sire Records)
- Jeff Harleston (Universal Music Group)
- Terry Hemmings (Provident Music Group/Sony Music Entertainment)
- Kevin Kelleher (Sony Music Entertainment)
- Sheldra Khahaifa (Sony Music Entertainment)
- Dennis Kooker (Sony Music Entertainment)
- Eric Chopra (Sony Music Entertainment)
- Annie Lee (Interscope Geffen A&M)
- Gabriela Maartinez (Warner Music Latina)
- Deirdre McDonald (Sony Music Entertainment)
- Paul Robinson (Warner Music Group)
- Tom Silverman (Tommy Boy Entertainment)
- Julie Swidler (Sony Music Entertainment)
- Will Tanous (Universal Music Group)
- Zena White (Partisan Records)
The RIAA represents over 1,600 member labels, which are private corporate entities such as record labels and distributors, and collectively create and distribute about 90% of recorded music sold in the United States. The largest and most influential of the members are the "Big Three":
The RIAA also represents other record labels such as Atlantic, Capitol, RCA, Warner Bros., Columbia, and Motown.
The RIAA reports that total retail value of recordings sold by their members was $10.4 billion at the end of 2007, a decline from $14.6 billion in 1999. Estimated retail revenues from recorded music in the United States grew 11.4% in 2016 to $7.7 billion.
The RIAA operates an award program for albums that sell a large number of copies. The award was launched in 1958; originally, the requirement for a Gold single was one million units sold and a Gold album represented $1 million in sales (at wholesale value, around a third of the list price). In 1975, the additional requirement of 500,000 units sold was added for Gold albums. Reflecting growth in record sales, the Platinum award was added in 1976, for albums able to sell one million units, while singles qualify upon selling two million units. The Multi-Platinum award was introduced in 1984, signifying multiple Platinum levels of albums and singles. In 1989, the sales thresholds for singles were reduced to 500,000 for Gold and 1,000,000 for Platinum, reflecting a decrease in sales of singles. In 1992, RIAA began counting each disc in a multi-disc set as one unit toward certification. Reflecting additional growth in music sales, the Diamond award was instituted in 1999 for albums or singles selling ten million units. Because of these changes in criteria, the sales level associated with a particular award depends on when the award was made.
Since 2000, the RIAA also operates a similar program for Latin music sales, called Los Premios de Oro y De Platino. Currently, a "Disco De Oro" (Gold) is awarded for 30,000 units, and a "Disco De Platino" is awarded for 60,000 units. Further, the "Album Multi-Platino" honor is awarded at 120,000, and "Diamante" requires 10 times as many units as "Platino" (600,000). The RIAA defines "Latin music" as a type of release with 51% or more of its content recorded in Spanish.
"Digital" single certificationEdit
In 2004, the RIAA added a branch of certification for what it calls "digital" recordings, essentially referring to "recordings transferred to the recipient over a network" (such as those sold via the iTunes Store) yet excluding other obviously digital media such as those on CD, DAT, or MiniDisc. In 2006, "digital ringtones" were added to this branch of certification. Starting in 2013, streaming from audio and video streaming services such as Spotify, Napster, YouTube and the likes also began to be counted towards the certification, using the formula of 100 streams being the equivalent of one download; thus, RIAA certification for singles no longer reflects actual sales. In the same year, the RIAA introduced the Latin Digital Award for digital recordings in Spanish. As of 2016[update], the certification criteria for these recordings are:
- Gold: 500,000 units
- Platinum: 1,000,000 units
- Multi-Platinum: 2,000,000 units (increments of 1,000,000 thereafter)
- Diamond: 10,000,000 units
The units are defined as:
- A permanent digital download counts as 1 unit
- 150 on-demand audio and/or video streams count as 1 unit
Latin digital awards:
- Disco de Oro (Gold): 30,000 copies
- Disco de Platino (Platinum): 60,000 copies
- Disco de Multi-Platino (Multi-Platinum): 120,000 copies
- Gold: 500,000 units
- Platinum: 1,000,000 units
- Multi-Platinum: 2,000,000 units (increments of 1,000,000 thereafter)
- Diamond: 10,000,000 units
For certification purposes, each unit may be one of:
- sale of a digital album or physical album
- 10 track downloads from the album
- 1,500 on-demand audio and/or video streams from the album
Video longform certificationEdit
Along with albums, digital albums, and singles, another classification of music release is called "video longform". This release format includes DVD and VHS releases. Further, certain live albums and compilation albums are counted. The certification criteria are slightly different from other styles.
- Gold: 50,000 copies
- Platinum: 100,000 copies
- Multi-Platinum: 200,000 copies
Efforts against alleged infringement of members' copyrightsEdit
Efforts against file sharingEdit
RIAA opposes unauthorized sharing of its members' music. Studies conducted since the association began its campaign against peer-to-peer file-sharing have concluded that losses incurred per download range from negligible to moderate.
The association has commenced high-profile lawsuits against file-sharing service providers. Likewise, it has sued individuals suspected of file sharing, notably college students, parents of file-sharing children and at least one dead person. It is accused of employing techniques such as peer-to-peer "decoying" and "spoofing" to combat file sharing.
In late 2008, they announced they would stop their lawsuits, and instead attempt to work with ISPs to persuade them to use a three-strike system for file sharing involving issuing two warnings and then cutting off Internet service after the third strike.
Selection of defendantsEdit
RIAA names defendants based on ISP identification of the subscriber associated with an IP address, and as such do not know any additional information about a person before they sue. After an Internet subscriber's identity is discovered, but before an individual lawsuit is filed, the subscriber is typically offered an opportunity to settle. The standard settlement is a payment to RIAA and an agreement not to engage in file sharing of music. Such suits are also usually on par with statutory damages of $750 per work, with the RIAA choosing the number of works it deems "reasonable". For cases that do not settle at this amount, the RIAA has gone to trial, seeking statutory damages from the jury, written into The Digital Theft Deterrence and Copyright Damages Improvement Act of 1999 as between $750 and $30,000 per work or $750 and $150,000 per work if "willful".
The Electronic Frontier Foundation and Public Citizen oppose the ability of RIAA and other companies to "strip Internet users of anonymity without allowing them to challenge the order in court".. Importantly, US Courts have declared that an IP address is not a person nor personal identifier. This weakened RIAA's ability to sue individuals.
RIAA's methods of identifying individual users had, in some rare cases, led to the issuing of subpoenas to persons dead or otherwise incapable of file-sharing. Two such examples include: a then-recently deceased 83-year-old woman an elderly computer novice, and a family reportedly without any computer at all.
In February 2007, RIAA began sending letters accusing Internet users of sharing files and directing them to web site P2PLAWSUITS.COM, where they can make "discount" settlements payable by credit card. The letters go on to say that anyone not settling will have lawsuits brought against them. Typical settlements are between $3,000 and $12,000. This new strategy was formed because the RIAA's legal fees were cutting into the income from settlements. In 2008, RIAA sued 19-year-old Ciara Sauro for allegedly sharing 10 songs online.
RIAA also launched an "early settlement program" directed to ISPs and to colleges and universities, urging them to pass along letters to subscribers and students offering early settlements, prior to the disclosure of their identities. The settlement letters urged ISPs to preserve evidence for the benefit of the RIAA and invited the students and subscribers to visit an RIAA website for the purpose of entering into a "discount settlement" payable by credit card. By March 2007, the focus had shifted from ISPs to colleges and universities.
In October 1998, RIAA filed a lawsuit in the Ninth U.S. Court of Appeals in San Francisco claiming the Diamond Multimedia Rio PMP300 player violated the 1992 Audio Home Recording Act. The Rio PMP300 was significant because it was the second portable consumer MP3 digital audio player released on the market. The three-judge panel ruled in favor of Diamond, paving the way for the development of the portable digital player market.
RIAA also filed suit in 2006 to enjoin digital XM Satellite Radio from enabling its subscribers from playing songs they had recorded from its satellite broadcasts. It is also suing several Internet radio stations. Later, XM was forced to impose an industry fee upon subscribers. The fee still exists and has always been paid, in-full, directly to RIAA.
On October 12, 2007, RIAA sued Usenet.com seeking a permanent injunction to prevent the company from "aiding, encouraging, enabling, inducing, causing, materially contributing to, or otherwise facilitating" copyright infringement. This suit, the first that RIAA has filed against a Usenet provider, has added another branch to RIAA's rapidly expanding fight to curb the unauthorized distribution of copyrighted materials. Unlike many of RIAA's previous lawsuits, this suit was filed against the provider of a service. Providers have no direct means of removing infringing content. RIAA's argument relies heavily on the fact the Usenet.com, the only defendant that had been named, promoted their service with slogans and phrases that strongly suggested that the service could be used to obtain free music.
On April 28, 2008, RIAA member labels sued Project Playlist, a web music search site, claiming that most of the sound recordings in the site's index of links are infringing. Project Playlist's website denies that any of the music is hosted on Project Playlist's own servers.
On June 30, 2009, RIAA prevailed in its fight against Usenet.com, in a decision, that the U.S. District Judge Harold Baer of the Southern District of New York ruled in favor of the music industry on all its main arguments: that Usenet.com was guilty of direct, contributory, and vicarious infringement. In addition, and perhaps most importantly for future cases, Baer said that Usenet.com cannot claim protection under the Sony Betamax decision. That ruling states that companies cannot be held liable for contributory infringement if the device they create is "capable of significant noninfringing uses". Furthermore, the parties had appealed to a federal court for damage assessments and awards, which could amount to several millions of dollars for the music industry.
On October 26, 2010, RIAA members won a case against LimeWire, a P2P file-sharing network, for illegal distribution of copyrighted works. On October 29, in retaliation, riaa.org was taken offline via denial-of-service attacks executed by members of Operation Payback and Anonymous.
RIAA filed briefs in Allen v. Cooper, which was decided in 2020. The Supreme Court of the United States abrogated the Copyright Remedy Clarification Act as unconstitutional, while RIAA had argued the opposite view.
The "work made for hire" controversyEdit
In 1999, Mitch Glazier, a Congressional staff attorney, inserted, without public notice or comment, substantive language into the final markup of a "technical corrections" section of copyright legislation, classifying many music recordings as "works made for hire", thereby stripping artists of their copyright interests and transferring those interests to their record labels. Shortly afterwards, Glazier was hired as Senior Vice President of Government Relations and Legislative Counsel for the RIAA, which vigorously defended the change when it came to light. The battle over the disputed provision led to the formation of the Recording Artists' Coalition, which successfully lobbied for repeal of the change.
GitHub and youtube-dl takedown requestEdit
On October 23, 2020, the code repository hosting service GitHub (owned by Microsoft) released a DMCA request from RIAA. This request listed the open-source software project youtube-dl (and forks of the project) as copyright violations. The request cited the United States law Title 17 U.S.C. §1201. Critics of this action say that the software library can be used by archivists to download videos of social injustice. According to Parker Higgins, former Director of Copyright Activism at the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), this takedown request was a "throwback threat" analogous to the DeCSS controversy.
RIAA is heavily criticized for both policy and for their method of suing individuals for copyright infringement. Particularly strong critic-advocates are Internet-based, such as the Electronic Frontier Foundation and Students for Free Culture. To date, RIAA has sued more than 20,000 people in the United States suspected of distributing copyrighted works. Of these, approximately 2,500 were settled pre-trial. Brad Templeton of the Electronic Frontier Foundation has called these types of lawsuits spamigation and implied they are done merely to intimidate people.
Executive leadership of RIAAEdit
- Goddard Lieberson 1964–1972 (president)
- Stanley Gortikov 1972 - 1987 (president)
- Jay Berman 1988-1998 (president and Chair)
- Hilary Rosen 1998–2001 (president)
- Mitch Bainwol 2003-2011 (chairman and CEO)
- Cary Sherman 2011– 2019 (chairman and CEO)
- Mitch Glazier, 2019–present (chairman and CEO)
- "Who We Are". RIAA. Archived from the original on November 12, 2015. Retrieved September 10, 2017.
- "RIAA Archived December 31, 2015, at the Wayback Machine." Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved on September 13, 2011. "We are located at 1025 F ST N.W., 10th Floor, Washington, D.C. 20004."
- "RIAA News Room - RIAA Celebrates 50 Years Of Gold Records - Aug 11, 2008". Riaa.com. August 11, 2008. Archived from the original on August 18, 2008. Retrieved July 17, 2010.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
- "New Disk Trade Org To Swing Into Action", Billboard Magazine, September 22, 1951, pages 13 and 20
- "RIAA phono equalization article by Don Hoglund". graniteaudio.com. Archived from the original on May 11, 2013. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
- "RIAA Standards For Stereophonic Disc Records". aardvarkmastering.com. Archived from the original on October 4, 2006. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
- "Recording Industry Assn of America: Summary". Lobbying Spending Database. Center for Responsive Politics. Archived from the original on November 16, 2017. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
- "Board & Executives - RIAA". RIAA. Archived from the original on March 5, 2018. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
-  Archived November 12, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, What We Do, The Recording Industry Association of America® (RIAA)
- "RIAA - About". www.riaa.com. November 2, 2015. Archived from the original on March 7, 2011. Retrieved September 10, 2017.
- "2016 RIAA Shipment and Revenue Statistics | RIAA - RIAA". RIAA. Archived from the original on September 28, 2017. Retrieved September 28, 2017.
- RIAA Website. "Gold and Platinum (Index)". Archived from the original on March 8, 2007.
- "History Of The Awards". RIAA.com. Archived from the original on July 1, 2007.
- White, Adam (1990). The Billboard Book of Gold & Platinum Records. Billboard Books. p. viii. ISBN 978-0711921962.
- Grein, Paul (November 30, 2012). "Chart Watch Extra: Where "Thriller" Ranks". Chart Watch. Yahoo Music. Retrieved December 5, 2012.
- Michael Campbell, James Brody (2008). Rock and Roll: An Introduction (2nd ed.). Thomson Schirmer. p. 308. ISBN 9781111794538.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- White, Adam (1990). The Billboard Book of Gold & Platinum Records. Billboard Books. p. 3. ISBN 978-0711921962.
- "RIAA News Room – RIAA Launches "Los Premios de Oro y De Platino" to Recognize Top Latin Artists". riaa.com. January 25, 2000. Archived from the original on July 15, 2011. Retrieved February 15, 2011.
- "RIAA Updates Latin Gold & Platinum Program". RIAA. December 20, 2013. Archived from the original on March 11, 2014. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- "RIAA Adds Digital Streams To Historic Gold & Platinum Awards". RIAA. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved September 10, 2017.
- Alex Pham (May 9, 2013). "Exclusive: On-Demand Streams Now Count Toward RIAA Gold & Platinum". Billboard. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved January 21, 2014.
- "RIAA AND GR&F Certification Audit Requirements: RIAA Digital Single Award" (PDF). RIAA. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 22, 2018. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
- "RIAA Debuts Album Award with Streams". RIAA. February 1, 2016. Archived from the original on February 2, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
- "RIAA AND GR&F Certification Audit Requirements" (PDF). RIAA. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 22, 2018. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
- "Billboard.com Latest Video Longform Certifications". Archived from the original on May 19, 2008. Retrieved May 14, 2008.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link) Retrieved on May 14, 2008
- "Microsoft Word - FileSharing_March2004.doc" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on June 13, 2008. Retrieved July 17, 2010.
- A Heretical View of File Sharing Archived January 3, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, by John Schwartz, The New York Times, April 5, 2004
- Siwek, Stephen E. The True Cost of Sound Recording Piracy to the U.S. Economy Archived October 4, 2012, at the Wayback Machine (2007) IPI Policy Report 188, 2007, 6–10.
- Andrew Orlowski. "RIAA sues the dead". www.theregister.com. Retrieved March 19, 2021.
- Bangeman, Eric (February 4, 2005). ""I sue dead people..."". Ars Technica. Retrieved March 19, 2021.
- The Register (January 17, 2003). ""I poisoned P2P networks for the RIAA" – whistleblower". Archived from the original on July 28, 2009. Retrieved April 23, 2009.
- The Register (March 18, 2003). "RIAA chief invokes Martin Luther King in pigopoly defense: P2P poisoning, ISP clampdown justified". Archived from the original on May 31, 2009. Retrieved April 23, 2009.
- Slattery, Brennon (December 19, 2008). "RIAA Stops Suing Individuals: Are We Home Free?". PCWorld. Archived from the original on February 15, 2012. Retrieved January 27, 2012.
- "UNLIMITED | CMU | Verizon backtrack on three-strike disconnect claim". Newsblog.thecmuwebsite.com. Archived from the original on May 21, 2010. Retrieved July 17, 2010.
- CBS News (December 27, 2005). "Mom Fights Recording Industry". Archived from the original on February 13, 2007. Retrieved April 2, 2007.
- "Citing Right to Anonymity Online, ACLU Asks Boston Court to Block Recording Industry Subpoena" (Press release). American Civil Liberties Union. September 29, 2003. Archived from the original on April 6, 2007. Retrieved April 2, 2007.
- "Record Industry Cuts Corners in Crusade Against File-Sharers" (Press release). Public Citizen. February 2, 2004. Archived from the original on May 18, 2007. Retrieved April 3, 2007.
- I sue dead people Archived April 30, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Ars Technica, February 4, 2005.
- "Grandmother piracy lawsuit dropped". BBC News. September 25, 2003. Archived from the original on March 6, 2007. Retrieved April 3, 2007.
- RIAA sues computer-less family Archived February 23, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, by Anders Bylund, Ars Technica, April 24, 2006.
- Meg Marco (March 2007). "RIAA Bullies College Students With P2PLawsuits.com". Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved January 18, 2010.
- Read, Brock (March 16, 2007). "Record Companies to Accused Pirates: Deal or No Deal?". The Chronicle of Higher Education. p. A31. Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. Retrieved April 2, 2007.
- "Teen Transplant Candidate Sued Over Music Downloads". thepittsburghchannel.com. December 9, 2008. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008. Retrieved December 10, 2008.
- "RIAA Adopts New Policy, offers Pre-Doe settlement option if ISP Holds Logs Longer, Asks ISP's to Correct Identification Mistakes Archived July 15, 2007, at the Wayback Machine" Recording Industry vs. The People, February 13, 2007.
- "RIAA targets university students Archived June 7, 2007, at the Wayback Machine" (Variety.com)
- "Recording industry battles piracy" by Elizabeth Lauten, The East Carolinian (East Carolina University), April 4, 2007
- Court OKs Diamond Rio MP3 Player Archived November 22, 2005, at the Wayback Machine, by Elizabeth Clampet, InternetNews.Com, June 16, 1999
- Borland, John. "RIAA sues campus file-swappers". CNET. Archived from the original on January 20, 2013. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
- "The Heights – Record industry sues Flatlan operators". Media.www.bcheights.com. Retrieved July 17, 2010.[permanent dead link]
-  Archived March 10, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- "Sharman Networks settles Kazaa file-sharing lawsuits". Ars Technica. July 27, 2006. Archived from the original on November 17, 2013. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
- XM Faces The Music In RIAA Copyright Suit Archived June 13, 2006, at the Wayback Machine, by Joseph Palenchar, TWICE, May 22, 2006
- RIAA sues Internet radio stations Archived March 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Out-Law.com, July 2001
- Sandoval, Greg (April 28, 2008). "RIAA files copyright suit against Project Playlist". CNET. Archived from the original on June 17, 2011. Retrieved December 5, 2010.
- Sandoval, Greg (December 17, 2011). https://www.cnet.com/tech/services-and-software/riaa-triumphs-in-usenet-copyright-case/. Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved November 8, 2021. Missing or empty
- Jennings, Richi (July 2, 2009). "Usenet.com loses MP3 copyright lawsuit vs. RIAA". www.computerworld.com. Computerworld. Archived from the original on September 4, 2017. Retrieved December 26, 2017.
- "RIAA Wins: LimeWire Shut Down By Court Order". www.kerryonworld.com. October 27, 2010. Archived from the original on October 29, 2010. Retrieved October 27, 2010.
- Thomas Mennecke (October 29, 2010). "RIAA and LimeWire Both are Offline". Slyck.com. Archived from the original on November 2, 2010. Retrieved October 30, 2010.
- Wired (August 10, 2000). "Rule Reversal: Blame It on RIAA". Archived from the original on June 2, 2008. Retrieved April 9, 2007.
- "RIAA Accounting: Why Even Major Label Musicians Rarely Make Money From Album Sales". Archived from the original on August 30, 2010. Retrieved October 22, 2010.
- Eric Boehlert (August 28, 2000). "Four Little Words". Salon. Archived from the original on January 23, 2009. Retrieved October 9, 2009.
- Barry Willis (October 29, 2000). "Clinton Signs Repeal of "Works for Hire" Law". Stereophile. Archived from the original on November 12, 2009. Retrieved October 9, 2009.
- Pub.L. 106–379 (text) (pdf)
- "dmca/2020-10-23-RIAA.md at master · github/dmca". GitHub. October 23, 2020. Archived from the original on October 23, 2020. Retrieved October 23, 2020.
- Cimpanu, Catalin. "RIAA blitz takes down 18 GitHub projects used for downloading YouTube videos". ZDNet. Retrieved October 24, 2020.
- @xor (October 23, 2020). "This all feels like legal analysis from a different time, because frankly this is quite a throwback threat. It feels like DeCSS or Napster" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Stop the RIAA! petition", EFF; "RIAA Free", FreeCulture.org.
- "How to Not Get Sued For File Sharing" Electronic Frontier Foundation.
- Blankenhorn, Dana (August 2008). "Spamigation and How to Fight It". danablankenhorn.com. Accessed 08-25-2006.
- "Goddard Lieberson Named Head of Record Association". The New York Times. January 22, 1964. Archived from the original on July 23, 2018. Retrieved August 25, 2012.
Goddard Lieberson, head of Columbia Records, was elected president of the Record Industry Association of America yesterday. ...
- https://celebrityaccess.com/caarchive/stanley-gortikov-former-president-of-the-riaa-dies/ accessed November 16 2021
- https://www.billboard.com/articles/business/1431512/stanley-m-gortikov-dead-at-85 accessed November 16 2021
- https://www.variety.com/1998/music/news/berman-departs-riaa-for-ifpi-role-in-london-1117470868/amp/ accessed November 16, 2021
- "Cary Sherman Bio". RIAA. Archived from the original on February 13, 2014. Retrieved March 3, 2014.