List of sovereign states in the 1890s

This is a list of sovereign states in the 1890s, giving an overview of states around the world during the period between 1 January 1890 and 31 December 1899. It contains entries, arranged alphabetically, with information on the status and recognition of their sovereignty. It includes widely recognized sovereign states, and entities which were de facto sovereign but which were not widely recognized by other states.

Sovereign states

Name and capital city Information on status and recognition of sovereignty

 Abuja – Abuja Emirate
Capital: Abuja
Widely recognized state.

  Acre – Republic of Acre[1] (from July 14, 1899)
Capital: Cidade do Acre
De facto independent state from July 14, 1899.

 Agadez – Tenere Sultanate of Aïr[2]
Capital: Agadez
Widely recognized state.

  Andorra – Principality of Andorra[3]
Capital: Andorra la Vella
Widely recognized independent state. The President of France and Bishop of Urgell were ex officio Co-Princes of Andorra. The defense of Andorra was the responsibility of France and Spain.

 Angoche – Angoche Sultanate[4]
Capital: Angoche
Widely recognized state.

  Ankole – Kingdom of Ankole[5]
Capital: Mbarara
Widely recognized state.

  Argentina – Argentine Republic[6]
Capital: Buenos Aires

  Aro – Aro Confederacy
Capital: Arochukwu
Widely recognized state.

  Ashanti – Asante Union[7]
Capital: Kumasi
Widely recognized state.

  Aussa – Sultanate of Aussa
Capital: Aussa
Widely recognized state.

  Austria-Hungary – Austro-Hungarian Empire[8]
Capital: Vienna (Cisleithania), Budapest (Transleithania)
Widely recognized state.

  Baguirmi – Kingdom of Baguirmi[9] (to September 20, 1897)
Capital: Massenya (to 1893), Chekna (from 1893 to 1897)
Tributary state of the Bornu Empire. Annexed by France on September 20, 1897.

  Bali – Kingdom of Bali[10]
Capital: Klungkung
Widely recognized state. Bali was a series of kingdoms that ruled the island of Bali.

  Baol – Kingdom of Baol[11] (to 1895)
Capital: Diourbel
Widely recognized state. Annexed by France in 1895.

  Barotseland – Kingdom of Barotseland[12] (to 1899)
Capital: Mongu
Widely recognized state. Annexed by the United Kingdom in 1899.

  Belgium – Kingdom of Belgium[13]
Capital: Brussels
Widely recognized state.

  Benin – Kingdom of Benin[14] (to February 18, 1897)
Capital: Edo
Widely recognized state. Annexed by the United Kingdom on February 18, 1897.

 Bhutan – Kingdom of Bhutan
Capital: Punakha
Widely recognized state.

 Biu – Biu Kingdom
Capital: Biu
Widely recognized state.

Capital: Sucre (official), La Paz (administrative)
Widely recognized state.

  Bora Bora – Kingdom of Bora Bora[15] (to September 21, 1895)
Capital: Nunue, Vaitape
Widely recognized state to September 21, 1895. Annexed by France on September 21, 1895.

  Bornu – Bornu Empire[16] (to 1893)
Capital: Ngazargamu
Widely recognized state to 1893. Annexed by France in 1893.

 Brakna – Brakna Emirate
Capital: Aleg
Widely recognized state.

  Brazil – Republic of the United States of Brazil[17]
Capital: Rio de Janeiro
Brazil was a federation of 20 states, one territory, and one federal district.[a]

  Buganda – Kingdom of Buganda (to 1894)
Capital: Mengo, Uganda
Widely recognized state to 1894. Annexed by the United Kingdom in 1894.

  Bulgaria – Principality of Bulgaria[18]
Capital: Sofia
De facto independent, and de jure vassal state under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire.

  Bunyoro – Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom (to 1899)
Capital: Hoima
Widely recognized state to 1899. Annexed by the United Kingdom in 1899.

 Burundi – Kingdom of Burundi[19] (to July 1, 1890)
Capital: Gitega, Bujumbura
Widely recognized state to July 1, 1890. Annexed by Germany on July 1, 1890.

  Busoga – Kingdom of Busoga
Capital: Bugembe
Widely recognized state.

  Canada – Dominion of Canada
Capital: Ottawa
Widely recognized state. Commonwealth realm.

   Central America (from September 15, 1896)
Capital: Amapala
  • Greater Republic of Central America (from September 15, 1896 to November 1, 1898)
  • United States of Central America (from November 1 to November 21, 1898)
A Political union between El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua until November 21, 1898.[20]

  Champasak – Kingdom of Champasak (from 1899)
Capital: Champasak
Widely recognized state. Vassal state of Siam.

Capital: Santiago
Widely recognized state.

  China – Great Qing Empire
Capital: Beijing
Widely recognized state.

 Chokwe – Chokwe Kingdom
Capital: Not specified
Widely recognized state.

  Colombia – Republic of Colombia
Capital: Bogota
Widely recognized state.

  Congo – Congo Free State
Capital: Boma
Widely recognized state. State in personal union with the Kingdom of Belgium.

  Costa Rica – Republic of Costa Rica
Capital: San Jose
Widely recognized state.

  Crete – Cretan State[21] (from December 9, 1898)
Capital: Chania
Widely recognized state. Autonomous state of the Ottoman Empire.

  Dahomey – Kingdom of Dahomey[22] (to January 20, 1894)
Capital: Abomey
Widely recognized state to January 20, 1894. Annexed by France on January 20, 1894.

 Dar al Kuti – Sultanate of Dar Al Kuti[23]
Capital: N'Délé
Widely recognized state. Vassal state of Dar Runga to 1890. Vassal state of Rabih az-Zubayr from 1890.

  Darfur – Sultanate of Darfur (from 1898)
Capital: Al Fashir
Widely recognized state from 1898.

 Dendi – Dendi Kingdom
Capital: Lulami
Widely recognized state.

  DenmarkKingdom of Denmark
Capital: Copenhagen
Widely recognized state. Denmark had sovereignty over the following overseas territories:

  Dhala – Emirate of Dhala
Capital: Dhale
Widely recognized state.

  Dominican Republic – Second Republic
Capital: Santo Domingo
Widely recognized state.

  Ecuador – Republic of Ecuador
Capital: Quito
Widely recognized state.

  El Salvador – Republic of El Salvador (to September 15, 1896; from November 21, 1898)
Capital: San Salvador
Widely recognized state to September 15, 1896, and from November 21, 1898.Part of the political union of Central America from September 15, 1896 to November 21, 1898.

   Ethiopia – Ethiopian Empire
Capital: Addis Ababa
Widely recognized state.

  France – French Republic
Capital: Paris
Widely recognized independent state. France had sovereignty over the following overseas territories:

   Futa Jallon – Imamate of Futa Jallon (to November 18, 1896)
Capital: Timbo
Widely recognized state to November 18, 1896. Annexed by France on November 18, 1896.

 Gaza – Gaza Empire (to 1895)
Capital: Manjacaze
Widely recognized state to 1895. Annexed by Portugal in 1895.

 Geledi – Sultanate of the Geledi
Capital: Afgooye
Widely recognized state.

  Germany – German Empire
Capital: Berlin
Widely recognized independent state. Germany had sovereignty over the following overseas territories:

  Greece – Kingdom of Greece
Capital: Athens
Widely recognized state.

  Guatemala – Republic of Guatemala
Capital: Guatemala City
Widely recognized state.

 Gyaaman – State of Gyaaman (to 1895)
Capital: Sampa, Drobo
Widely recognized state.

  Ha'il – Emirate of Jabal Shammar
Capital: Ha'il
Widely recognized state.

  Haiti – Republic of Haiti
Capital: Port-au-Prince
Widely recognized state.

Capital: Honolulu
Widely recognized state to August 12, 1898. Annexed by the United States on August 12, 1898.

  Honduras – Republic of Honduras (to September 15, 1896 from November 21, 1898)
Capital: Tegucigalpa
Part of the political union of Central America from September 15, 1896 to November 21, 1898.

  Huahine – Kingdom of Huahine (to September 15, 1895)
Capital: Huahine
Annexed by France on September 15, 1895.

  Hunza – State of Hunza (to 1892)
Capital: Baltit
Widely recognized state to 1892. Annexed by the United Kingdom in 1892.

 Igala – Igala Kingdom
Capital: Idah
Widely recognized state.

 Igara – Kingdom of Igara

Capital: Not specified

Widely recognized state.

 Ilé-Ifẹ̀ – Ilé-Ifẹ̀ Kingdom
Capital: Ilé-Ifẹ̀

  Italy – Kingdom of Italy
Capital: Rome
Widely recognized independent state. Italy had sovereignty over the following overseas territories:

  Japan – Empire of Japan
Capital: Tokyo City
Widely recognized independent state. Japan had sovereignty over the following overseas territories:

 Kaffa – Kingdom of Kaffa (to September 11, 1897)
Capital: Bonga, Anderaccha

 Kajara – Kajara Kingdom

Capital: Not specified

  Kano – Emirate of Kano
Capital: Takai

 Kasanje – Jaga Kingdom

Capital: Not specified

 Kebbi – Kebbi Emirate (to 1902)
Capital: Argungu
Widely recognized state. Annexed by the United Kingdom in 1902.

 Kénédougou – Kénédougou Kingdom (to May 1, 1898)
Capital: Sikasso

 Kong – Kong Empire (to 1895)
Capital: Kong

  Kongo – Kingdom of Kongo
Capital: Mbanza-Kongo
Vassal of the Kingdom of Portugal.

Capital: Hanseong
Tributary state of the Qing dynasty to 1894. Widely recognized independent state from October 12, 1897.

 Koya Temne – Kingdom of Koya (to August 31, 1896)
Capital: Grand Cape Mount

 Lafia Beri-Beri – Lafia Beri-Beri Kingdom
Capital: Lafia

  Liberia – Republic of Liberia
Capital: Monrovia

  Liechtenstein – Principality of Liechtenstein
Capital: Vaduz

 Limmu-Ennarea – Kingdom of Limmu-Ennarea (to 1891)
Capital: Saqqa

  Lower Yafa – Sultanate of Lower Yafa (to 1895)
Capital: Jaʿār

  Luxembourg – Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Capital: Luxembourg City

  Maguindanao – Sultanate of Maguindanao (to October 30, 1898)
Capital: Kuta Watu

 Manipur – Kingdom of Manipur (to 1891)
Capital: Imphal

 Maravi – Kingdom of Maravi (to 1891)
Capital: Manthimba

 Matabeleland – Matabele Kingdom
Capital: Bulawayo

 Mbunda – Mbunda Kingdom

Capital: Not specified

Widely recognized state.

  Merina – Kingdom of Imerina (to 1897)
Capital: Antananarivo

  Mexico – United Mexican States
Capital: Mexico City

  Monaco – Principality of Monaco
Capital: Monaco

  Montenegro – Principality of Montenegro
Capital: Cetinje

   Morocco – Sultanate of Morocco
Capital: Fes

 Mossi Kingdoms – Mossi Empire (to 1896)
Capital: Multiple capitals
Widely recognized independent state. The following are a number of different kingdoms that make up the Mossi Empire:

  Muscat and Oman – Sultanate of Muscat and Oman
Capital: Muscat
De jure independent state. De facto a British protectorate.

 Mutayr – Emirate of Mutayr

Capital: Not specified

Widely recognized state.

  Negeri Sembilan (to 1895)
Capital: Seremban
Federated in to the Federated Malay States from 1895.

  Nepal – Kingdom of Nepal
Capital: Kathmandu

  NetherlandsKingdom of The Netherlands
Capital: Amsterdam

  Nicaragua – Republic of Nicaragua (to September 15, 1896; from November 21, 1898)
Capital: Managua
Part of the political union of Central America from September 15, 1896 to November 21, 1898.

  Norway – Kingdom of Norway
Capital: Christiania
In personal union between Sweden until December 15, 1899. Union badge removed on December 15, 1899

  Orange Free State
Capital: Bloemfontein
Independent Boer sovereign republic under the British suzerainty in South Africa.

 Orungu – Kingdom of Orungu

Capital: Not specified

Widely recognized state.

  Ottoman Empire – Sublime Ottoman State
Capital: Constantinople

  Paraguay – Republic of Paraguay
Capital: Asunción

   Persia – Sublime State of Persia
Capital: Tehran

  Peru – Peruvian Republic
Capital: Lima

  Philippines – First Philippine Republic (from January 23, 1899)
Capital: Several temporary capitals
De facto independent state.

  PortugalKingdom of Portugal
Capital: Lisbon

  Romania – Kingdom of Romania
Capital: Bucharest

  Russia – Russian Empire
Capital: Saint Petersburg

  Samoa – Kingdom of Samoa
Capital: Apia

  San Marino – Most Serene Republic of San Marino
Capital: San Marino

  Serbia – Kingdom of Serbia
Capital: Belgrade

  Setul Mambang Segara – Kingdom of Setul Mambang Segara
Capital: Kota Mambang Segara

  Siam – Kingdom of Siam
Capital: Bangkok
Widely recognized independent state. The following are vassal states of Siam:

  Sokoto – Sokoto Caliphate
Capital: Sokoto

  Spain – Kingdom of Spain
Capital: Madrid

  Sulu – Sultanate of Sulu
Capital: Maimbung

  Sweden – Kingdom of Sweden
Capital: Stockholm
In personal union between Norway until December 15, 1899.

  Switzerland – Swiss Confederation
Capital: Bern

 Tagant – Emirate of Tagant
Capital: Tidjikja

  Tonga - Kingdom of Tonga
Capital: Nuku'alofa

 Toro – Toro Kingdom (from August 14, 1891)
Capital: Kabarole

 Toucouleur – Toucouleur Empire (to 1890)
Capital: Segou

  Transvaal – South African Republic
Capital: Pretoria

 Trarza – Emirate of Trarza
Capital: Mederdra

 Tui Manuʻa – Tui Manuʻa Confederacy
Capital: Fitiuta

  United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Capital: London
Widely recognized independent state. The following are colonies, territories, dependencies and protectorates of the United Kingdom:

    United States – United States of America
Capital: Washington D.C.
Widely recognized independent state. The following are territories of the United States of America:
  • *   

  Alaska (District)

  Arizona (Territory)

  Upper Aulaqi Sultanate
Capital: Nişāb

  Upper Aulaqi Sheikhdom
Capital: Sa'id

  Upper Yafa – State of Upper Yafa
Capital: Mahjaba

  Uruguay – Eastern Republic of Uruguay
Capital: Montevideo

  VenezuelaUnited States of Venezuela
Capital: Caracas

 Wadai – Wadai Empire
Capital: Abéché

  Wahidi Haban – Wahidi Sultanate of Haban
Capital: Habban

 Wajoq – Kingdom of Wajoq
Capital: Tosora

  Wassoulou – Wassoulou Empire (to September 29, 1898)
Capital: Bissandugu
Annexed by France on September 29, 1898

 Wolaita – Kingdom of Wolaita (to November 1894)
Capital: Lasho, Dalbo, Sodo
Annexed by the Ethiopian Empire in 1894

 Wukari – Wukari Federation
Capital: Wukari

 Yamma – Kingdom of Yamma (to 1894)
Capital: Fofa

 Yeke – Yeke Kingdom (to 1891)
Capital: Bunkeya

  Zabarma – Zabarma Emirate (to 1897)
Capital: Not specified

States claiming sovereignty

  Aceh – Sultanate of Aceh
Capital: Kutaraja
Protectorate of the Ottoman Empire.

  Biak-na-Bato – Republic of Biak-na-Bato (from November 1 to December 15, 1897)
Capital: San Miguel
Unrecognized state.

  Counani – Republic of Independent Guiana (to 1891)
Capital: Counani
Unrecognized state.

  Formosa – Republic of Formosa (from May 24 to October 23, 1895)
Capital: Taipei
Unrecognized state.

  Franceville – Independent Commune of Franceville (to 1890)
Capital: None
Unrecognized state.

  Lado – Lado District (from 1894)
Capital: Lado
Unrecognized state.

 Loreto – Federal State of Loreto (from 2 May to 10 July 1896)
Capital: Iquitos
Unrecognised self-proclaimed federated state within Peru

  Mahdist Sudan – Mahdist State (to September 2, 1898)
Capital: Omdurman
Unrecognized state. Annexed by Sudan on September 2, 1898

  Mato Grosso – Transatlantic Republic of Mato Grosso (to 1892)
Capital: Corumba
Unrecognized state.

  Negros – Republic of Negros (from November 27, 1898)
Capital: Bacólod
Unrecognized state. Constituent of the Federal State of the Visayas from 1898 to 1899.

  Swaziland – Kingdom of Swaziland (from 1894)
Capital: Mbabane
Unrecognized state.

  Tagalog Republic – Sovereign Tagalog Nation (from August 29, 1896, to March 22, 1897)
Capital: Morong
Unrecognized state.

  Trinidad – Principality of Trinidad (from 1893 to 1895)
Capital: None
Unrecognized state.

  Zamboanga – Republic of Zamboanga (from May 18 to November 16, 1898)
Capital: Zamboanga City
Unrecognized state.




  1. ^ "Acre and its Robber; Cause of the Establishment of the New Republic. The Conflicting Interests of Brazil and Bolivia -- Millions Involved -- Population Not Over 10,000". The New York Times. 1900-11-25. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-11-17.
  2. ^ James B. Minahan (2016). Encyclopedia of Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups around the World, 2nd Edition. ABC-CLIO. p. 418. ISBN 978-1-61069-954-9.
  3. ^ "Andorra", The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, November 3, 2021, retrieved 2021-11-17
  4. ^ Syed, Muzaffar Husain; Akhtar, Syed Saud; Usmani, B. D. (14 September 2011). Concise History of Islam. New Delhi, India: Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. p. 162. ISBN 978-93-82573-47-0. Retrieved 6 May 2023.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  5. ^ Briggs, Philip; Roberts, Andrew (5 November 2016). Uganda. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 534. ISBN 9781784770228. Retrieved 29 December 2016.
  6. ^ "Argentina", The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 2021-11-16, retrieved 2021-11-19
  7. ^ "Asante empire". Retrieved December 1, 2021.
  8. ^ McCarthy, Justin (1880). A History of Our Own Times, from 1880 to the Diamond Jubilee. New York, United States of America: Harper & Brothers, Publishers. pp. 475–476.
  9. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bagirmi" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 201.
  10. ^ The rough guide to Bali & Lombok by Lesley Reader, Lucy Ridout p.298
  11. ^ Institut fondamental d'Afrique noire, Bulletin: Sciences humaines, Volume 38 (1976), pp. 452-458
  12. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Barotse and Barotseland" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 424–425.
  13. ^ "Belgium", The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 2022-01-21, retrieved 2022-02-06
  14. ^ Bradbury, R. E. (16 August 2018), "Continuities and Discontinuities in Pre-colonial and Colonial Benin Politics (1897–1951)", Benin Studies, Routledge, pp. 76–128, doi:10.4324/9781351031264-4, ISBN 978-1-351-03126-4, S2CID 159119713, retrieved 27 January 2023
  15. ^ "Bora-Bora". Britannica. Retrieved March 6, 2022.
  16. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bornu" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 4 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 265.
  17. ^ Hudson, Rex A. Brazil: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1997, pg.22
  18. ^ Pearson, Raymond (25 September 2014). The Longman Companion to European Nationalism 1789–1920. Routledge. ISBN 9781317897774. Retrieved 15 October 2017 – via Google Books.
  19. ^ "Kingdom of Burundi". Encyclopædia Britannica (Online ed.). Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  20. ^ Slade, William F. (1917). "The Federation of Central America". The Journal of Race Development. 8 (2): 210–215. doi:10.2307/29738239. hdl:2027/inu.30000056731338. JSTOR 29738239.
  21. ^ Kitromilides M. Paschalis (ed) Eleftherios Venizelos: The Trials of Statesmanship, Edinburgh University Press, 2008 p. 68.
  22. ^ Newbury, C. W. (1959). "A Note on the Abomey Protectorate". Africa. 29 (2): 146–155. doi:10.2307/1157517. JSTOR 1157517. S2CID 145105979.
  23. ^ Garbou, Henri (1912). "La région du Tchad et du Oudaï; études ethnographiques, dialecte Toubou". Bulletin de Correspondence Africaine. XLVII1.