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List of wars involving the United Kingdom

This is a list of wars involving the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and its predecessor states (the Kingdom of Great Britain, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Scotland and generally the British Isles). Notable militarised interstate disputes are included. For a list of wars that have been fought on the United Kingdom mainland, see the list of wars in Great Britain.

Historically, the United Kingdom relied most heavily on the Royal Navy and maintained relatively small land forces. Most of the episodes listed here deal with insurgencies and revolts in the various colonies of the British Empire.

During its history, the United Kingdom's forces (or forces with a British mandate) have invaded, had some control over or fought conflicts in 171 of the world's 193 countries that are currently UN member states, or nine out of ten of all countries.[1]

  British victory
  British defeat
  Another result (e.g. a treaty or peace without a clear result, status quo ante bellum, result of civil or internal conflict, result unknown or indecisive)
  Ongoing conflict

England, Scotland and Wales to 1707Edit

Kingdom of Great Britain (1707–1801)Edit

Conflict Britain & allies Britain's opposition Outcome
The Great Northern War
(1700–1721)
  Tsardom of Russia
  Cossack Hetmanate
  Denmark–Norway
  Electorate of Saxony
  Poland–Lithuania
  Prussia
  Hanover
  Swedish Empire
  Ottoman Empire
  United Provinces

  Brunswick-Lüneburg

British Allied Victory:
The War of the Spanish Succession
(1701–1714)

including

  Austria
  Dutch Republic
  Savoy
  Prussia
  Portugal
  France
  Spain
  Bavaria
British Allied Victory
  • Treaty of Utrecht:
  • Philip V recognized as King of Spain by the Grand Alliance
  • Territory in Canada and the West Indies ceded from France
  • Territory in Europe ceded from Spain
Civil war:
(1715–1716) Jacobite rising of 1715

including

Government forces Jacobites

  France

British Victory

Jacobite restoration attempt defeated

The War of the Quadruple Alliance

including

  Holy Roman Empire
  France
  Dutch Republic
  Savoy
  Spain

Jacobites (against the British Crown and government only)

British Allied Victory:
  • Royal navy won a battle; a small-scale Jacobite invasion was defeated
  • Treaty of The Hague:
  • Spanish attempt at expansion fails.
Dummer's War
(1721–1725)
  New England Colonies
Mohawk
  France
Wabanaki Confederacy
British Victory
  • Britain recognises the rights of the region's indigenous inhabitants.
The War of Jenkins' Ear
(1739–1748)

Location: New Granada, Caribbean, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, Pacific and Atlantic

  Spain Inconclusive/Other Outcome
The War of the Austrian Succession
(1740–1748)

including

  Austria
  Hanover
  Dutch Republic
  Saxony
  Sardinia
  Russia

  East India Company

  France
  Prussia

  Spain

  Bavaria
  Saxony
  Naples and Sicily
  Genoa
  Sweden

  French East India Company

Inconclusive/Other Outcome
Civil War:

Jacobite rising of 1745
(1741–1745)

Government forces
Jacobites

  France

British Victory

Jacobite restoration attempt defeated

The Second Carnatic War
(1749–1754)
  East India Company
  Forces of Nasir Jang Mir Ahmad

  Forces of Mohamed Ali Khan Walajan

  French East India Company
  Forces of Chanda Shahib

  Forces of Muhyi ad-Din Muzaffar Jang Hidayat

British Allied Victory

Treaty of Pondicherry:

Seven Years' War
(1756–1763)
  Great Britain
  Prussia
  Hanover
  Iroquois Confederacy
  Portugal
  Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
  Hesse-Kassel

  Schaumburg-Lippe

  France   Holy Roman Empire
  Russian Empire
  Sweden

  Spain

  Saxony
  Sardinia
British Allied Victory

Treaty of Paris:

  • Extensive North American lands (incl. all of
    Canada) ceded from France
  • Caribbean colonies ceded from France
  • Senegal River colony (excluding Gorée) ceded
    from France
  • Florida ceded from Spain
The Third Carnatic War
(1757–1763)
  East India Company   France

  French East India Company

British Victory

Treaty of Paris:

  • French trading posts in India administered by British
  • Sumatra ceded from France
Anglo-Cherokee War
(1758–1761)
  Great Britain Cherokee British Victory

Pro-British Attakullakulla becomes Cherokee leader

Tacky's War
(1760)
  Great Britain
  Jamaican Government
  Jamaican Maroons
Ashanti Slaves British Allied Victory
  • Slave defeat
  • Death of Tacky
  • Tacky's men committed suicide
Pontiac's Rebellion
(1763–1766)
Confederation of First Nation Tribes Inconclusive/Other Outcome
  • British policy change
  • British suzerainty over First Nation Tribes
  • Niagara Falls area ceded from Seneca Nation
First Anglo-Mysore War
(1766–1769)
  East India Company
  Maratha Empire

  Hyderabad State

  Kingdom of Mysore Mysore Victory

Hyderabad cedes territory to Mysore

First Anglo-Maratha War
(1774–1783)
  East India Company   Maratha Empire Maratha Victory
  Iroquois
Cherokee
  Hanover
Loyalists
  United States
  France
  Spain
  Dutch Republic
  Vermont Republic
  Kingdom of Mysore
  Oneida tribe
  Tuscarora tribe
Watauga Association

Catawba tribe

American Allied Victory

Treaty of Paris:

  • 13 North American colonies recognised as the independent United States of America
  • Territory in North America ceded to the newly independent United States of America
  • Senegal River colony returned to France
  • French recognises British suzerainty over the Gambia river
  • Territory in India returned to France
  • Menorca ceded to Spain
  • East & West Florida ceded to Spain
    • All British settlers to be expelled from Florida
  • De-militarisation of British Honduras
  • Territory in India ceded by the Dutch
2nd Anglo-Mysore War
(1780–1784)
  East India Company
  Maratha Empire

  Hyderabad State

  Kingdom of Mysore
  France
Inconclusive/Other Outcome
Northwest Indian War
(1785–1795)
Western Confederacy   United States American Allied Victory

Treaty of Greenville

3rd Anglo-Mysore War
(1789–1792)
  East India Company
  Maratha Empire
  Hyderabad State

  Travancore

  Kingdom of Mysore
  France
British Allied Victory

Treaty of Seringapatam:

  • Half of Mysore territory ceded to East India Company
War of the French Revolution
(1793–1802)
  Austria
  Prussia
  French Royalists
  Dutch Republic
  Spain
  Kingdom of Portugal
  Kingdom of Sardinia
  Naples and Sicily
Italian states
  Ottoman Empire
  Russia
  French Republic
  Polish Legions
  Denmark–Norway
  Spain

Sister republics:

French Allied Victory

Treaty of Amiens:

  • General French victory
  • Britain recognises the French Republic
  • Cape Colony returned to the Batavian Republic
  • British withdrawal from Egypt
  • French withdrawal from the Papal States
  • Trinidad and Tobago ceded from France
  • Ceylon ceded from the Batavian Republic
Ibn Ufaisan's Invasion
(1793)
  Kuwait
  Great Britain
  Emirate of Diriyah British Allied Victory
  • Saudi retreat from Kuwait.
Second Maroon War
(1795–1796)
  Great Britain
British Jamaica
Jamaican Maroons British Victory
  • Maroon defeat
  • Treaty signed established that the Maroons would beg on their knees for the King's forgiveness, return all runaway slaves, and be relocated elsewhere in Jamaica
  • Breach of treaty caused deportation of several Maroons to Nova Scotia and later to Sierra Leone in Africa
Hawkesbury and Nepean Wars
(1795–1816)
Burrberongal Tribe
  Great Britain
from 1801: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Dharug
Eora
Tharawal
Gandangara
  Irish-convict sympathisers
British Victory

Displacement of Aborigines from their land

Anglo-Spanish War
(1796–1808)

Location: Newfoundland, English Channel, Straits of Gibraltar, Balearic Islands, Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata

  Spain
  French Republic
Inconclusive/Other Outcome
Kandyan Wars
(1796–1818)
  Great Britain
from 1801: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
  Kingdom of Kandy British Victory
  • End of 2357 years of Sinhalese independence
Irish Rebellion of 1798
(1798)
  Kingdom of Ireland   United Irishmen
  Defenders
  French Republic
British Victory
  • Rebellion defeated
  • 1801 Act of Union
4th Anglo-Mysore War
(1798–1799)
  East India Company
  Maratha Empire

  Hyderabad State

  Kingdom of Mysore

  French Republic

British Allied Victory

Complete annexation of Mysore by Britain and allies

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1922)Edit

Conflict Britain & Her Allies Britain's opposition Outcome
Temne War
(1801–1807)
Susu tribes Kingdom of Koya British Allied Victory

Northern shore of Sierra Leone ceded by Koya

Tunisian-Sicilian War
(1801–1804)
  Kingdom of Sicily
Albanian, German, and Greek mercenaries
  Kingdom of Sardinia (from 1802)
  United Kingdom[4]
  Beylik of Tunis
  Tunisian pirates
  Regency of Algiers

  Eyalet of Tripolitania (from 1803)

British Allied Victory
  • End of Tunisian attacks on Sicilian ships and impression on sailors.
  • Sicilian occupation of Aryanah and La Goulette until 1808.
  • Sardinian occupation of Bizerte and La Marsa until 1809.
  • 3,560 captured Christian-European slaves released.
Second Anglo-Maratha War
(1802–1805)
  East India Company   Maratha Empire British Victory

Extensive territory in India ceded by the Maratha Empire

First Kandyan War
(1803–1805)
  Kandy British Victory

Territory captured from Kandy

Civil War:

Emmet's Insurrection
(1803)

  Forces of Robert Emmet British Victory

Rebellion defeated

British Expedition to Ceylon
(1803)
  Dutch Republic
  United Kingdom
Chiefdom of Vanni
  Kingdom of Kandy
British Allied Victory
  • Vanni region lost to the British
  • The last Tamil resistance against colonial rule was crushed.
War of the Third Coalition
(1803–1805)
  Austrian Empire
  Russian Empire
  Naples and Sicily
  Portugal

  Sweden

  French Empire
  Batavia
  Italy
  Etruria
  Spain
  Bavaria

  Württemberg

French Allied Victory
War of the Fourth Coalition
(1806–1807)
  Prussia
  Russia
  Saxony
  Sweden

  Sicily

  French Empire

Confederation of the Rhine

  Polish Legions
  Italy
  Naples
  Etruria
  Holland
  Swiss Confederation

  Spain

French Allied Victory

Treaties of Tilsit:

  • French victory
  • Half of Prussia ceded to French allies
  • Russia exits the war
  • Anglo-Russian War begins
Ashanti–Fante War
(1806–1807)
  Ashanti Empire Fante Confederacy

  Dutch Empire

Anglo-Turkish War
(1807–1809)
  Ottoman Empire Turkish Victory

Treaty of the Dardanelles:

  • Turkish Military victory
  • Commercial and legal concessions to British interests within the Ottoman Empire
  • Promise to protect the empire against French encroachment
Gunboat War
(1807–1814)
  United Kingdom   Denmark-Norway British Victory

Treaty of Kiel:

  • Denmark and Norway split up
  • Heligoland ceded from Denmark
Anglo-Russian War
(1807–1812)
  United Kingdom   Russian Empire Inconclusive/Other Outcome
  • Anglo-Russian-Swedish pact against France
Peninsular War
(1807–1814)
  Spain

  Portugal

  French Empire British Allied Victory

Treaty of Paris:

  • Bourbon dynasty restored
  • Tobago, St. Lucia, Mauritius ceded from France
  • All other French possessions restored as per 1792 borders
  • Abolition of French Slave Trade
  • Swiss independence
Travancore rebellion
(1808-1809)
  East India Company   Travancore
Kingdom of Cochin
British Victory
Persian Gulf campaign of 1809
(1809)
  United Kingdom   Al Qasimi British Victory
War of the Fifth Coalition
(1809)
  Austrian Empire
  Tyrol
  Hungary
  Black Brunswickers
  Sicily

  Sardinia

  French Empire
  Warsaw

Confederation of the Rhine

  Kingdom of Italy
  Naples
 Swiss Confederation

  Holland

French Allied Victory
Merina Conquest of Madagascar
(1810–1817)
Merina Kingdom Rival tribes British Victory

Merina control of Madagascar Merina pro-British policies

4th Xhosa War
(1811–1812)
Xhosa tribes British Victory

Xhosa tribes pushed beyond the Fish River, reversing their gains in the previous Xhosa wars

Ga-Fante War
(1811)
  Ashanti Empire
Ga tribes

  Dutch Empire

Fante Confederacy
Akwapim tribes

Akim tribes

Tantamkweri ceded to Akwapim tribes
War of 1812
(1812–1815)
  United Kingdom

Tecumseh's Confederacy

  United States Inconclusive/Other Outcome

Treaty of Ghent; Status quo ante bellum with no boundary changes

  • United States invasions of British Canada repulsed
  • British invasions of the United States land returned to United States under Treaty of Ghent
War of the Sixth Coalition
(1812–1814)
Original Coalition
  Russian Empire
  Prussia
  Austrian Empire
  United Kingdom
  Sweden
  Spain
  Portugal
  Two Sicilies
  Kingdom of Sardinia

After Battle of Leipzig

  First French Empire

Until January 1814

British Allied Victory
Second Kandyan War
(1815)
  Kandy British Victory

Kandyan Convention:

  • Dissolution of the Kandy royal line
  • British King declared King of Kandy
Hundred Days
(1815)

War of the Seventh Coalition

  Prussia
  France
  Hanover
  German Confederation
  Austria
  Russia
  Sweden
  Netherlands
  Spain
  Portugal
  Sardinia
  Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

  Tuscany

  French Empire

  Naples

British Allied Victory

Treaty of Paris:

  • General French defeat
  • Restoration of the House of Bourbon
  • Abolition of the slave trade (all signatories)
  • ₣100,000,000 compensation from France
Third Anglo-Maratha War
(1817–1818)
  East India Company   Maratha Empire British Victory

Virtually all territory south of the Sutlej River controlled by Britain

5th Xhosa War
(1818–1819)
Khoikhoi Forces Forces of Xhosa Chief Maqana Nxele British Allied Victory

Xhosa pushed beyond Keiskama River

Greek War of Independence
(1820–1830)
  Greek revolutionaries

  Ionian Islands

  Ottoman Empire

  Egypt

British Allied Victory

Establishment of the Kingdom of Greece

First Ashanti War
(1823–1831)
  Ashanti Empire Inconclusive/Other Outcome
  • Stalemate after armistice
First Anglo-Burmese War
(1824–1826)
  East India Company

Native tribes

  Kingdom of Burma British Allied Victory

Treaty of Yandabo:

  • Assam, Manipur, Rakhine, and Taninthayi coast south of Salween river ceded from Burmah
  • £1,000,000 compensation from Burma
Revolt of the Mercenaries
(1828)
  Brazil
  United Kingdom
  France
  German Mercenaries
  Irish Mercenaries
British Allied Victory
  • Mutiny suppressed
Portuguese Civil War
(1828–1834)
  Liberal Forces of Queen Maria II

  Spain

  Absolutist Forces of King Miguel British Allied Victory

Concession of Evoramonte:

  • Defeat and exile of King Miguel
Baptist War
(1831–1832)
  United Kingdom
  Jamaican Government
Rebel Slaves British Victory
  • Slave defeat
  • Rebellion suppressed
First Carlist War
(1833–1840)
  Forces of Queen Isabella II
  French Kingdom
  Forces of Queen Maria II

  Auxiliary Legion

Carlists: Inconclusive/Other Outcome
The 6th Xhosa War
(1834–1836)
  Free Khoikhoi Xhosa tribes British Victory

Extensive territorial gains from Xhosa

Rebellions of 1837
(1837–1838)
  United Kingdom
  Province of Upper Canada

  Province of Lower Canada

  Patriotes
Hunters' Lodges
Reform Movement
British Victory
First Anglo-Afghan War
(1839–1842)
  East India Company   Emirate of Afghanistan Afghan Victory
  • British retreat from Afghanistan
First Opium War
(1839–1842)
  Qing dynasty British Victory

Treaty of Nanking:

  • Five Chinese ports open to foreign trade
  • $21,000,000 compensation from the Qing Empire
  • Hong Kong Island ceded from the Qing Empire
Second Egyptian-Ottoman War
(1839–1841)
  Ottoman Empire
  British Empire
  Egypt Eyalet
  Kingdom of the French
  Spain
British Allied Victory
  • Egypt renounced its claim to Syria.
Uruguayan Civil War
(1839–1851)
  Colorados
  Argentine Unitarians
  French Kingdom
  Riograndense Republic
  Brazil

Italian Legion

  Blancos

  Argentine Confederation

Inconclusive/Other Outcome
  • British and French withdrawal before war's conclusion
  • Peace treaty with the Argentine Confederation[5][6]
  • Eventual Colorados victory
First Anglo-Sikh War
(1845–1846)
  East India Company
  Patiala State
  Sikh Empire British Allied Victory

Treaty of Lahore:

  • Extensive territory ceded from the Sikh Empire
  • Partial control over Sikh foreign affairs
Flagstaff War
(1845–1846)
  Forces of Tāmati Wāka Nene   Ngāpuhi Iwi Inconclusive/Other Outcome
Hutt Valley Campaign
(1846)
  Te Āti Awa Iwi   Ngāti Toa Iwi British Allied Victory

Ngāti Toa Iwi retreat

The 7th Xhosa War
(1846–1847)

The War of the Axe

Xhosa tribes British Victory

Territory ceded from Xhosa

Wanganui Campaign
(1847)
  Māori Kupapa   Māori Iwis Inconclusive/Other Outcome
  • 12 year peace and trade
Second Anglo-Sikh War
(1848–1849)
  East India Company   Sikh Empire British Victory

Complete annexation of the Punjab by the East India Company

Battle of Tysami
(1849)
  United Kingdom Chui A-poo's pirates British Victory
The 8th Xhosa War
(1850–1853)

Mlanjeni's War

Xhosa tribes
Khoikhoi tribes

  Native Kafir Police

British Victory

Xhosa-Khoi attacks defeated Status quo ante bellum

Taiping Rebellion
(1850–1864)
  Qing dynasty
  France
  United Kingdom
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom British Allied Victory
Second Anglo-Burmese War
(1852–1853)
  Kingdom of Burma British Victory

Burmese revolution ended fighting Lower Burma annexed

Crimean War
(1853–1856)
  French Empire
  Ottoman Empire

  Kingdom of Sardinia

  Russian Empire

  Bulgarian Legion

British Allied Victory

Treaty of Paris

The National War in Nicaragua
(1856–1857)
  Costa Rica
  Honduras
  Rebel Forces of Patricio Rivas
  The Mosquito Coast
  Guatemala
  El Salvador

  United States

  Sonora

  Nicaragua

British Allied Victory

Sonora/Nicaraguan government defeat.
Slavery outlawed.
William Walker's army is defeated and he is arrested by the U.S. Navy.

Second Opium War
(1856–1860)

Arrow War

  French Empire

  United States

  Qing dynasty British Allied Victory

The Treaty of Tientsin:

  • Kowloon ceded from the Qing Empire
  • Peking opened to foreign trade
  • 11 more Chinese ports opened to foreign trade
  • Yangtze River opened to foreign warships
  • 4,000,000 taels of silver compensation
  • China banned from referring to subjects of the crown as barbarians
Anglo-Persian War
(1856–1857)
  Afghanistan

  East India Company

  Persia

  Herat

British Allied Victory

Persian withdrawal from Herat

Indian Mutiny
(1857–1858)
  East India Company
  Nepal
Jammu and Kashmir

Princely states:

  Sepoys of the East India Company   Mughal Empire
  Awadh
  Jhansi

7 Princely states

British Allied Victory

Act for the Better Government of India:

First Taranaki War
(1860–1861)

Second Māori War

  Māori Iwis

  Māori King Movement

Inconclusive/Other Outcome
Bombardment of Kagoshima
(1863)
  British Empire   Satsuma Domain British Victory
  • Tactical stalemate and mitigated British victory
Second Ashanti War
(1863–1864)
  Ashanti Empire Inconclusive/Other Outcome
Invasion of Waikato
(1863–1866)

Third Māori War

  Māori Kupapa   Māori King Movement British Victory

Māori King Movement defeated, confined to King Country

Bhutan War
(1864–1865)
  India Bhutan British Victory

Treaty of Sinchula:

  • Bhutan cedes Assam Duars and Bengal Duars to India
  • Bhutan cedes territory in Dewangiri to India
British Expedition to Abyssinia
(1867–1868)
  United Kingdom   Ethiopia British Victory
Klang War
(1867–1874)

Selangor Civil War

Forces of Raja Abdullah of Klang

  British Straits Settlements

Forces of Raja Mahadi British Allied Victory
Titokowaru's War
(1868–1869)

Part of the New Zealand Wars

  Māori Kupapa   Ngāti Ruanui Iwi British Allied Victory

Ngāti Ruanui Iwi withdrawal

1868 Expedition to Abyssinia
(1868)
  India   Abyssinia British Victory

British hostages freed War of the Abyssinian Succession begins

Te Kooti's War

Part of the New Zealand Wars
(1868–1872)

  Māori Kupapa   Māori Iwis British Allied Victory

End of New Zealand Wars Territory ceded by Māori iwi

Red River Rebellion
(1869–1869)
  Dominion of Canada

  Métis Loyalists

  Métis Forces of Louis Riel British Allied Victory

Defeat of rebellion Manitoba Act:

Third Ashanti War
(1873–1874)
  Ashanti Empire British Victory

Treaty of Fomena:

  • 50,000 oz of gold compensation from Ashanti Empire
  • Ashanti withdrawal from coastal areas
  • Ashanti banned from practicing human sacrifice
The 9th Xhosa War
(1877–1879)
  Mfengu Tribe Xhosa Gcaleka Tribe British Victory

All Xhosa territory annexed to the Cape Colony

Second Anglo-Afghan War
(1878–1880)
  India   Afghanistan British Victory

Treaty of Gandamak

Anglo-Zulu War
(1879)
  Natal Zulu Kingdom British Victory

Zululand annexed to Natal

‘Urabi Revolt
(1879–1882)
  United Kingdom
  Khedivate of Egypt
  Egyptian and Sudanese forces under Ahmed ‘Urabi British Allied Victory
  • ‘Urabi forces defeated and exiled
First Boer War
(1880–1881)
  South African Republic South African Victory

Pretoria Convention:

  • South African Republic granted self-government
Mahdist War
(1884–1889)
  Egypt
  Italy

  Belgium

Mahdist Sudan British Allied Victory

Sudan ruled by Britain and Egypt

Third Anglo-Burmese War
(1885)
  Kingdom of Burma British Victory

Upper Burma annexed to British Raj

Sikkim Expedition
(1888)
  India   Tibet British Victory

Tibet recognizes British suzerainty over Sikkim

Anglo-Manipur War
(1891)
  Kingdom of Manipur British Victory
Anglo-Zanzibar War
(1896)
  Zanzibar British Victory

Pro-British Sultan installed

Boxer Rebellion
(1899–1901)
  Japan
  Russia
  France
  United States
  Germany
  Italy

  Austria-Hungary

Righteous Harmony Society

  Qing dynasty

British Allied Victory

Boxer Protocol:

  • Anti-foreign societies banned in China
Second Boer War
(1899–1902)
  Orange Free State

  South African Republic
Foreign volunteers

British Victory

Treaty of Vereeniging:

  • All Boers to surrender arms and swear allegiance to the Crown
  • Dutch language permitted in education
  • Promise to grant Boer republics self-government
  • £3,000,000 compensation "reconstruction aid" to Afrikaners
Mahsud Waziri blockade
(1900–1902)
  India Mahsud rebels British Victory
Anglo-Aro War
(1901–1902)
  Aro Confederacy British Victory

Aro Confederacy destroyed

British expedition to Tibet
(1903–1904)
  India   Tibet British Victory

Status quo ante bellum

Bazar Valley campaign
(1908)
  India Rebel tribes British Victory
First World War
(1914–1918)
  India
  Dominion of Canada
  Australia
  New Zealand
  South Africa
  Newfoundland
  Belgium
  France
  Greece
  Portugal
  Romania
  Russia
  Italy
  Japan
  United States
  Serbia
  Montenegro

Other Allies

  Austria-Hungary

  Germany

  Ottoman Empire

  Bulgaria

British Allied Victory

Treaty of Versailles:

  • German demobilisation

Treaties of Saint-Germain-en-Laye and Trianon:

Russia pulls out in 1917

  • Russian Civil War
    • Creation of the Soviet Union

Creation of League of Nations:

Estonian War of Independence
(1918–1920)
  Estonia
  United Kingdom
  Latvia
  White movement
  Baltic German volunteers[9]
  Danish volunteers
  Finnish volunteers
  Swedish volunteers
  Russian SFSR

  Baltische Landeswehr

British Allied Victory
  • Independence of Estonia
  • Vidzeme gained by the Republic of Latvia
Latvian War of Independence
(1918–1920)
  Latvia
  Estonia
  White Movement
  Poland
  Lithuania
  United Kingdom
  German Empire
  West Russian Volunteer Army

  Russian SFSR
  Latvian SSR

British Allied Victory
  • Independence of Latvia
Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War
(1918–1920)
  British Empire
  France
  United States
  Japan
  Czechoslovakia
  Greece
  Estonia
  Serbia
  Italy
  Poland
  Romania

  China

  Soviet Russia

  Far Eastern Republic

Bolshevik Victory
  • Allied withdrawal from Russia
  • Bolshevik victory over White Army
  • Soviet Union new Russian Power
Turkish War of Independence
(1919–1923)
  Greece
  France
  Armenia (in 1920)
  United Kingdom
  Ottoman Empire (until 1922)

  Italy
  Georgia (in 1921)

  Turkish National Movement

Supported by:
  Russian SFSR[10]
  Azerbaijan SSR
  Georgian SSR
  Bukharan PSR
  Afghanistan
  All-India Muslim League

Turkish Allied Victory

Treaty of Lausanne

Third Anglo-Afghan War
(1919)
  India   Afghanistan Inconclusive/Other Outcome[11][12]
  • Defeat of Afghan invasion of north-west British India
  • Inconclusive military operation[13]
  • Reaffirmation of the Durand Line
  • Afghan independence with full sovereignty in foreign affairs
Kuwait–Najd War
(1919–1920)
  Kuwait
  British Empire
  Sultanate of Nejd British Allied Victory
Irish War of Independence
(1919–1921)
  Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC)   Irish Republic Inconclusive/Other Outcome
Somaliland campaign (1920)
(1920)
  British Somaliland

  British East Africa

  Dervish State British Victory

Demise of the Dervish State

Great Iraqi Revolution of 1920
(1920)
  Iraqi rebels British Victory
  • Revolt suppressed, greater autonomy given to Iraq

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1922–present)Edit

Conflict Britain & Her Allies Britain's opposition Outcome
Adwan Rebellion
(1923)
  United Kingdom
  Emir Abdullah's forces
  Hashemite allied tribesmen:
  • Sheykh Minwar al-Hadid
  Sultan al-Adwan's forces British Allied Victory

Sultan al-Adwan's defeat and exile

Ikhwan Revolt
(1927–1930)
  Kuwait
   Nejd and Hejaz
  RAF
  Ikhwan British Allied Victory
  • Ikhwan attack on Kuwait repelled.
  • The remnants of the Ikhwan incorporated into regular Saudi units.
  • The Ikhwan leadership was either slain or imprisoned.
Great Arab Revolt in Palestine
(1936–1939)
  United Kingdom
  Yishuv
  Arab Higher Committee British Allied Victory

Revolt suppressed

Jewish insurgency in Mandatory Palestine
(1939–1948)
  United Kingdom   Yishuv Yishuv Victory[15]
S-Plan
16 January 1939 – March 1940
  United Kingdom   Irish Republican Army British Victory
  • IRA failure
Second World War
(1939–1945)
The Allies
Axis Powers
British Allied Victory

Nazi Germany formally surrenders 8 May 1945, ending the Second World War in Europe.
On August 15, 1945, following the dropping of atom bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan announces its surrender, ending the Second World War

British (and Commonwealth), French, American, and Soviet troops occupy Germany until 1955, Italy and Japan lose their colonies, Europe is divided into 'Soviet' and 'Western' spheres of interest.

1944–45 Insurgency in Balochistan
(1944 – 1945)
  United Kingdom Badinzai rebels British Victory
  • Insurgency subsided by March 1945
Northern Campaign
2 September 1942 – December 1944
  Royal Ulster Constabulary   Irish Republican Army British Victory
  • IRA campaign failure
Greek Civil War
(1944–1948)
  Kingdom of Greece
  United Kingdom

  United States

D.S.E. (Δ.Σ.Ε.)
  Albania
  Yugoslavia

  Bulgaria

British Allied Victory
Communist forces defeated, many D.S.E. soldiers exiled in Eastern Europe.
Battalion of UK troops still in Greece till 1948
Indonesian National Revolution
(1945–1949)
  United Kingdom
  Netherlands
  Japan (until 1945)
  Indonesia
Inconclusive/Other Outcome
  • Hand over to Dutch in 1946
  • Netherlands recognises Indonesian Independence
Operation Masterdom
(1945–1946)
  United Kingdom
  France
  Empire of Japan
  Viet Minh
Inconclusive/Other Outcome
Corfu Channel incident
(1946–1948)
  United Kingdom   People's Socialist Republic of Albania British Victory
  • ICJ awards compensation to Britain, which is not settled till 1992.
  • Britain breaks off talks aimed at establishing diplomatic relations with Albania.
Malayan Emergency
(1948–1960)
  British Commonwealth   Thailand
  Malayan Communist Party

  Malayan Races Liberation Army

British Allied Victory
  • Communist retreat from Malaya
  • Malayan independence
Korean War
(1950–2018)
  United Nations Command   North Korea
  People's Republic of China

  Soviet Union

Inconclusive/Other Outcome
  • Korean Armistice Agreement
  • Communist invasion of South Korea repelled
  • UN invasion of North Korea repelled
1951 Anglo-Egyptian War[16]
(1951–1952)
  United Kingdom   Egypt British Victory
Mau Mau Uprising
(1952–1960)
  United Kingdom Mau Mau British Victory
  • Defeat of Mau Mau
  • Kenyan independence
Jebel Akhdar War
(1954–1959)
  Sultanate of Muscat and Oman
  United Kingdom
  Imamate of Oman British Allied Victory
  • Dissolution of the Imamate of Oman
Cyprus Emergency
(1955–1959)
  United Kingdom EOKA

  TMT

Inconclusive/Other Outcome
  • Cyprus became an independent republic in 1960 with Britain retaining control of two Sovereign Base Areas, at Akrotiri and Dhekelia.
  • Enosis not achieved
Suez Crisis
(1956–1957)
  United Kingdom
  France

  Israel

  Egypt Inconclusive/Other Outcome

Coalition military victory[17][18][19]
Egyptian political victory[17]

  • Anglo-French withdrawal following international pressure (December 1956)
  • Israeli occupation of Sinai (until March 1957)
  • UNEF deployment in Sinai[20]
  • Straits of Tiran re-opened to Israeli shipping
Border Campaign
(1956–1962)
  United Kingdom   Irish Republican Army British Victory

IRA campaign fails

First Cod War
(1958–1961)
  United Kingdom   Iceland Icelandic Victory
Iceland expands its territorial waters to 12 nautical miles
Upper Yafa disturbances[21]
(1959)
  British Empire Rebels British Victory
Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation
(1962–1966)
  Commonwealth of Nations   Indonesia British Allied Victory

Indonesia recognises Malaysian rule over former North Borneo

Dhofar Rebellion
(1962–1975)
  Oman
  United Kingdom
  Iran

  Jordan

  Various insurgents British Allied Victory Insurgency defeated
Modernisation of Oman
Aden Emergency
(1963–1967)
  Federation of South Arabia
  United Kingdom
  NLF
FLOSY
Yemeni NLF Victory
People's Republic of South Yemen established
Nigerian Civil War
(1967–1970)
  Nigeria
  Egypt
  United Kingdom
  Biafra British Allied Victory
  • Biafra rejoins Nigeria
The Troubles
(1968–1998)
  United Kingdom   Loyalist paramilitaries:

  Provisional Irish Republican Army   Official Irish Republican Army

Irish National Liberation Army

  Irish People's Liberation Organisation

  Continuity Irish Republican Army

  Real Irish Republican Army

Inconclusive/Other Outcome
Good Friday Agreement:
  • Devolution in Northern Ireland
  • Power-sharing deal
  • Cross-border cooperation
  • Disarming of paramilitary groups
  • Demilitarisation
Second Cod War
(1972–1973)
  United Kingdom   Iceland Icelandic Victory
UK accept Iceland's 50 nautical mile exclusive fishery zone
Third Cod War
(1975–1976)
  United Kingdom   Iceland Icelandic Victory
Iceland expands its exclusive fishery zone to 200 nautical miles
Falklands War
(1982)
  United Kingdom   Argentina British Victory

British sovereignty over the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands re-established.

Multinational Force in Lebanon
(1982–1984)
  United Kingdom
  France
  United States
  Italy
Islamic Jihad Organization
  Iran
  Syria
  Progressive Socialist Party
  Amal Movement
Syrian Allied Victory
Gulf War
(1991)
  Kuwait
  United States
  United Kingdom
  Saudi Arabia
  France
  Egypt
  Syria

Other Allies

  Iraq British Allied Victory

Kuwait regains its independence

Bosnian War
(1992–1995)
  UNPROFOR

  NATO

  Republika Srpska
  Serbian Krajina
  Western Bosnia
British Allied Victory

Dayton Accords

Operation Desert Fox
(1998)
  United States

  United Kingdom

  Iraq British Allied Victory

Objectives largely achieved

Kosovo War
(1998–1999)
  United States
  United Kingdom
  France
  Canada
  Denmark
  Germany
  Italy

  Kosovo Liberation Army

  Yugoslavia British Allied Victory
Kosovo occupied by Nato forces

Kosovo administered by UNMIK

Sierra Leone Civil War
(2000–2002)
  Sierra Leone

  United Kingdom

  Rebels

  Liberia

British Allied Victory

Rebels defeated

War in Afghanistan

Fourth Anglo-Afghan War[24]
(2001–2014)
  Afghanistan
  United States
  United Kingdom
  Canada
  Germany
  Italy
  France
  Denmark
  Poland
  Romania
  Turkey
  Australia
  Spain
  ISAF
  Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan Ongoing
Fall of Taliban régime and the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
Osama bin Laden killed

Taliban insurgency

Iraq War
(2003–2009)
  United States
  United Kingdom
  Iraq after the fall of Saddam Hussein
  Australia
  Poland
  Denmark

  Iraqi Kurdistan

  Iraq under Saddam Hussein
  Islamic State of Iraq

Various insurgents

British Allied Victory:
Libyan Civil War
(2011)
Many NATO   members acting under   UN mandate, including:
  United States
  United Kingdom
  France
  Denmark
  Italy
  Canada
and
  Anti-Gaddafi forces
  several Arab League states

  Sweden

  Pro-Gaddafi forces British Allied Victory
Operation Shader
(2014–present)
  United States
  United Kingdom
  Iraq
  Syrian Opposition
  Australia
  Belgium
  Canada
  Denmark
  France
  Germany
  Italy
  Netherlands
  New Zealand
  Norway
  Portugal
  Spain
  Turkey
  Bahrain
  Jordan
  Morocco
  Qatar
  Saudi Arabia
  United Arab Emirates
  Rojava
  Egypt
  Libya
  Nigeria
  Cameroon
  Chad
  Niger
  Russia
  Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
  Boko Haram

  al-Nusra Front
  Khorasan


  Ahrar ash-Sham

Ongoing
  • The UK's Operation Shader is ongoing as part of intervention in Iraq (2014–present)
  • 3,000+ ISIL fighters killed in 1,700 British airstrikes.[28][29]
  • British armed forces provide material and training to Iraqi Security Forces and Peshmerga.[30][31]
  • As part of the American-led interventions in Syria and Iraq, contributes to the loss of all of ISIL's territory in Iraq (by December 2017) and Syria (by March 2019).

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Duchy of Warsaw as a state was in effect fully occupied by Russian and Prussian forces by May 1813, though most Poles remained loyal to Napoleon

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Laycock, S. (2012). All the Countries We've Ever Invaded – And the Few We Never Got Round To. The History Press.
  2. ^ M. R. Kantak, The First Anglo-Maratha War, 1774–1783: A Military Study of Major Battles, quote: "Inspite of British superiority in the military science, the British troops could not force a decisive win over the Maratha troops in the First Anglo-Maratha War. The ultimate result of the War showed that the two sides remained evenly balanced.", p. 226
  3. ^ John Bowman, Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture, quote: "First Anglo-Maratha War...The war ends inconclusively.", Columbia University Press, p. 290
  4. ^ "British Slaves on the Barbary Coast".
  5. ^ Rosa, José María (1974) [1970]. Historia Argentina [History of Argentina] (in Spanish). V. Buenos Aires: Editorial Oriente S.A. pp. 279–288.
  6. ^ Abad de Santillán, Diego. Historia Argentina (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: TEA (Tipográfica Editora Argentina). p. 383.
  7. ^ Johnson, Robert (2011). The Afghan Way of War: How and Why They Fight. Oxford University Press. p. 206. ISBN 9780199912568. Afghanistan was rendered a British Protectorate and Sher Ali's strategy had failed
  8. ^ Blood, Peter R, ed. (1996). Pakistan: A Country Study. Diane Publishing. pp. 20–21. ISBN 9780788136313.
  9. ^ Thomas, Nigel; Boltowsky, Toomas (2019). Armies of the Baltic Independence Wars 1918–20. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. p. 20. ISBN 9781472830777.
  10. ^ Jelavich, Barbara (1983). History of the Balkans: Twentieth century. Cambridge University Press. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-521-27459-3.
  11. ^ Lansford 2017, p. 47.
  12. ^ Sidebotham, Herbert (1919). "The Third Afghan War". New Statesman, 16 August 1919. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2009.
  13. ^ Cavanna 2015, p. xviii.
  14. ^ Reeva S. Simon; Philip Mattar; Richard W. Bulliet (1996). Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East – Volume 1. p. 119. Fighting between Kuwait's forces and Wahhabi supporters of Ibn Sa'ud broke out in May 1920, and the former were soundly defeated. Within a few weeks, the citizens of Kuwait constructed a new wall to protect Kuwait City.
  15. ^ Charters, David A. The British army and Jewish insurgency in Palestine, 1945-47. Springer, 1989, p. X
  16. ^ Egypt 1951 War with Britain, Globalsecurity.org
  17. ^ a b Tal (2001) p 203
  18. ^ Mart, Michelle. Eye on Israel: How America Came to View the Jewish State as an Ally. p. 159. ISBN 0791466876.
  19. ^ Stewart (2013) p 133
  20. ^ Kunz, Diane B. The Economic Diplomacy of the Suez Crisis. p. 187. ISBN 0-8078-1967-0.
  21. ^ "Upper Yafa (Disturbances): 7 Jul 1959: House of Commons debates". TheyWorkForYou. Retrieved 2019-06-26.
  22. ^ "Statement by Deputy Press Secretary Larry Speakes". September 23, 1982.
  23. ^ "The Collapse of Lebanon's Army: U.S. Said to Ignore Factionalism". March 11, 1984.
  24. ^ The Fourth Afghan War is lost The Daily Telegraph, 4 September 2009
  25. ^ "Sectarian divisions change Baghdad's image". NBC News. 3 July 2006. Retrieved 18 February 2007.
  26. ^ "The JRTN Movement and Iraq's Next Insurgency | Combating Terrorism Center at West Point". Ctc.usma.edu. Retrieved 2014-08-02.
  27. ^ "Al-Qaeda's Resurgence in Iraq: A Threat to U.S. Interests". U.S Department of State. 5 February 2014. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  28. ^ "British air strikes killed 3,000 ISIS militants in Iraq and Syria in three years."
  29. ^ Drone Wars UK: Operation Shader.
  30. ^ UK troops training Kurdish forces in Iraq, says MoD
  31. ^ British trained Iraqi soldiers gear up to back Baghdad surge

Further readingEdit

  • Barnett, Correlli. Britain and her army, 1509–1970: a military, political and social survey (1970).
  • Black, Jeremy. A military history of Britain: from 1775 to the present (2008).
  • Bradford, James C. ed. International Encyclopedia of Military History (2 vol. 2006).
  • Brownstone, David and Irene Franck. Timelines of War: A Chronology of Warfare from 100,000 BC to the Present (1996), Global coverage.
  • Cannon, John, ed. The Oxford Companion to British History (2003)
  • Carlton, Charles. This Seat of Mars: War and the British Isles, 1485–1746 (Yale UP; 2011) 332 pages; studies the impact of near unceasing war from the individual to the national levels.
  • Chandler, David G., and Ian Frederick William Beckett, eds. The Oxford history of the British army (Oxford UP, 2003).
  • Cole, D. H and E. C Priestley. An outline of British military history, 1660–1936 (1936). online
  • Dupuy, R. Ernest and Trevor N. Dupuy. The Harper Encyclopedia of Military History: From 3500 B.C. to the Present (1993).
  • Fortescue, John William. History of the British Army from the Norman Conquest to the First World War (1899–1930), in 13 volumes with six separate map volumes. Available online for downloading; online volumes; The standard highly detailed full coverage of operations.
  • Haswell, Jock, and John Lewis-Stempel. A Brief History of the British Army (2017).
  • Higham, John, ed. A Guide to the Sources of British Military History (1971) 654 pages excerpt; Highly detailed bibliography and discussion up to 1970; includes local and naval forces.
  • James, Lawrence. Warrior Race: A History of the British at War (Hachette UK, 2010). excerpt
  • Johnson, Douglas, et al. Britain and France: Ten Centuries (1980)
  • Mulligan, William, and Brendan Simms, eds. The Primacy of Foreign Policy in British History, 1660–2000 (Palgrave Macmillan; 2011) 345 pages
  • Neville, Peter (2013). Historical Dictionary of British Foreign Policy. Scarecrow Press. pp. xix–xxxi. timeline pp xix to xxxi
  • Otte, T.G. The Makers of British Foreign Policy: From Pitt to Thatcher (2002)
  • Ranft, Bryan. The Oxford Illustrated History of the Royal Navy (Oxford UP, 2002).
  • Rodger, N. A.M. The safeguard of the sea: A naval history of Britain, 660–1649 (Vol. 1. 1998). excerpt
    • Rodger, N.A.M.The Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain, 1649–1815 (vol 2 2006) excerpt
  • Sheppard, Eric William. A short history of the British army (1950). online
  • Ward, A.W. and G.P. Gooch, eds. The Cambridge History of British Foreign Policy, 1783–1919 (3 vol, 1921–23), old detailed classic; vol 1, 1783–1815 ; vol 2, 1815–1866; vol 3. 1866–1919

HistoriographyEdit

  • Messenger, Charles, ed. Reader's Guide to Military History (2001) pp 55–74 etc.; annotated guide to most important books.
  • Schroeder, Paul W. "Old Wine in Old Bottles: Recent Contributions to British Foreign Policy and European International Politics, 1789–1848." Journal of British Studies 26.01 (1987): 1–25.