San Miguel, Bulacan
San Miguel, officially the Municipality of San Miguel (Tagalog: Bayan ng San Miguel), is a 1st class municipality in the province of Bulacan, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 153,882 people. 
San Miguel de Mayumo
|Municipality of San Miguel|
San Miguel Municipal Hall
Map of Bulacan with San Miguel highlighted
|Region||Central Luzon (Region III)|
|Founded||September 29, 1725|
|Barangays||49 (see Barangays)|
|• Type||Sangguniang Bayan|
|• Mayor||Roderick DG. Tiongson|
|• Vice Mayor||John "Bong" A. Alvarez|
|• Electorate||94,457 voters (2019)|
|• Total||231.40 km2 (89.34 sq mi)|
|Elevation||20 m (70 ft)|
(2015 census) 
|• Rank||16 out of 1,489 Municipalities|
|• Density||670/km2 (1,700/sq mi)|
|• Income class||1st municipal income class|
|• Poverty incidence||10.51% (2015)|
|• Revenue||PHP 347.99 million (2017) |
|• Assets||PHP 658.05 million (2017)|
|• Expenditure||PHP 254.89 million (2017)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (PST)|
|IDD : area code||+63 (0)44|
|Climate type||tropical monsoon climate|
The municipality of San Miguel de Mayumo was established in 1763 by Carlos Agustin Maniquiz, Maria Juana Puno - wife of Carlos Agustin Maniquiz and Miguel Pineda, with Pineda as the first town mayor of San Miguel. Miguel Pineda was a native of Angat, Bulacan who decided to settle permanently in the barrio of San Bartolome (now named Barangay Tartaro). He found the place ideal for hunting and was later chosen as the leader of other settlers. He formed an alliance with Mariano Puno, the recognized leader of the adjacent prosperous village called Santo Rosario (now named Barangay Mandile).
The town was previously part of Pampanga, hence San Miguel’s culture having Kapampangan influence. In 1848, the town and the neighbouring barrios, which were then part of Pampanga, were added to the territory of the Province of Bulacan.
There are two accounts on the origin of the town's name:
- According to the 1953 journal History of Bulacan, the town was originally named Mayumo from the Kapampangan term for "sweets". The name San Miguel was added by the Augustinian missionaries who selected Michael the Archangel as the patron saint of the town.
- An account tells that the two leaders decided to form a town named Miguel De Mayumo after the name of Miguel Pineda and Mayumo, from the Kapampangan term and for the goodwill and generosity of Mariano Puno.
The Pact of Biak-Na-BatoEdit
During the Philippine Revolution in 1897, newly appointed Governor-General Fernando Primo de Rivera decided to crush Emilio Aguinaldo and his troops in Cavite, but Aguinaldo fled to Batangas and joined forces with Gen. Miguel Malvar. The Spaniards continue their pursuit but the troops outwitted them by going to the province of Morong (now Rizal) and finally to Biak-na-Bato in San Miguel, Bulacan. Aguinaldo made the mountain caves into his headquarters.
Biak-na-Bato (21.17 km² in the villages of Kalawakan and Talbak in Doña Remedios Trinidad town and the villages of Biak-na-Bato and Sibul) served as one of the camps of the revolutionary Katipunan forces during the Philippine Revolution. It was declared a national park by Manuel L. Quezon on Nov. 16, 1937 through Proclamation No. 223.
During World War II, Japanese Imperial ground troops entered and occupied the town municipality of San Miguel on 1942. Local Filipino troops of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and Philippine Constabulary units retreated into the nearby mountains to become the Bulakeño guerrilla resistance against the Japanese occupation forces until the province's liberation.
San Miguel was the largest town in Bulacan until September 13, 1977 when Doña Remedios Trinidad, the current largest municipality of Bulacan, was established under Presidential Decree No. 1196 during the term of President Ferdinand Marcos.
On August 26, 2007, residents at the foot of the Biak-na-Bato mountains petitioned president Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo to declare the mountains protected areas to stop marble quarrying and mining there.
The town of San Miguel is bounded by Nueva Ecija Province in the northernmost area, Pampanga Province in the west, the town is bounded by two provinces with land borders. The town of San Ildefonso, Bulacan lies next to San Miguel in the southernmost area, Doña Remedios Trinidad in the eastmost area which also borders San Rafael and Angat. San Miguel then was the biggest municipality in the province of Bulacan before some areas were taken and annexed to Doña Remedios Trinidad during the term of Ferdinand Marcos. The geographic nature of the town is diversified and multi-faceted, rich in nature's beauty like waterfall, rivers, caves, few mountains, hilly areas and springs. The mainland are plain agricultural lands, some part of which was substantially eroded due to commercialization and urbanization.
The prevailing climatic conditions in the municipality is categorized into two types: Wet season and dry season.
- Wet Season - (Rainy season or Monsoon season)
- Dry Season - (Summer season)
|Climate data for San Miguel, Bulacan|
|Average high °C (°F)||28
|Average low °C (°F)||20
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||6
|Average rainy days||3.3||2.5||11.7||6.6||17.7||22.2||25.2||23.7||23.2||17.9||9.2||5.2||168.4|
|Source: Meteoblue |
|2015 ||2010 |
|031421049||Santa Rita Bata||1.9%||2,945||2,853||0.61%|
|031421050||Santa Rita Matanda||1.8%||2,829||2,656||1.21%|
|Source: Philippine Statistics Authority   |
In the 2015 census, the population of San Miguel, Bulacan, was 153,882 people,  with a density of 670 inhabitants per square kilometre or 1,700 inhabitants per square mile.
The municipality, along with two other municipalities (Remedios Trinidad and Norzagaray) and one city (San Jose del Monte), is the homeland of the Alta Kabulowan, the first inhabitants of Bulacan whose language is also called Alta Kabulowan. Their language is currently endangered due to an influx of Tagalog speakers.
Current Municipal GovernmentEdit
- Municipal Mayor: Roderick DG. Tiongson
- Municipal Vice Mayor: John "Bong" A. Alvarez
- Sangguniang Bayan Members:
- Christopher "Bunso" T. Beltran
- Melvin B. Santos
- Gerome "Jhong" DC. Reyes
- Emmanuel "Emil" DC. Magtalas
- Richard "Ritchie" P. Dela Cruz
- Jayvee C. Lacsina
- Mark D. Maon
- Anika Corinne S. Tan
- ABC President: Crisanto DG. Tiongson
- Sangguniang Kabataan President: Pol David R. Buencamino
List of GobernadorcilloEdit
|Miguel Pineda||1763||Ignacio Sandulan||1796||Agapito Santa Ana||1827||Victor Buencamino||1858|
|Jose Malapandan||1764||Agustin Payawal||1797||Carlos Morales||1828||Norberto Maniquis||1859|
|Miguel Ligon||1765||1766||Santiago Maniquis||1798||Jacinto Ligon||1829||Eugenio Dantis||1860|
|Miguel Tecson||1767||Marcos Bondoc||1799||Mariano Tecson||1830||Pedro Santiago||1861|
|Miguel Bantog||1768||Nicolas Bacaui||1800||Augustin Santiago||1831||Mariano Macapagal||1862|
|Miguel Ligon||1769||Eusebio Santiago||1801||Isidro Gonzales||1832||Jose Santiago||1863||1864|
|Esteban Bantog||1770||Francisco Bernabe||1802||Eustaquio Ligon||1833||Bonifacio Pengson||1865||1866|
|Miguel Ligon||1771||Calixto Yambot||1803||Vicente Ventura||1834||Tomas Tecson||1867||1868|
|Esteban Sayson||1772||Jose Tuazon||1804||Apolonio Fernando||1835||Antonio David||1869||1870|
|Eulogio Payawal||1773||Baltazar Pangilinan||1805||Severino Payawal||1836||Pelagio de Leon||1871||1872|
|Dionisio Maniquiz||1774||Jose Payawal||1806||Andres de la Cruz||1837||Marcelo V. Bernabe||1873||1874|
|Antonio Bacual||1775||Francisco Libunao||1807||Vicente Felix||1838||Flaviano Esguerra||1875||1876|
|Miguel Ligon||1776||1777||Vicente Sayson||1808||Eusebio Dantis||1839||Juan Buencamino||1877||1878|
|Dionisio Maniquis||1778||Augustin Maniquis||1809||Atanacio Libunao||1840||Calixto Limpingco||1879|
|Andres Bondoc||1779||Lorenzo Ligon||1810||Pedro Ligon||1841||Juan de Guzman||1880|
|Pablo Bondoc||1780||Baltazar Pangilinan||1811||Domingo Pangilinan||1842||Francisco Villarica||1881||1882|
|Alejandro Dantis||1781||Canuto Dantis||1812||Nicolas Libunao||1843||Potenciano Buencamino||1883||1885|
|Juan Fernando||1782||Lorenzo Yambot||1813||Tomas Tecson||1844||Valentin Viola||1886|
|Alejandro Maniquis||1783||Clemente Ligon||1814||Juan Siojo||1845||Jose Santiago||1887|
|Miguel Ventura||1784||Vicente Tecson||1815||Felipe Gonzales||1846||Evaristo Siojo||1888|
|Andres Patiag||1785||Pablo Ventura||1816||Mariano P. Joson||1847||Bartolome Viola||1889|
|Miguel Maniquis||1786||Pantaleon Ligon||1817||Victor Buencamino||1848||Simon Tecson||1890|
|Domingo Libunao||1787||Vicente Dasig||1818||Fulgencio Santiago||1849||Simon Santiago||1891|
|Domingo Santa MAria||1788||Blas Maniquis||1819||Vicente Felix||1850||Jose de Leon||1892|
|Francisco Tecson||1789||Dionisio Fernando||1820||Rufino San Gabriel||1851||Bartolome Viola||1893|
|Marcos Zapala||1790||Jacinto Santiago||1821||Eugenio Dantis||1852||Lucio Maniquis||1894|
|Miguel Quiambao||1791||Manuel Bantog||1822||Tranquilino Gabriel||1853||Ciriaco Libunao||1895|
|Andres Bantog||1792||Narciso Macapagal||1823||Victor Buencamino||1854||Simon T. Libunao||1896|
|Teodoro Tuazon||1793||Mariano delos Santos||1824||Catalino Ligon||1855||Gregorio Marquez||1897|
|Miguel Morales||1794||Lorenzo Tecson||1825||Juan Siojo||1856||Simon Tecson||1898||1899|
|Tibursio Sayson||1795||Lorenzo Ligon||1826||Tibursio Tecson||1857||Jose Buencamino||1990|
List of then MayorsEdit
|Juan Buencamino Sr.||1919||1922|
|Moises V. Ligon||1931||1934|
|Florentino C. Viola||1934||1938|
Luis Santa Maria
Manuel V. Fernando
|1945||Appointed as Alcalde during Philippine Liberation|
|Eugenio Tecson||1945||1951||Remained in position after World War II|
|Conrado S. Pascual||1952||1955|
|Felipe V. Buencamino||1956||1963|
|Benjamin S. Payawal||1963||1967|
|Felix M. Tayag||1964||1967|
|Marcelo Aure||1968||1979||Appointed as Municipal Mayor during Martial Law (Bagong Lipunan) era from 1976 - 1979|
|Juan F. Dela Cruz||1979||1986||Municipal Mayor during Martial Law (Bagong Lipunan) era|
|Manuel Lipana||1986||1987||Transitional Municipal Government during 1987 Referendum|
|Fernando B. Mendez Sr.||1988||1995|
|Santiago C. Sevilla||1995||2004|
|Edmundo Jose "Pop" T. Buencamino||2004||2006||Term not finished; suspended due to his case in Sandiganbayan.|
|Roderick DG. Tiongson||2006||2016||Vice Mayor during "Pop" Buencamino's term; sworn into office as Acting Mayor from 2006 - 2007|
|Marivee Mendez - Coronel||2016||2019||First Female Mayor of San Miguel, Bulacan|
The town has numerous public schools offering elementary and high school education. Some of the elementary public schools are:
- San Miguel North Central School, in barangay Camias
- San Miguel South Central Elementary School, located in population center of the town
Some of the public high schools are:
- San Miguel National High School, located in barangay San Juan
- John J. Russel Memorial High School, located at Sibul
- Vedasto Santiago High School, located in barangay Salacot
- Partida High School, located at Partida
- Balaong National High School located at Barangay Balaong
- Maligaya High School, annex of Vedasto R. Santiago High School, located at Barangay Maligaya
Some of the private schools offering elementary and pre-elementary education are:
- D. C. Nicolas School, located in barangay Tigpalas
- Park Ridge School of Montessori, located in barangay Camias
- Saint Paul University at San Miguel, located in barangay Salangan
- School of Mount St. Mary, located in barangay Santa Rita (New)
- Waminal Achievers Academy, Incorporated, located in population center of the town
- God's Love Children's Advancement Center, location in Santa Rita (Old)
Some of the tertiary schools are:
- Bulacan Polytechnic College (San Miguel Campus) in barangay Salacot
- Integrated College of Business and Technology at barangay Salangan
- Saint Paul University at San Miguel, located in barangay Salangan
- Microlink Institute of Science and Technology (San Miguel Campus) in barangay Camias
Notable people from San MiguelEdit
- Nicanor Abelardo - Kundiman composer.
- Virgilio S. Almario - National Artist for Literature. Poet, critic, translator, editor, teacher, and cultural manager.
- Felipe S. Buencamino, Sr. - Former Secretary of Foreign Affairs and one of the founders of Iglesia Filipina Independiente. One of the authors of the Malolos Constitution
- Alfredo Lim – Former Philippine Senator, then Mayor of Manila and former Director of the National Bureau of Investigation.
- Pablo Tecson – Former Governor General of Bulacan and later served as Insular Secretary of the Philippine Bureau of Agriculture.
- Emiliano Tecson – Participated in the ratification of the first Philippine Constitution with Emilio Aguinaldo.
- Simon Tecson – Filipino General who served as revolutionary Colonel of the Siege of Baler. Former mayor of San Miguel, Bulacan.
- Trinidad Tecson – One of the renowned female revolutionaries of the Philippine Revolution. Known as the Mother of Biak-na-Bato. Also known as 'The Mother of Philippine Red Cross' and 'Mother of Mercy'.
- Maximo Viola - Doctor, revolutionary, and initial financier of the publication of Jose Rizal's novel Noli me tangere (novel)
- Carlos A. Santos-Viola – Filipino architect. Best known for designing and building churches for the Iglesia ni Cristo religious group.
- Pablo Payawal - Congressman, House of Representative, 2nd District of Bulacan. (1934-1935)
- Narcisa Buencamino-de Leon - One of the founders of LVN Pictures, one of the biggest film studios in the history of Philippine Cinema
- Von Lazaro - New York-based fashion designer
- Magtanggol Contreras Gunigundo- Chairman, Presidential Commission on Good Government(PCGG) from 1992-1998; and Constitutional Convention Delegate representing the 2nd District of Bulacan, 1971 Constitutional Convention
- Municipality of San Miguel | (DILG)
- "Province: Bulacan". PSGC Interactive. Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
- Census of Population (2015). "Region III (Central Luzon)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
- "PSA releases the 2015 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates". Quezon City, Philippines. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
- ""Commission on Audit 2017 Report-Bulacan"". Quezon City, Philippines: Commission on Audit. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
- Cruz, Jose; Liwanag, Aurora; Celis, Arturo; Manikis, Filipina; Sambol, Jose; Mendoza, Leticia; Manio, Zenaida; Salamat, Graciana; Trinidad, Lucina; Lorenzo, Victorina (April 1953). "History of Bulacan" (JPG, PDF). National Library of the Philippines Techno Aklatan. Manila, Philippines. National Library of the Philippines. p. 39. Retrieved 5 August 2019.
- Cruz, Jose; Liwanag, Aurora; Celis, Arturo; Manikis, Filipina; Sambol, Jose; Mendoza, Leticia; Manio, Zenaida; Salamat, Graciana; Trinidad, Lucina; Lorenzo, Victorina (April 1953). "History of Bulacan" (JPG, PDF). National Library of the Philippines Techno Aklatan. Manila, Philippines. National Library of the Philippines. p. 12. Retrieved 5 August 2019.
- Cruz, Jose; Liwanag, Aurora; Celis, Arturo; Manikis, Filipina; Sambol, Jose; Mendoza, Leticia; Manio, Zenaida; Salamat, Graciana; Trinidad, Lucina; Lorenzo, Victorina (April 1953). "History of Bulacan" (JPG, PDF). National Library of the Philippines Techno Aklatan. Manila, Philippines. National Library of the Philippines. p. 13. Retrieved 5 August 2019.
- Presidential Decree No. 223 (16 November 1937), Establishing As Biak-Na-Bato National Park For The Benefit And Enjoyment Of The People Of The Philippines Parcel Of Land Situated In The Municipality Of San Miguel, Province Of Bulacan, Island Of Luzon, retrieved 5 August 2019
- Presidential Decree No. 1196 (13 September 1977), Establishing As Biak-Na-Bato National Park For The Benefit And Enjoyment Of The People Of The Philippines Parcel Of Land Situated In The Municipality Of San Miguel, Province Of Bulacan, Island Of Luzon, retrieved 5 August 2019
- Inquirer.net, Bulaceños want Biak-na-Bato declared a protected area
- "San Miguel: Average Temperatures and Rainfall". Meteoblue. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
- Philippine Standard Geographic Code listing for San Miguel - National Statistical Coordination Board
- Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Region III (Central Luzon)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
- Censuses of Population (1903–2007). "Region III (Central Luzon)". Table 1. Population Enumerated in Various Censuses by Province/Highly Urbanized City: 1903 to 2007. NSO.
- "Province of Bulacan". Municipality Population Data. Local Water Utilities Administration Research Division. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
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