Marion Hugh "Suge" Knight Jr. (//; born April 19, 1965) is an American former music executive and the co-founder and CEO of Death Row Records, who was a central figure in gangsta rap's catapult to massive commercialization. This feat is attributed to the record label's first two album releases: Dr. Dre's The Chronic in 1992 and Snoop Dogg's Doggystyle in 1993.
Marion Hugh Knight Jr.
April 19, 1965
Compton, California, U.S.
|Criminal charge||Murder, attempted murder, hit and run|
|Penalty||28 years in prison|
|Imprisoned at||Richard J. Donovan Correctional Facility (2018)|
Before beginning his music career, he played college football at University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV). He then played defensive end for the Los Angeles Rams in 1987 during the player strike as a replacement player.
During 1995, Tupac Shakur began a prison sentence of up to four and a half years. Knight struck a deal with him that October, paying his bail and freeing him from prison — pending his conviction's appeal — while signing him to Death Row Records. In 1996, the label released 2Pac's greatest commercial success, All Eyez on Me. That September, after departing a Mike Tyson boxing match in Las Vegas, a group that included Knight and Shakur assaulted Orlando Anderson, a Southside Compton Crips gang member. Three hours later someone shot into the car that Knight was driving and fatally wounded Shakur. Anderson has since become the prime suspect.
In the aftermath of Shakur's death, both Dr. Dre and Snoop Dogg left Death Row Records. Rapidly, the label declined, and it was soon eclipsed. Meanwhile, allegations mounted that Knight, beyond employing gang members, had often employed intimidation and violence in his business dealings. From the late 1990s into the early 2000s, Knight spent a few years incarcerated for assault convictions and associated violations of probation and parole. In September 2018, upon pleading no contest to voluntary manslaughter in a fatal 2015 hit-and-run, Knight was sentenced to 28 years in prison. He is scheduled to become eligible for parole in October 2034. Knight has also been named as a prime suspect in orchestrating the murder of the Notorious B.I.G.
Marion Hugh Knight Jr. was born in Compton, California, the son of Maxine (née Dikemen) and Marion Knight Sr. His name Suge (pronounced Shuug) derives from "Sugar Bear", a childhood nickname. He attended Lynwood High School in nearby Lynwood, where he was a football and track star. He graduated in 1983.
|Born:||April 19, 1965|
|Height:||6 ft 2 in (1.88 m)|
|Weight:||265 lb (120 kg)|
|Career NFL statistics|
|Player stats at NFL.com · PFR|
Knight went undrafted in the 1987 NFL Draft, but was invited to the Los Angeles Rams training camp. He was cut by the Rams during camp, but he became a replacement player during the 1987 NFL Players Strike, and played two games for the Rams.
After the NFL, Knight found work as a concert promoter and a bodyguard for celebrities including Bobby Brown. In 1989, Knight formed his own music publishing company. His first big profit in the business came when Vanilla Ice (Robert Van Winkle) agreed to sign over royalties from his smash hit "Ice Ice Baby", because the song included material allegedly written by Knight's client Mario Johnson. Knight and his bodyguards confronted Van Winkle several times. There was a rumour during that time, that claimed Knight entered Van Winkle's hotel room and allegedly dangled him by his ankles off the balcony. However, Van Winkle has said that never actually happened, only that Knight threatened to throw him off the balcony; the claim was resolved in court.
Knight next formed an artist management company and signed prominent West Coast hip hop artists DJ Quik and The D.O.C. Through the latter, he met several members of the seminal gangsta rap group N.W.A.
Death Row Records
Dr. Dre and The D.O.C. wanted to leave both N.W.A and their label, Ruthless Records, run by Eazy-E, another member of N.W.A. According to N.W.A's manager Jerry Heller, Knight and his henchmen threatened Heller and Eazy-E with lead pipes and baseball bats to make them release Dre, The D.O.C., and Michel'le from their contracts. Ultimately, Dre and D.O.C. co-founded Death Row Records in 1991 with Knight, who vowed to make it "the Motown of the ’90s".
Initially, Knight fulfilled his ambitions: he secured a distribution deal with Interscope, and Dre's 1992 solo debut album, The Chronic, went on to triple platinum status in the United States by the end of 1993. It also made a career for Dre's protégé, Snoop Dogg, whose own debut album Doggystyle obtained a quadruple platinum certification in the United States in 1994.
Meanwhile, Death Row had begun a public feud with 2 Live Crew's Luther Campbell, and when Knight traveled to Miami for a hip-hop convention in 1993, he was apparently seen openly carrying a stolen gun. The following year, he opened a private, by-appointment-only nightclub in Las Vegas called Club 662, so named because the numbers spelled out MOB on telephone keypads, MOB standing for Member of Bloods. In 1995, he ran afoul of civil rights activist C. Delores Tucker’s campaign against gangsta rap, whose criticism of Death Row's glamorization of the "gangsta" lifestyle may have helped scuttle a lucrative deal with Time Warner.
Tupac Shakur, MC Hammer, Dr. Dre, and Death Row
Knight's feud with East Coast entrepreneur Sean Combs progressed when Knight insulted him on air at the Source Awards in August 1995. Openly critical of Combs's tendency of ad-libbing on his artists' songs and dancing in their music videos, Knight announced to the audience, "Anyone out there who wanna be a recording artist and wanna stay a star, and don't have to worry about the executive producer trying to be all in the videos, all on the records, dancing, come to Death Row."
The same year, Knight offered to post bail (US$1.4 million) for 2Pac if the rapper agreed to sign with Death Row. Shakur agreed, setting the stage for his 1996 double album All Eyez on Me and The Don Killuminati: The 7 Day Theory.
MC Hammer's relationship with Suge Knight dates back to 1988. With the success of Hammer's 1994 album The Funky Headhunter (featuring Tha Dogg Pound), Hammer signed with Death Row Records by 1995, along with Snoop Dogg and his close friend, Tupac. The label did not release the album of Hammer's music (titled Too Tight) while he had a career with them, although he did release versions of some tracks on his next album. However, Hammer did record tracks with Shakur and others, most notably the song "Too Late Playa" (along with Big Daddy Kane and Danny Boy). After the death of Shakur in 1996, Hammer left the record company. He later explained his concern about this circumstance in an interview on Trinity Broadcasting Network (TBN) since he was in Las Vegas with Tupac the night of his death. Hammer released 2Pac's "Unconditional Love", on his Family Affair album, in 1998. The friendships between Hammer (played by Romany Malco), Tupac (played by Lamont Bentley) and Suge (played by Anthony Norris) were depicted in the television film, Too Legit: The MC Hammer Story (airing on VH1 in 2001).
The label shrank when Dr. Dre, frustrated with the company's increasingly thuggish reputation and Knight's violent inclinations, decided to leave in 1996.
Murders of 2Pac and The Notorious B.I.G.: Theories accusing Knight
Though never charged by any prosecutor for any involvement, Suge Knight has been the subject of theories in popular culture about the murder of two well-known rap artists. 2Pac was shot four times in a drive-by shooting in Las Vegas, Nevada on September 7, 1996, and died six days later on September 13. When 2Pac's East Coast rival, The Notorious B.I.G., was murdered in a similar drive-by shooting in Los Angeles, California on March 9, 1997, speculation arose that Knight was involved and that Biggie's death was a revenge killing. Former Death Row artists, including Snoop Dogg, also later accused Knight of being involved in 2Pac's death.
A theory accusing Suge Knight in the deaths of both Biggie and 2Pac was that of ex-detective Russell Poole, who conjectured that Knight had 2Ppac killed before he could part ways with Death Row and then conspired to kill Biggie to divert attention from himself in the 2Pac case. The Biggie murder theory implicated Suge Knight, a rogue cop, and a mortgage broker named Amir Muhammad (who was never a police suspect) along with the chief of police and the LAPD in a conspiracy to murder and cover up the murder of Biggie. The Biggie theory formed the basis of a US$500 million lawsuit by his family, the Wallaces, against the city of Los Angeles. A key source for Poole's theory was Kevin Hackie. Hackie had implicated Suge Knight and David Mack. Hackie, a former Death Row associate, said that he had knowledge of involvement between Suge Knight and David Mack and other LAPD officers. His information was used by the Wallace family in their suit against the city of L.A. for Biggie's death. But Hackie later told Los Angeles Times reporter Chuck Philips that the Wallace attorneys had altered his declarations. The suit brought by the Wallace family against the city of L.A. based on the Russell Poole theory was dismissed in 2010.
A 2005 Los Angeles Times article claimed that another source for the theory of Biggie's murder implicating Amir Muhammad, David Mack, Suge Knight and the LAPD was a schizophrenic man known as "Psycho Mike" who later confessed to hearsay and memory lapses and falsely identifying Muhammad. John Cook of Brill's Content noted that Philips' article "demolished" the Poole-Sullvan theory of Biggie's murder.
Around the same time, Philips wrote an L.A. Times two-part series titled "Who Killed Tupac Shakur?" into the murder of Shakur and events surrounding it based on police affidavits, court documents and interviews.
The L.A. Times story indicated that "the shooting was carried out by a Compton gang called the Southside Crips to avenge the beating of one of its members by 2Pac a few hours earlier. Orlando Anderson, the Crip whom 2Pac had attacked, fired the fatal shots. Las Vegas police discounted Anderson as a suspect after questioning him once briefly. He was later killed in 1998 in what police said was an unrelated gang shooting." The article implicated East Coast music figures, including Christopher "Biggie Smalls" Wallace, Shakur's nemesis at the time, alleging that he paid for the gun. Before their own deaths, Smalls, his family and Anderson denied any role in Shakur's murder. Biggie's family produced documents purporting to show that the rapper was in New York and New Jersey at the time. The New York Times called the documents inconclusive stating:
The pages purport to be three computer printouts from Daddy's House, indicating that Wallace was in the studio recording a song called Nasty Boy on the night Shakur was shot. They indicate that Wallace wrote half the session, was In and out/sat around and laid down a ref, shorthand for a reference vocal, the equivalent of a first take. But nothing indicates when the documents were created. And Louis Alfred, the recording engineer listed on the sheets, said in an interview that he remembered recording the song with Wallace in a late-night session, not during the day. He could not recall the date of the session but said it was likely not the night Shakur was shot. We would have heard about it, Mr. Alfred said.
Mark Duvoisin, an editor at the L.A. Times, wrote in an opinion piece in Rolling Stone that Philips' account had withstood attacks to its credibility.
However, the L.A. Times printed a full retraction of the two-part series and released Philips shortly thereafter during a wave of layoffs.
In Tupac Shakur: Before I Wake, a documentary by Tupac Shakur's bodyguard, he and Cathy Scott, author of The Killing of Tupac Shakur and The Murder of Biggie Smalls, said that Knight would not have placed himself in the path of bullets he knew were coming. On her website Archived Letters Scott responds to a reader of her book stating that she felt there was never evidence to link Knight to Tupac's murder. Scott also told CNN, "That theory doesn’t even add up. 'Open fire on my car, but try not to hit me?'"
A 2006 law-enforcement task force probe into Biggie Smalls' murder, which included then-LAPD Detective Greg Kading, included the murder of Shakur. In his 2011 self-published book, Murder Rap, Kading wrote that Duane "Keefe D" Davis, a member of the "Crips" street gang, gave a confession years later claiming he rode in the car used in the Las Vegas shooting of Shakur. The Crips claimed they had been offered a million dollars by associates of Bad Boy to kill 2Pac. Kading, who named Sean Combs as having been involved in the conspiracy, also wrote that a bounty was offered for Suge Knight's murder.
While in Las Vegas, Kading's book claims, Davis and fellow Crips crossed paths with a BMW carrying Knight and 2Pac. The fatal shots were fired by Orlando "Baby Lane" Anderson, who sat on the side of the car closest to the BMW.
Kading alleged that Knight hired Wardel "Pouchie" Fouse to murder The Notorious B.I.G., a murder done following a party at the Peterson Automotive Museum. Pouchie later survived a murder attempt but died in a drive-by shooting on July 24, 2003. Charges were never brought against Fouse or Knight and the task force disbanded for reasons of "internal affairs."
After 2Pac's death and the release of Tha Doggfather, Snoop Dogg openly criticized Knight for 2Pac's death and left Death Row in 1998. He signed with Master P's No Limit Records and then forming his own record label, Doggystyle Records. In 2002, Snoop released the song "Pimp Slapp’d", in which he repudiated Knight and Death Row. In 2006, Snoop again attacked Knight verbally. Knight responded, stating that Snoop was a "police informer" who "never goes to jail".
End of Death Row Records
On April 4, 2006, Knight filed bankruptcy due to civil litigation against him in which Lydia Harris claimed to have been cheated out of a 50% stake in Death Row Records. Prior to filing, Knight had been ordered to pay US$107 million to Harris. Under questioning by creditors, he denied having money tucked away in foreign countries or in an African company that deals in diamonds and gold. Bankruptcy documents filed showed Knight had no income from employment or operation of a business. According to financial records, his bank account contained just US$11, and he owned clothing worth US$1,000, furniture and appliances valued at US$2,000, and jewelry worth US$25,000. He also testified that the last time he had checked the label's financial records was at least 10 years prior. Knight's lawyer said that his client was still "at the helm" of Death Row and had been working on securing distribution deals for the label's catalog. Harris told reporters she had received a US$1 million payment but had not agreed to settle the matter. "I'm telling you, I didn't do a settlement for US$1 million. That's ridiculous. Let's keep it real," she said.
On July 7, 2006, the federal judge, Ellen Carroll, ordered a bankruptcy trustee takeover of Suge Knight's Death Row Records, saying the record label had undergone a gross amount of mismanagement.
He filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection, which allows a company to continue business operations while restructuring. Death Row was being operated by Neilson during the bankruptcy proceedings, while Knight oversaw his bankruptcy estate as a debtor in possession.
In June 2007, he placed his 7 bedroom, 9½ bath home in Malibu, California, on the market for US$6.2 million as part of his "financial makeover". The mansion was finally sold in December 2008 in bankruptcy court for US$4.56 million.
In June 2008, Death Row Records was put up for auction in Bankruptcy Court. The winning bid went to New York-based company Global Music Group, which confirmed it had purchased the firm in a statement to the Associated Press news agency. Global Music Group failed to secure funding and the Death Row Records catalog eventually went to Wideawake Entertainment.
On January 25, 2009, an auction was held for everything found in the Death Row Records office after the company filed for bankruptcy, including some of Knight's personal items. Of note was the Death Row Records electric chair which sold for US$2,500. Some of Knight's personal items appeared in an auction during the debut episode of A&E's Storage Wars, and a vault full of items (including a coat) was purchased by featured buyer Barry Weiss.
Personal and legal troubles
1996 probation violation leading to incarceration
On October 22, 1996, Knight was sent to jail pending a hearing on the probation violation that happened on September 7, 1996 when Suge Knight and his Death Row entourage including Tupac Shakur attacked Orlando Anderson, a crips gang member. Knight was then sentenced to nine years in prison on February 28, 1997 for the probation violation but was granted early release and was let out of FCI Sheridan on August 6, 2001.
2003 conviction and incarceration
In 2003, Knight was sent to prison again for violating parole when he struck a parking lot attendant. Death Row's income rapidly declined during Knight's recurrent incarceration.
2008 altercation and gang accusations
In January 2008, it was claimed by police that Knight was one of the members of the Mob Piru street gang in a crackdown by authorities in the city of Compton. On May 10, 2008, Knight was involved in an altercation involving a monetary dispute outside of a nightclub ("Shag") in Hollywood. He was unconscious for three minutes. At the hospital, he did not cooperate with the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD).
As part of an October 30, 2008 bankruptcy claim, Knight also filed a lawsuit against Kanye West and his associates. The lawsuit concerns an August 2005 shooting at West's pre-Video Music Awards party, where Knight was wounded by a gunshot to the upper leg.
In February 2009, Knight was taken to Scottsdale Healthcare Osborn to be treated for facial injuries he received during an altercation at a private party in the W Scottsdale Hotel, where Knight was reportedly punched.
On February 8, 2012, Knight was arrested in Las Vegas, after police found cannabis in his car and several warrants for prior traffic violations.
On August 24, 2014, Knight was shot at a pre-Video Music Awards party hosted by Chris Brown at a West Hollywood Sunset Strip nightclub ("1OAK"). Although shot six times, he was able to walk from the venue to an ambulance. His injuries required surgery. It is reported by investigators that evidence from closed circuit television (CCTV) footage showed that Knight was the intended target of the shooting. Knight was released from the hospital on August 27. Friend Keith Middlebrook told the New York Daily News that Knight returned home with the intentions to "heal up in a few days and be stronger than ever".
Knight refused to cooperate with law enforcement on the matter. Party attendee Jeezy later claimed on The Breakfast Club that he would have been shot had he not been pushed out of the way just prior to the shooting.
Prosecution on charges of robbery (2014–present)
On October 29, 2014, Knight and comedian Katt Williams were both arrested and charged with second-degree robbery in connection with an alleged theft of a camera from a paparazzi photographer the previous month in Beverly Hills, California. While in jail, doctors found a blood clot in Knight's lung. Both Knight and Williams pleaded not guilty to robbery. In 2016, the robbery trial was delayed until the resolution of the unrelated murder trial.
Prosecution on charges of voluntary manslaughter (2015–2017)
On January 29, 2015, Knight crashed his car into two men, killing Terry Carter (his friend and co-founder of Heavyweight Records) and fled the scene in Compton, California. The second victim, filmmaker Cle Sloan, suffered a mangled foot and head injuries. Witnesses claimed Knight followed the men to a burger stand parking lot after an argument on the Straight Outta Compton film set, and that the collision looked intentional. Security footage video showed Knight running over both men. Knight claimed he acted in self-defense.
In March 2015, Knight was hospitalized after he told a judge that he was suffering from blindness and other complications. Knight fired attorneys handling his murder case and said he was receiving inadequate medical treatment while in custody. The same month, a court set bail for his release for US$25 million. Knight collapsed in court shortly after the bail setting was announced. On April 16, 2015, Knight's bail was reduced to US$10 million. In July 2015, Knight's lawyer claimed that Knight might have a brain tumor on the same day that Knight's request for lower bail was refused. In January 2016, Knight changed counsel in his murder trial for a fourth time. In May 2016, three attorneys replaced the two hired earlier in the year. In July 2016, the judge denied Knight's motion to reveal the identities of several key prosecution witnesses, citing Knight's long history of violence. Knight became emotional after the ruling, stating that because of his health problems, he will die in jail. In March 2017, Knight was hospitalized after suffering from blood clots, a condition that had been affecting him for two years by that time. Knight's hospitalization delayed the trial to September 2018. When September arrived, Knight pleaded no contest to voluntary manslaughter. The judge sentenced Knight to 28 years in prison: 22 years for running over the victim and 6 years because it was Knight's third strike under California's Three-strikes law. As of December 2018, Knight is incarcerated at RJ Donovan Correctional Facility in San Diego, and will not be eligible for parole until July 2037.
Prosecution on charges of threatening death (2017)
In August 2017, a grand jury indicted Knight on charges of "threatening death or bodily injury" for sending threatening text messages to F. Gary Gray, the director of Straight Outta Compton, on August 8, 2017. Knight pleaded not guilty to the charge, and the charge was dropped as part of Knight's plea agreement in the death of Terry Carter.
Biographical portrayals in film
|2001||Too Legit: The MC Hammer Story||Anthony Norris||Biographical film about MC Hammer|
|2009||Notorious||Sean Ringgold||Biographical film about The Notorious B.I.G.|
|2015||Straight Outta Compton||R. Marcos Taylor||Biographical film about N.W.A|
|2016||Surviving Compton: Dre, Suge & Michel'le||R. Marcos Taylor||Biographical film about Michel'le|
|2017||All Eyez on Me||Dominic L. Santana||Biographical film about Tupac Shakur|
|2018||Unsolved||Dominic L. Santana||American true crime anthology television series based on the murders of rappers Tupac and Notorious B.I.G..|
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