Kumasi (historically spelled Comassie or Coomassie, usually spelled Kumase in Twi)[3] is a city in the Ashanti Region, and is among the largest metropolitan areas in Ghana. Kumasi is located in a rain forest region near Lake Bosomtwe, and is the commercial, industrial, and cultural capital of the historical Ashanti Empire. Kumasi is approximately 500 kilometres (300 mi) north of the Equator and 200 kilometres (100 mi) north of the Gulf of Guinea. Kumasi is alternatively known as "The Garden City"[4] because of its many species of flowers and plants in the past. It is also called Oseikrom (Osei Tutu's the first town).

Flag of Kumasi
Kumasi is located in Ashanti
Kumasi is located in Ghana
Kumasi is located in Africa
Coordinates: 6°40′N 1°37′W / 6.667°N 1.617°W / 6.667; -1.617Coordinates: 6°40′N 1°37′W / 6.667°N 1.617°W / 6.667; -1.617
Administrative division Ashanti
MunicipalityKumasi Metropolitan
 • TypeMayor–council
 • MayorSamuel Pyne
 • Total254 km2 (98 sq mi)
250 m (820 ft)
 (2020 est.)
 • Total3,348,000[1]
Time zoneUTC
Postal codes
Area code032

Kumasi is the second-largest city in Ghana, after the capital, Accra.[5] The Central Business District of Kumasi includes areas such as Adum, Bantama, Asawasi, Pampaso and Bompata (popularly called Roman Hill), with a concentration of banks, department stalls, and hotels. Economic activities in Kumasi include financial and commercial sectors, pottery, clothing and textiles. There is a significant timber processing community in Kumasi serving the domestic market. Bantama High Street and Prempeh II Street in Bantama and Adum, respectively, are the business and entertainment hubs in Kumasi.



Kente weaver on Adum Street in Kumasi, Ghana, 1819

There is evidence that the area around Kumasi has been kept cleared since the Neolithic age and that the first human settlement was at Lake Bosomtwe.[citation needed]


The name Kumasi derives from the Twi language, meaning 'under the Kum tree'. The word "ase" or "asi" means 'under', 'down' or 'below', and is used in many place names in Ghana, such as Obuasi, Daboase, and Kenyasi.

Around the end of the 17th century, the Ashanti Kingdom's chief fetish Priest, Okomfo Anokye planted three kum trees at different places: one at Kwaaman, ruled by the Nananom Ayokofuo; a second one at Apemso-Bankofo, ruled by Nananom Aduanafuo; and a third at a village near Fomena and Amoafo called Oboani, which was ruled by Nananom Ɛkoɔnafuo. Komfuo wanted to see which of these would become a great city for the kingdom, as he was directed by the oracles. The kum tree at Kwaaman flourished so vigorously that the King and his people often sat underneath, and so Kwaaman became Kum-ase, meaning 'under kum'.

The tree at Oboani was, however, very tiny and for no apparent reason was relatively short. According to oral tradition, this small tree produced other trees which were all small in size. The name of the village was changed to Kuma, meaning 'small kum'.

The kum tree at Apemso-Bankofo did not grow at all. After a few weeks the leaves rotted and the tree fell down; so it was said that the village's kum tree was dead, and the village became Kum-awu, later Kumawu.[3]

Ashanti EmpireEdit

Kings Way Road in Kumasi, 1925

The city rose to prominence in 1695 when it became capital of the Ashanti Empire due to the activities of its ruler Osei Tutu.[6] The ruler of Kumasi, known as the Asantehene, also served as ruler of the empire. With their 1701 victory over Denkyira the Ashanti empire became the primary state among the Ashantis.[7] Parts of the city, including the then royal residence, were burnt by the British in the Third Anglo-Ashanti War of 1874.[8]

Lady Mary Alice Hodgson, the first English lady to visit Ashanti, wrote "The Siege of Kumasi", an account of the siege of the fort by the nationals of Ashanti and of the subsequent march to the coast.[9] (She was the daughter of Hon. W. A. G. Young, C.M.G., former governor of the Gold Coast, and the wife of Sir Frederick Mitchell Hodgson, K.C.M.G., the governor of the Gold Coast in 1900.[9])

In 1926, following the return of the Ashanti King Prempeh I after a 30-year exile, Kumasi was restored as the ceremonial control over the Ashanti sub-states. The full role of king was restored by the colonial administration in 1935. The city holds an important place in the history of the Ashanti people, as legend claims that it was here Okomfo Anokye received the golden stool.


The city features a tropical wet and dry climate, with relatively constant temperatures throughout the course of the year. Kumasi averages around 1400 mm (55") of rain per year.

The city almost features two rainy seasons: a longer season from March through July and a shorter rainy season from September to November.

The months of February through to November is one long wet season, with a relative lull in precipitation in August. Similar to the rest of West Africa, Kumasi experiences the harmattan during the "low sun" months. Lasting from December to February, the harmattan is the primary source of the city's dry season.


Like other parts of Ghana, Kumasi has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw), with a wet season and a dry season and the temperature being hot year-round. The average annual high temperature is 30.7 °C (87.3 °F), while the average annual low temperature is 21.5 °C (70.7 °F). The hottest time of year is from February to May, around the time the wet season starts. February has the highest average high at 33.5 °C (92.3 °F). April has the highest average low at 22.4 °C (72.3 °F). August has the lowest average high at 27.7 °C (81.9 °F). January has the lowest average low at 20.4 °C (68.7 °F).

Kumasi receives 1,402.4 millimetres (55.21 in) of rain over 128 precipitation days, with a distinct wet and dry season like the rest of Ghana. The dry season is short, lasting from November to February. June, the wettest month, receives 214.3 millimetres (8.44 in) of rainfall over 17 precipitation days on average. Kumasi receives 1951.8 hours of sunshine annually on average, with the sunshine being distributed fairly evenly across the year, with a noticeable dip from June to October. March receives the most sunshine, while August receives the least.

Climate data for Kumasi
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 36.7
Average high °C (°F) 31.9
Average low °C (°F) 20.4
Record low °C (°F) 11.7
Average precipitation mm (inches) 15.1
Average precipitation days 2 5 9 10 14 17 14 12 17 17 8 3 128
Mean monthly sunshine hours 186.6 187.2 205.4 204.0 204.7 146.3 101.2 77.0 106.2 161.4 193.8 178.0 1,951.8
Source 1: World Meteorological Organization,[10] Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial (extremes)[11]
Source 2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (sun, 1961–1990)[12][a]


Otumfuo Osei Tutu II 20th anniversary celebration

Features of the city include Fort Kumasi (built by in 1896 to replace an Asante fort and now a museum) and the Kumasi Hat Museum. Royal Asante attractions include the Kumasi National Cultural Centre (including the Prempeh II Jubilee Museum with Asante regalia with a reproduction of the golden stool), the Okomfo Anokye Sword, the Asantehene's Palace (built in 1972), and the Manhyia Palace, dating from 1925, now a museum.

Places of worshipEdit

St Peter's Cathedral Basilica, Kumasi

Among the places of worship, which are predominantly Christian churches and temples, are: Methodist Church, Presbyterian Church of Ghana, Church of the Province of West Africa, (Anglican Communion), Seventh-day Adventist Church Evangelical Presbyterian Church, Ghana (World Communion of Reformed Churches), Christ Apostolic Church International (which was the first Pentecostal church in Ghana) Ghana Baptist Convention (Baptist World Alliance), Lighthouse Chapel International, Church of Pentecost, Assemblies of God, and Catholic Church Archdiocese of Kumasi (Catholic Church).[13] There are also Muslim mosques which include: Kumasi Central mosque, Ahmadiyya mosque, Alhaj mosque, Kaase-Nhyiaeso mosque and Rahman mosque.


The main occupations in Kumasi are professional, such as services and manufacturing.

Mining and exportsEdit


Kumasi has 50% of the timber industry of Ghana, and the Kaasi Industrial Area plays an important role in the local industry. The Guinness Ghana Breweries are based in Kumasi.


Solar panels are prevalent in Kumasi and throughout the Ashanti region. Solar energy technology is a major energy source and contributor to electricity generation in the region.


Much of the shopping and trading activity in the city takes place at Kumasi's shopping streets, in and around Kejetia Market and Adum. These two areas – Kejetia and Adum – have a common boundary. There is also heavy economic activities at Bantama and Asafo. Asafo in particular is the printing hub of Kumasi. Most of the printing done in Kumasi and Ashanti Region as a whole is done at Asafo. Kumasi's Ahwiaa (a sub-town in Kumasi) is also well noted for its wood carvings and arts.

FM StationsEdit


Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) – Side view of the College of Architecture and Planning

Primary schoolEdit

There are both government-assisted primary schools in Kumasi and also private primary schools in Kumasi which educate boys and girls between the ages from 6 to 15.

Secondary educationEdit

There are elite all-boys and all-girls senior high schools such as Prempeh College, Opoku Ware School, Yaa Asantewaa Girls' Senior High School and St. Louis Senior High School in Kumasi. There are also many elite mixed senior high schools such as Kumasi Academy and Anglican Senior High School, and a host of other public secondary schools, as well as their private counterparts in the city.

Tertiary institutionsEdit

The Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (formerly the Kumasi College of Technology) is the biggest university in the Ashanti Region and the first biggest in Ghana followed by the University of Ghana. Former Secretary-General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan attended this institution. A number of other public and private universities and tertiary institutions have since been founded in Kumasi, some of which are listed below.

Institution Location Private/ Public Affiliation
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Bomso to Anwomaso Public
Wesley College of Education Tafo Public
St Louis College of Education Mmrom Public
Garden City University College Kenyase Private Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology
Christian Service University College Santasi Private University of Ghana
Ghana Baptist University College Amakom Private University of Cape Coast
Valley View University (Kumasi Campus) Oduom Private
University College of Management Studies (Kumasi Campus) Ayeduase Private
Christ Apostolic University College Kwadaso Private
Kessben University Lake Road Private Akenten Appiah-Menka University of Skills Training and Entrepreneurial Development (est. 2020)

formerly the University of Education, Winneba (Kumasi Campus)]] Tanoso



Kumasi is served by the Kumasi Airport. As of May 2020, two airlines offered regularly scheduled flights to Accra. Airlines servicing the airport included Africa World Airlines and Passion Air. In 2013, the Government of Ghana approved expansion plans to the Kumasi Airport to service international flights into the region. The renovation project will span three development stages, with all work expected to be completed by October 2022.[15]

Bus and taxicabEdit

There is public transportation from Kumasi to major cities such as Accra; Tamale, Mim, Ahafo ; Cape Coast, Sunyani; Takoradi; Tema; Ho; Wa; Bolgatanga; Elubo; Aflao, Techiman; Public transport in the city is provided by transit buses, a mix of privately owned mini-buses known as tro-tros, taxicabs and buses. Tro-tros are usually converted mini-buses that run regular, well-known routes. Some taxis also run regular routes, which cost more but provide for a more comfortable ride.

In 2002, the city introduced the metro bus services, a rapid transit system for public road transport in Kumasi (MetroMass).[16] This was to reduce congestion on roads and to make a larger and more organized bus routine system in the city.[17]

In 2017, Uber introduced services in Kumasi, a year after a successful introduction in Accra.


Kumasi is served by the railway lines to Sekondi-Takoradi and Accra. The train service has been suspended for several years because of damaged track, bridges and locomotives. Currently, no trains run to and from Kumasi due to the collapse of the railway corporation. A $6 billion project to upgrade the railways was due to get underway in 2011.[18]


As of 2011, construction of the Boankra Inland Port, about 25 kilometres (16 mi) away, has come to a halt.[19]


Kumasi Sports Stadium

The local football (soccer) team, the Kumasi Asante Kotoko has won several national and continental trophies and awards, and serves as a rival to the Accra-based Hearts of Oak. Their Kumasi Sports Stadium, also known as Baba Yara Stadium, was built in 1959, renovated in 1978, and again in 2007 with a seating capacity of 40,000.[20] It is also the home of King Faisal Football Club, a premier division side.

There is the Royal Golf Club which has the Asantehene as president. Former Leeds United and Ghana national football team footballer Tony Yeboah and professional wrestler Kofi Kingston was born in Kumasi, by the real name Kofi Sarkodie-Mensah.


Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital

Kumasi has the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital to support medical training at the university, the West End Hospital, several other private hospitals, public clinics and hospitals. Recommended private medical facilities include Kumasi Rabito Clinic located at Ahondwo-Daban Kumasi behind the Unity Oil Filling Station. There is also the KNUST hospital that serves people in the university and surrounding communities.

Recreational parks and gardensEdit

Kumasi has four recreational parks which are opened to the public. The list of recreational parks are Abbey's Park which is located some few meters away from Kejetia, Jackson's Park, Hero's Park located on the same premises as the Baba Yara Sports Stadium, and finally the Rattray Park which was commissioned in 2015.

International relationsEdit

Twin towns and sister citiesEdit

Kumasi is twinned with:

Country City County / district / region / state Date
  Ivory Coast   Abidjan   Lagunes 2004
  US   Atlanta   Georgia 2010
  Netherlands   Almere   Flevoland 2001
  US Charlotte   North Carolina 1996
  US   Columbus   Ohio 2008
  Canada Kitchener   Ontario 2010
  US   Newark   New Jersey 1999
  South Africa Tshwane Gauteng 2010
  US Winston-Salem   North Carolina 2001
  UK Methilhill   Scotland 2017
* Numbers in date column list the year of twinning.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Station ID for Kumasi is 65442 Use this station ID to locate the sunshine duration

External linksEdit


  1. ^ "World Population Review". Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  2. ^ "Demographic Characteristics". Ghanadistricts.com. Archived from the original on 3 May 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2010.
  3. ^ a b "COOMASSIE AND MAGDALA: The Story of Two British Campaigns in Africa". Naval & Military Press. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  4. ^ "Kumasi: The Garden City without gardens?". Graphic Online. 31 July 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  5. ^ "The grasscutter shows why it is hard to stop bushmeat hunting". The Economist. 31 August 2017.
  6. ^ Britannica, Kumasi, britannica.com, USA, accessed on June 30, 2019
  7. ^ McCaskie, T. C. "Denkyira in the Making of Asante" in The Journal of African History vol. 48 (2007) no. 1, p. 1
  8. ^ David Owusu-Ansah, Historical Dictionary of Ghana, Rowman & Littlefield, USA, 2014, p. xliii
  9. ^ a b Morgan, Henry James, ed. (1903). Types of Canadian Women and of Women who are or have been Connected with Canada. Toronto: Williams Briggs. p. 160.
  10. ^ "World Weather Information Service–Kumasi". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  11. ^ "Ghana–Kumasi". Centro de Investigaciones Fitosociológicas. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  12. ^ "Station 65442: Kumasi". Global station data 1961–1990—Sunshine Duration. Deutscher Wetterdienst. Archived from the original on 17 October 2017. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  13. ^ J. Gordon Melton, Martin Baumann, ‘‘Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices’’, ABC-CLIO, USA, 2010, p. 1209-1211
  14. ^ "Implement Asamang-Tamfoe community mining plan — Youth group". Joynewsplus.com. 13 January 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  15. ^ "New terminal for Kumasi International Airport to be ready in October 2022". Ghana Broadcasting Corporation. 28 July 2021. Retrieved 1 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  16. ^ "Ashanti Region". Metro Mass Transit Ltd. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
  17. ^ "Bus Rapid Transit System". Metro Mass Transit Ltd. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
  18. ^ "Ghana, China signs railway contract". Ghana News Link. 30 November 2010. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
  19. ^ "Baonkra Inland Port Project, stuck?". Kapital News. Kapital Radio 97.1 FM. 7 February 2011. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
  20. ^ Kumasi Sports Stadium Ready Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. TheStatesManOnline.com.