The Sandiganbayan (lit.'Support of the nation'[2]) is a special appellate collegial court in the Philippines that has jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases involving graft and corrupt practices and other offenses committed by public officers and employees, including those in government-owned and controlled corporations. The special court was established by Presidential Decree No. 1486. It was subsequently modified by Presidential Decree No. 1606 and by Republic Acts 7975, 8249 and 10660.[3][4][5][6][7] It is equal in rank to the Court of Appeals, and consists of fourteen Associate Justices and one Presiding Justice.[8] The Office of the Ombudsman owns exclusive authority to bring cases to the Sandiganbayan.[9]

Sandiganbayan
Seal of the Sandiganbayan
Flag of the Sandiganbayan
LocationCentennial Building, Commonwealth Avenue, National Government Center, Diliman, Quezon City
Composition methodPresidential appointment from the shortlist submitted by the Judicial and Bar Council
Authorized byConstitution of the Philippines
Appeals toSupreme Court of the Philippines
Appeals fromRegional Trial Court
Number of positions21
Annual budget₱1.37 billion (2020)[1]
Websitesb.judiciary.gov.ph
Presiding Justice
CurrentlyHon. Amparo M. Cabotaje-Tang
SinceOctober 7, 2013
Facade in 2023

The Sandiganbayan is housed in the Centennial Building, Commonwealth Avenue, National Government Center, Diliman, Quezon City, Metro Manila.

History

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Sandiganbayan

The Sandiganbayan was established under the administration of President Ferdinand E. Marcos on June 11, 1978, by Presidential Decree No. 1486 in the 1973 Constitution. The court was equal in rank to the Regional Trial Courts (then known as the Courts of First Instance). On December 10, 1978, Presidential Decree No. 1606 elevated the ranking of the Sandiganbayan to match that of the Court of Appeals, the second-highest judicial court in the Philippines. The Sandiganbayan began operations on February 12, 1979.[10]

Amendments were introduced in Republic Acts No. 7975 and No. 8249, after the EDSA Revolution in 1986, which limited the jurisdiction of the Sandiganbayan to "cases involving public officials occupying positions classified as salary grade 27 and higher."[10]

The Sandiganbayan currently sits in seven divisions of three justices each, as per R.A. No. 10660, amending P.D. No. 1606.[11]

Martial law

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When the Sandiganbayan began operations in 1979, it was composed of only one division (with Hon. Manuel R. Pamaran as Presiding Justice and two Associate Justices) and a 15-membered skeleton crew. In 1981, a second division was launched. A third division was formed on August 4, 1982.[10]

Aquino investigation

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In the wake of the assassination of Benigno Aquino, Jr. in August 1983, Ferdinand Marcos submitted the case for an immediate trial to the Sandiganbayan. Marcos' critics, who included business leaders and church leaders, claimed that the Sandiganbayan had no experience in trying a murder and demanded an appointment of an imperial prosecutor and independent judicial body instead.[12]

In 1984, the 26 people accused in the assassination of Aquino were acquitted by the Sandiganbayan in a 90-page verdict. The verdict disregarded all findings of the Agrava Commission, which was appointed to investigate the assassination.[13]

On June 13, 1985, the Sandiganbayan, with the aid of the commission, threw out the case against General Fabian Ver, the chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, together with seven other military men. The Sandiganbayan voted for the exclusion of their testimonies in that they were self-incriminatory and inadmissible as evidence. The Supreme Court upheld this decision by a vote of 10–3 in August. Ver was soon reinstated as chief of staff by Marcos on December 2.[14]

Post-martial law

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1987 Constitution

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Corazon Aquino inauguration

On February 2, 1987, a new constitution was ratified under President Corazon Aquino. The 1987 Constitution dictated the separation of powers and a system of checks and balances between the executive, legislature, and judiciary branches.[15]

The 1987 Constitution expanded the jurisdiction of the Sandiganbayan to include cases investigated by the Presidential Commission on Good Government (PCGG) involving only on ill-gotten wealth, dictated by Executive Orders No. 14 and No. 14-A (main SB site & EO 14). In April 1994, Imelda Marcos and three former officials of the Ministry of Human Settlements (MHS) were indicted for the misappropriation of Php 97.9 million in MHS funds in 1985. At the same time, however, the Sandiganbayan dismissed charges against Imelda Marcos in connection with the sale of $125.9 million in Central Bank Treasury notes in the 1980s.[16]

Under the 1987 Philippine Constitution and the Ombudsman Act of 1989, the Office of the Ombudsman independently monitors all three branches of the government for political corruption.

Laws on graft and corruption in the Philippines

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Laws on graft and corruption have been in effect as early as the 1950s, before the creation of the Sandiganbayan. Graft and corruption laws govern both public officers and natural persons.[17] The collection of these laws is overseen by the Office of the Ombudsman.

Republic Act Nos. 3019 and 1379

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The Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act is a law that stipulates that the Philippine Government shall repress certain acts of both public officers and the natural persons that may constitute graft or corruption. Acts that are subject under these laws include graft, divulging otherwise private information, negligence in warranted requests, undue injury by a public officer to any party – private or government – in the form of unwarranted benefits or disadvantages.[17]

In the case of unexplained accrual of wealth, R.A. No. 1379 states that a petition may be filed against any public officer who has acquired property unlawfully, be it through graft or any form of corruption. This petition should come from the Solicitor General of the Republic of the Philippines as per complaint by a taxpayer.

Republic Act No. 7080

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Any public officer who amasses a certain amount of ill-gotten wealth (at least fifty-million pesos) through means of criminal acts – be it by himself or in connivance with other, shall be subject to reclusion perpetua, a form of imprisonment for life. Any accomplice shall be sentenced with the same.[18]

Under the Government Procurement Reform Act, public officers who commits any of the following who colludes with private individuals performs the following illegal acts in RA 9184 will suffer an imprisonment of not less than six years and one day, but not more than fifteen years.

Jurisdiction

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Position of the Sandiganbayan in the Philippine judicial system as presented by the Department of Budget and Management.[19]

To determine whether the Sandiganbayan has jurisdiction, lawyers look into two criteria, namely: the nature of the offense and the salary grade of the public official.[20]

The Sandiganbayan shall have original exclusive jurisdiction over:

  • Violation of Anti-graft and Corrupt Practices Law (RA 3019)
  • Forfeitures of Illegally Acquired Wealth (RA 1379)
  • Crimes committed by public officers namely
    • Direct, Indirect and Qualified Bribery
    • Corruption of public officials
  • Other offenses or felonies whether simple or complexed with other crimes committed in relation to their office by public officials.
  • Civil and Criminal Cases filed pursuant to and in connection with Executive Orders 1, 2, 14 & 14-A issued in 1986
  • Petitions for issuance of Writ of mandamus, prohibition, certiorari, habeas corpus, injunction and other ancillary writs and processes in aid of its appellate jurisdiction; Provided, jurisdiction is not exclusive of the Supreme Court.
  • Petitions for Quo Warranto arising or that may arise in cases filed or that may be filed under EO 1, 2, 14 & 14- A

Provided that the accused belongs to a salary grade of 27 or higher, the Sandiganbayan has jurisdiction over:

  • Violation of Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards (RA 6713)
  • Violation of the Plunder Law (RA 7080)
  • Violation of The Heinous Crime Law (RA 7659)
  • Violation of The Anti-Money Laundering Law when committed by a public officer (RA 9160)
  • Presidential Decree 46 referred to as the gift-giving decree which makes it punishable for any official or employee to receive directly or indirectly and for the private person to give or offer to give any gift, present or other valuable thing on any occasion including Christmas, when such gift, present or valuable thing is given by reason of his official position, regardless of whether or not the same is for past favors or the giver hopes or expects to receive a favor or better treatment in the future from the public official or employee concerned in the discharge of his official functions.
    • Included within the prohibition is the throwing of parties or entertainment in honor of the official or employee or his immediate relatives.
  • Presidential Decree 749 which grants immunity from prosecution to any person who voluntarily gives information about any violation of Art.210, 211 or 212 of the RPC, RA 3019, Sec.345 of the NIRC, Sec. 3604 of the Customs and Tariff Code and other provisions of the said Codes penalizing abuse or dishonesty on the part of the public officials concerned and other laws, rules and regulations penalizing graft, corruption and other forms of official abuse and who willingly testifies against the public official or employee subject to certain conditions.

Private individuals can also be sued in cases before the Sandiganbayan if they are alleged to be in conspiracy with the public officer.[20]

The Sandiganbayan is vested with appellate jurisdiction over final judgments, resolutions or orders of the Regional Trial Court whether in the exercise of their original or appellate jurisdiction over crimes and civil cases falling within the original exclusive jurisdiction of the Sandiganbayan but which were committed by public officers below Salary Grade 27.[20]

Composition

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The Sandiganbayan has a total of fifteen departments (two head offices, twelve divisions, and one Legal Research and Technical Staff) and a total of 385 authorized positions. 335 of 385 of these positions are filled.[21]

Electoral procedure

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According to the Presidential Decree No. 1606, Section 1, the Presiding Justice and all Associate Justices shall be appointed by the president, as amended by Republic Act 8249.[22]

Appointment of the Court Officials and other employees, however, is not dependent on the president. According to Rule II, Section 7 of the Revised Internal Rules of the Sandiganbayan, "The Supreme Court shall appoint the Clerk of Court, the Division Clerks of Court and all other personnel of the Sandiganbayan upon recommendation of the Sandiganbayan en banc chosen from a list of qualified applicants prepared in accordance with the Civil Service Law, rules and regulations."[23]

Qualifications

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Presidential Decree No. 1606 further states that "No person shall be appointed Presiding Justice or Associate Justice of the Sandiganbayan; unless he is natural-born citizen of the Philippines, at least 40 years of age and for at least ten years has been a judge of a court of record or been engaged in the practice of law in the Philippines or has held office requiring admission to the bar as a pre-requisite for a like period.[22]

Justices

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Division and roles

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The Sandiganbayan originally had three divisions that assisted the Office of the Presiding Justice, according to the Article XIII of the 1973 Constitution. The number of divisions was raised to five divisions in 1995. In 2015, through the Republic Act 10660, under the Aquino Administration, the number of divisions was expanded to seven divisions.[24] Currently, the Sandiganbayan has Office of the Presiding Justice, Office of the Clerk of Court, Legal Research and Technical Staff, seven divisions (Office of the Deputy Clerk of Court), and five other divisions namely Judicial Records Division, Administrative Division, Budget and Finance Division, Management Information System Division, Security and Sheriff Services Division. The functions and roles of these offices and divisions are:[22][25]

  • Office of the Presiding Justice – Enjoy precedence over the other members of the Sandiganbayan in all official functions; implements the policies, executes the resolutions and enforces the orders of the Court en banc; performs the functions specifically vested upon him by law, rules and regulations or those implied therefrom; performs all other functions and duties inherent in his position.
  • Office of the Clerk of Court – The Clerk of Court is the administrative officer of the Sandiganbayan. He shall discharge his functions under the control and supervision of the Sandiganbayan en banc through the Presiding Justice. As administrative officer, he shall take direct charge of the administrative operations of the Sandiganbayan and exercise general supervision over its subordinate officials and employees except those belonging to the staff of the Presiding Justice and the Associate Justices. He shall assist the Presiding Justice in the formulation of programs and policies for consideration and action of the Sandiganbayan en banc. The Clerk of Court shall act as its secretariat and prepare its agenda, minutes of meetings and resolutions.
  • Legal Research and Technical Staff – Provides legal and technical assistance to the Court by conducting legal research and studies; takes charge of all legal and related matters.
  • Office of the Deputy Clerk of Court (seven divisions) – Assists the Clerk of Court in providing technical and administrative support and assistance to their particular Division of the Court; takes charge of the pre and post adjudicative matters relative to cases assigned to the First Division.
  • Judicial Records Division – Takes charge of docketing of cases; plans, implements and evaluates programs for the systematic management of judicial records; and performs other related functions. Prepares entries of judgment; issues copies of decisions, resolutions and orders; maintains a systematic filing and records keeping; and handles the Court's information system, monitoring requests for statistical data.
  • Administrative Division – Attends to the manpower development and service needs of the Court; and performs all functions relative to administrative and personnel matters. Attends to the procurement and maintenance of the properties, supplies and equipment of the Court, including the Court's physical plant Takes charge of the collection and disbursement of the Court.
  • Budget and Finance Division – Prepares and executes the budget of the Court; initiates plans and formula for more effective utilization of funds allotted to the Court; fiscalizes the agency's financial interest including disclosure of deficiencies in control needing corrections. Keeps accounting records for the Court; prepares reports required by the Department of Budget and Management, Commission on Audit and other government agencies.
  • Management Information System Division – Provides technical services related to the planning, development, implementation and maintenance of information systems; takes care of all information and communications technology requirements of the Court.
  • Security and Sheriff Services Division – In charge of the formulation of plans, implements and evaluates program for the systematic management of security of the Sandiganbayan premises, property and personnel and performs other related functions; takes charge of the formulation of systems for the effective services of Court processes and enforcement of Writs issued by the various Divisions of the Court; serves as liaison office with the various law enforcement agencies and the media regarding all court orders and processes issued by the various divisions of the Court, and other court related matters; takes custody of all accused processing their bail for their temporary liberty and/or to turn-over accused who voluntarily surrenders to the authorized detention centers; oversee that all judicial and extrajudicial proceedings are accomplished; takes charge of the formulation of effective management and implementation of all kinds of court orders or processes and writs coming from the various divisions of the Court.

Cases

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Procedures

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The Sandiganbayan holds regular sessions in its principal office in Metro Manila. Sessions may be held outside of Metro Manila when authorized by the Presiding Justice. Cases are heard either en banc or more commonly, by divisions.[26]

Cases are distributed among the divisions through a raffle system. The assignment of a case to a division is permanent, regardless of changes in constitution. Justices may inhibit (i.e., recuse) themselves from a case if they served as Ponente, the Member to whom the Court, after its deliberation on the merits of a case, assigns the writing of its decision or resolution in the case[27]. in the appealed decision of the lower court, or if they or their family members are personally related with the case, or for any other compelling reason. In case of inhibition (recusal) or disqualification, the case will remain with the same division, but the recused justice will be replaced.[26]

Cases may reach the Sandiganbayan either through an appeal from a Regional Trial Court or by original petition filed with the Sandiganbayan.[26] After a case is raffled to a Division, the accused party must be arraigned within thirty days. A pre-trial conference is then held to reach an agreement and issue a pre-trial order. The case is then taken to trial.[28] Following the Speedy Trial Act of 1998, no trial may exceed six months from its starting date. However, the act also allows for certain delays that are excluded from the computed time of trial, including delays caused by other related proceedings involving the accused, absence of the accused or essential witness, and mental or physical incompetence of the accused to stand trial.[29]

Adjudication

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Cases are deemed submitted for decision after the last brief, pleading, or memorandum is filed, or after the deadline for doing so has passed. All adjudicatory action is exercised through the divisions of the Sandiganbayan. The rendition of judgment or final order is based on the unanimous vote of the three Justices in the deciding division. When the Sandiganbayan sits en banc to resolve motions and other incidents, at least eight justices must vote in order to adopt a resolution.[26]

In a joint trial involving multiple cases, a joint or separate judgment may be rendered by the division. In cases involving multiple accused, the division may also render judgment for one or more of the accused by a unanimous vote.[26]

If a unanimous vote cannot be reached in any case, a special division of five will be formed to decide the case by majority vote. Promulgation is done by reading the judgment aloud with the accused present along with any Justice from the deciding division. Decisions are published in the Official Gazette or the official website of the Sandiganbayan.[26]

Appeals

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In general, a party sentenced to any penalty lower than death, life imprisonment, or reclusion perpetua may appeal by filing a motion for reconsideration or a motion for new trial within fifteen days of promulgation of judgment. If a new trial is granted, the previous judgment will be overruled and the new judgment rendered. New trials must also not exceed six months in duration, albeit allowing for certain delays as specified in the Speedy Trial Act.[29] For civil cases, the accused party may file for a petition for a writ of certiorari with the Supreme Court. If the party files an appeal to the Supreme Court, any motion of reconsideration filed to the Sandiganbayan will be deemed abandoned.[26]

If the accused party wishes to appeal from a sentence of life imprisonment or reclusion perpetua, a notice of appeal is filed with the Sandiganbayan and presented to the adverse party. In cases where the Sandiganbayan sentences the accused to death penalty, an automatic appeal follows where the Supreme Court will conduct a review of judgment before the final decision is rendered.[26]

Notable cases

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Jinggoy Estrada vs. Sandiganbayan

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In June 2014, plunder charges against former Philippine senator Jinggoy Estrada and several other members of Congress allegedly involved in the pork barrel scam run by Janet Lim-Napoles were filed by the Ombudsman before the Sandiganbayan. Estrada was accused of plundering ₱183 million from the Priority Development Assistance Fund.[30]

Withdrawal of justices
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In December 2014, all three justices of the Sandiganbayan Fifth Division (Associate Justices Roland Jurado, Alexander Gesmundo and Ma. Theresa Gómez-Estoesta) assigned to the case against Estrada recused themselves from the case for "personal reasons". This marked the first time in the court's history that an entire division withdrew from hearing a case. Though the justices refused to elaborate on their reasons for recusal, the withdrawal was said to have been due to "pressure" from the public to deny Estrada's petition for bail.[31]

Imelda Marcos vs. Sandiganbayan

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In 1991, ten counts of graft were filed against former first lady Imelda Marcos before the Sandiganbayan. Marcos was accused of creating private Swiss foundations during her time as governor of Metro Manila, between 1978 and 1984. She was also accused of violating the Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act by holding financial interests in multiple private enterprises. The government has since uncovered Marcos Swiss deposits amounting to $658 million.[32]

Another corruption case against Marcos involving "unlawfully acquired" art collections amounting to $24 million has been brought to the Sandiganbayan by appeals from the Presidential Commission on Good Government and the Office of the Solicitor General. The case is being handled by the Special First Division of the Sandiganbayan.[32]

Delays in court proceedings
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The case against Imelda Marcos has been ongoing for over 26 years due to multiple causes of delay in court proceedings. In 2017, Marcos was absent from what was scheduled to be her last day of trial for the graft case. In the same year, the trial was reset by the Fifth Division due to the failure of the defense to present their last evidence in the case.[32]

Membership

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Incumbent justices

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The Sandiganbayan consists of a Presiding justice and twenty associate justices. Among the current members of the Court, Rafael Lagos is the longest-serving justice, with a tenure of 4,966 days (13 years, 218 days) as of July 14, 2024; the most recent justice to enter the court is Juliet M. Manalo-San Gaspar, whose tenure began on September 26, 2023.
Number of Incumbent Justices  by 2 (retirements of Justices Dela Cruz and Herrera Jr.)

Office Justice
(Date of Birth)
Date Appointed[33] Appointed by Date of Retirement
(70 years old)[34]
Replacing Position
Presiding Justice Amparo Cabotaje-Tang
(1954-11-08) November 8, 1954 (age 69)
October 7, 2013 Aquino III Nov 8, 2024 Villaruz, Jr Third Division, Chairperson
Senior Associate Justice
Rafael Lagos
(1954-12-22) December 22, 1954 (age 69)
December 9, 2010 Aquino III December 22, 2024 Geraldez Fifth Division, Chairperson
Associate Justice Maria Theresa Dolores Gomez-Estoesta
(1967-03-17) March 17, 1967 (age 57)
January 20, 2014 Aquino III March 17, 2037 Cabotaje-Tang Seventh Division, Chairperson
Associate Justice Sarah Jane Fernandez
(1969-05-14) May 14, 1969 (age 55)
May 5, 2015 Aquino III May 14, 2039 Ong Sixth Division, Chairperson
Associate Justice Michael Frederick Musñgi
Michael Frederick L. Musñgi
(1965-04-14) April 14, 1965 (age 59)
January 20, 2016 Aquino III April 14, 2035 New Seat Fourth Division, Chairperson
Associate Justice Maria Geraldine Faith Abtacia-Econg
(1965-08-06) August 6, 1965 (age 58)
January 20, 2016 Aquino III August 6, 2035 New Seat Second Division, Chairperson
Associate Justice Maria Theresa Mendoza-Arcega
(1965-12-18) December 18, 1965 (age 58)
January 20, 2016 Aquino III December 18, 2035 New Seat First Division, Chairperson
Associate Justice Karl Miranda
(1957-10-09) October 9, 1957 (age 66)
January 20, 2016 Aquino III October 9, 2027 New Seat Sixth Division, Senior Member
Associate Justice Zaldy Trespeses
(1972-12-30) December 30, 1972 (age 51)
January 20, 2016 Aquino III December 30, 2042 New Seat Seventh Division, Senior Member
Associate Justice Bernelito Fernandez
(1955-06-09) June 9, 1955 (age 69)
October 28, 2016 Duterte June 9, 2025 Diaz-Baldos Third Division, Senior Member
Associate Justice Lorifel Lacap-Pahimna
(1961-02-10) February 10, 1961 (age 63)
Mar 1, 2017 Duterte February 10, 2031 Inoturan Fourth Division, Senior Member
Associate Justice Edgardo Caldona
(1970-02-12) February 12, 1970 (age 54)
Mar 10, 2017 Duterte February 12, 2040 Hernandez Second Division, Senior Member
Associate Justice Bayani Jacinto
(1969-04-30) April 30, 1969 (age 55)
May 29, 2017 Duterte April 30, 2039 Jurado First Division, Senior Member
Associate Justice Kevin Narce Vivero
(1960-01-02) January 2, 1960 (age 64)
November 28, 2017 Duterte January 2, 2030 Martires Sixth Division, Junior Member
Associate Justice Maryann Corpus-Mañalac
(1966-07-27) July 27, 1966 (age 57)
December 8, 2017 Duterte July 27, 2036 Cornejo Fifth Division, Senior Member
Associate Justice Georgina Dumpit-Hidalgo
(1964-04-14) April 14, 1964 (age 60)
January 18, 2018 Duterte April 14, 2034 Ponferrada Seventh Division, Junior Member
Associate Justice Ronald Moreno
(1970-01-23) January 23, 1970 (age 54)
June 8, 2018 Duterte January 23, 2040 Gesmundo Third Division, Junior Member
Associate Justice Arthur Malabagio
(1965-01-10) January 10, 1965 (age 59)
March 4, 2022 Duterte January 10, 2035 Cruz Second Division, Junior Member
Associate Justice Juliet Manalo-San Gaspar
(1971-07-02) July 2, 1971 (age 53)
September 26, 2023 Marcos Jr. July 2, 2041 Quiroz First Division, Junior Member
Associate Justice Marcos Jr. Herrera Jr. Fourth Division, Junior Member
Associate Justice Marcos Jr. Dela Cruz Fifth Division, Junior Member

Membership Timeline (Cabotaje-Tang court)

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Note: The vertical Blue line denotes "now" (14 July 2024).

Bar Key:   Macapagal-Arroyo appointee   Aquino III appointee   Duterte appointee   Marcos Jr. appointee

Age Timeline of each incumbent Sandiganbayan Justices

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JUliet Manalo San-GasparArthur MalabaguioRonald MorenoGeorgina HidalgoMaryann Corpus-MañalacKevin Narce ViveroBayani JacintoEdgardo CaldonaLorifel PahimnaBernelito FernandezZaldy TrespresesKarl MirandaMaria Theresa Mendoza-ArcegaGeraldine Faith EcongMichael Frederick MusñgiSarah Jane T. FernandezMaria Theresa Dolores Gomez-EstoestaRafael LagosAmparo Cabotaje-Tang

Demographics

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By appointing President

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President Total

(Percentage)

Justices Seat Change
Aquino III 9
(42.86%)
  • A. Cabotaje-Tang
    Presiding Justice
  • R. Lagos
    Senior Associate Justice
  • M. Gomez-Estoesta
  • G. Econg
  • S. Fernandez
  • M. Mendoza-Arcega
  • K. Miranda
  • M. Musñgi
  • Z. Trespeses
  by 1
Duterte 9
(42.86%)
  • E. Caldona
  • M. Corpus-Mañalac
  • B. Fernandez
  • G. Hidalgo
  • B. Jacinto
  • L. Lacap-Pahimna
  • A Malabaguio
  • R. Moreno
  • K. Vivero
 
Bongbong Marcos 1
(4.76%)
J. Manalo-San Gaspar  
Vacant 2
(9.52%)
  by 2
Number of Justices by appointing President
President Number of Justices appointed
Benigno Aquino III
9
Rodrigo Duterte
9
Bongbong Marcos
1

By gender

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Gender Total
(Percentage)
Justices Changes in Numbers
Male 10

(47.62%)

  1. C. Caldona
  2. B. Fernandez
  3. B. Jacinto
  4. R. Lagos
    Senior Associate Justice
  5. A. Malabaguio
  6. K. Miranda
  7. R. Moreno
  8. M. Musñgi
  9. Z. Trespeses
  10. K. Viviero
  by 2
Female 9

(42.86%)

  1. A. Cabotaje-Tang
    Presiding Justice
  2. M. Corpus-Mañalac
  3. G. Econg
  4. S. Fernandez
  5. G. Hidalgo
  6. M. Gomez-Estoesta
  7. L. Lacap-Pahimna
  8. J. Manalo-San Gaspar
  9. M. Mendoza-Arcega
 
Vacant 2
(9.52%)
  by 2
Number of Justices by Gender
Gender Number of Justices by Gender
Male
10
Female
9

By tenure

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Year Total Retiring Justices
2024 2
  • A. Cabotaje-Tang
    Senior Associate Justice
  • R. Lagos
2025 1 B. Fernandez
2027 1 K. Miranda
2030 1 K. Viviero
2031 1 L. Pahimna
2034 1 G. Hidalgo
2035 3
  • M. Musñgi
  • M. Mendoza-Arcega
  • A. Malabaguio
2036 1 M. Corpuz-Mañalac
2037 3
  • M. Gomez-Estoesta
  • S. Fernandez
  • G. Econg
2039 2 B. Jacinto
J. Manalo-San Gaspar
2040 2 R. Moreno
E. Caldona
2041 1
  • J. Manalo-San Gaspar
2042 in1
  • Z. Trespreses

Roll of Sandiganbayan Justices (1978–present)

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No. NOSJ SOT Pos. AO Rep. PJ (s) EOT
1 Manuel Pamaran Dec 1, 1978 AJ Marcos, Sr. + First Presiding Justice Dec 10, 1978
Dec 10, 1978 PJ Marcos, Sr. + First Presiding Justice Mar 31, 1986
2 Bernardo Fernandez Dec 10, 1978 AJ Marcos, Sr. + Pamaran Jun 11, 1981
3 Romeo Escareal Dec 10, 1978[i] AJ Marcos, Sr. + Pamaran Mar 5, 1996
4 Buenaventura Guerrero Dec 8, 1980 AJ Marcos, Sr. + Pamaran May 16, 1986
5 Conrado Molina Dec 8, 1980 AJ Marcos, Sr. + Pamaran Jul 18, 1992
6 Moises Kallos Dec 8, 1980 AJ Marcos, Sr. + Pamaran Dec 15, 1983
7 Ramon Jabson Nov 20, 1981 AJ Marcos, Sr. Fernandez Pamaran May 18, 1988
8 Fidel Purisima Aug 4, 1982 AJ Marcos, Sr. + Pamaran Mar 10, 1984
9 Francisco Consolacion Aug 4, 1982 AJ Marcos, Sr. + Pamaran
10 Romulo Quimbo Aug 4, 1982 AJ Marcos, Sr. + Pamaran May 16, 1986
11 Augusto Amores Oct 7, 1984 AJ Marcos, Sr. Kallos Pamaran Jul 5, 1995
12 Amante Alconcel Oct 7, 1984 AJ Marcos, Sr. Purisima Pamaran May 16, 1986
13 Bienvenido Vera Cruz Oct 7, 1984 AJ Marcos, Sr. Consolacion Pamaran
14 Francis Garchitorena Apr 18, 1986 PJ C. Aquino Pamaran Escareal (acting) Jan 16, 2002
15 Regino C. Hermosisima Jr. May 16, 1986 AJ C. Aquino None Garchitorena Jul 18, 1995
16 Luciano Joson May 21, 1986 AJ C. Aquino None Garchitorena Jan 20, 1990
17 Cipriano del Rosario May 22, 1986 AJ C. Aquino None Garchitorena Mar 15, 2001
18 Jose Balajadia May 30, 1986 AJ C. Aquino None Garchitorena Feb 14, 1998
19 Nathanael Grospe Dec 2, 1988 AJ C. Aquino Jabson Garchitorena Jan 16, 1993
20 Sabino de Leon Jr. Mar 13, 1990 AJ C. Aquino Joson Garchitorena Oct 11, 1999
21 Narciso Atienza Sep 14, 1992 AJ Ramos Molina Garchitorena Dec 17, 1993
22 Minita Chico-Nazario May 10, 1993 AJ Ramos Grospe Garchitorena Feb 28, 2003
Feb 26, 2003
acting since
Jan 16, 2002
PJ Macapagal-Arroyo Garchitorena Sandoval (acting) Feb 10, 2004
23 Roberto Lagman Nov 28, 1994 AJ Ramos Atienza Garchitorena Feb 14, 1998
24 Harriet Demetriou Aug 28, 1995 AJ Ramos Amores Garchitorena
25 Edilberto Sandoval Mar 11, 1996[ii] AJ Ramos + Garchitorena Sep 17, 2010
Sep 17, 2010 PJ Macapagal-Arroyo Geraldez Villaruz Jr. (acting) Oct 4, 2011
26 Leonardo Cruz Mar 11, 1996 AJ Ramos Hermosisima Jr. Garchitorena Mar 11, 1997
27 Teresita De Castro Sep 8, 1997 AJ Ramos Escareal Garchitorena Dec 15, 2004
Dec 15, 2004 PJ Arroyo Chico-Nazario Sandoval (acting) Dec 3, 2007
28 Anaclet Badoy Jr. Sep 8, 1997 AJ Ramos L. Cruz Garchitorena Mar 11, 2002
29 German Lee Jr. Sep 8, 1997 AJ Ramos + Garchitorena Dec 17, 1998
30 Godofredo Legaspi Sep 8, 1997 AJ Ramos + Garchitorena Sep 8, 2006
31 Narciso S. Nario Sep 8, 1997 AJ Ramos + Garchitorena Jan 15, 2002
32 Catalino Castañeda Jr. Sep 8, 1997 AJ Ramos + Garchitorena Jan 15, 2002
33 Alfredo Gustillo Oct 5, 1998 AJ Estrada + Garchitorena Mar 3, 1999
34 Gregory S. Ong Oct 5, 1998 [a] AJ Estrada Ballajadia Garchitorena Sep 23, 2014
35 Ricardo Ilarde Oct 7, 1998 AJ Estrada Lagman Garchitorena Mar 3, 2001
36 Rodolfo Palattao Oct 9, 1998 AJ Estrada Demetriou Garchitorena Mar 3, 2003
37 Maria Cristina Cortez-Estrada Oct 19, 1998 AJ Estrada Lee, Jr. Garchitorena Jul 2, 2009
Jul 2, 2009 PJ Arroyo Peralta Villaruz Jr. (acting) Nov 30, 2009
38 Raoul Victorino Jan 31, 2000 AJ Estrada Gustillo Garchitorena Feb 15, 2005
39 Nicodemo Ferrer Jan 31, 2000 AJ Estrada de León, Jr. Garchitorena Feb 15, 2002
40 Francisco Villaruz Jr. Oct 2, 2001 AJ Arroyo Ilarde Garchitorena Oct 5, 2011
Oct 5, 2011 PJ B. Aquino III Sandoval G. Ong (acting) Jun 8, 2013
41 Diosdado Peralta Jun 14, 2002 AJ Arroyo del Rosario Chico-Nazario Mar 28, 2008
Mar 28, 2008 PJ Arroyo de Castro Sandoval (acting) Jan 14, 2009
42 Norberto Geraldez Jan 21, 2003 AJ Arroyo Nario, Sr. Chico-Nazario Feb 28, 2010
Feb 28, 2010 PJ Arroyo Cortéz-Estrada Villaruz Jr. (acting) Apr 4, 2010
43 Roland Jurado Oct 3, 2003 AJ Arroyo Castañeda, Jr. Chico-Nazario Feb 1, 2017
Efren de la Cruz Oct 10, 2003 AJ Arroyo Chico-Nazario Chico-Nazario June 18, 2024
45 Teresita Diaz-Baldos Oct 17, 2003 AJ Arroyo Ferrer Chico-Nazario Jul 22, 2016
46 Jose Hernandez Mar 9, 2004 AJ Arroyo Bádoy, Jr. Chico-Nazario Nov 22, 2016
47 Rodolfo Ponferrada Aug 23, 2004 AJ Arroyo Palattao Chico-Nazario Sep 13, 2017
48 Alexander Gesmundo Oct 15, 2005 AJ Arroyo Leonardo-de Castro de Castro Aug 14, 2017
49 Samuel Martires Oct 15, 2005 AJ Arroyo Victorino de Castro Mar 2, 2017
50 Napoleon Inoturan April 4, 2008 AJ Arroyo Legaspí Peralta Aug 1, 2016
51 Alex Quiroz Dec 11, 2008 AJ Arroyo Peralta Peralta Jul 28, 2022
52 Maria Cristina Cornejo May 1, 2010 AJ Arroyo Cortéz-Estrada Sandoval Mar 1, 2017
53 Rafael Lagos Dec 9, 2010 AJ B. Aquino III Geraldez Sandoval Incumbent
54 Oscar Herrera Jr. Apr 26, 2011 AJ B. Aquino III Sandóval Villaruz, Jr. May 23, 2024
55 Amparo M. Cabotaje-Tang Jun 11, 2012 AJ B. Aquino III Villaruz, Jr. Villaruz, Jr. Oct 7, 2013
Oct 7, 2013 PJ B. Aquino III Villaruz, Jr. G. Ong (acting) Incumbent
56 Maria Theresa Dolores Gomez-Estoesta Jun 20, 2014 AJ B. Aquino III Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent
57 Sarah Jane Fernandez May 5, 2015 AJ B. Aquino III G. Ong Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent
58 Michael Frederick Musñgi Jan 20, 2016 AJ B. Aquino III + Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent
59 Reynaldo Cruz Jan 20, 2016 AJ B. Aquino III + Cabotaje-Tang Feb 21, 2020
60 Geraldine Faith Econg Jan 20, 2016 AJ B. Aquino III + Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent
61 Maria Theresa Mendoza-Arcega Jan 20, 2016 AJ B. Aquino III + Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent
62 Karl Miranda Jan 20, 2016 AJ B. Aquino III + Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent
63 Zaldy Trespeses Jan 20, 2016 AJ B. Aquino III + Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent
64 Bernelito Fernandez Oct 28, 2016 AJ Duterte Díaz-Baldos Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent
65 Lorifel Pahimna Mar 1, 2017 AJ Duterte Inoturan Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent
66 Edgardo Caldona Mar 10, 2017 AJ Duterte Hernández Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent
67 Bayani Jacinto May 29, 2017 AJ Duterte Jurado Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent
68 Kevin Narce Vivero Nov 28, 2017 AJ Duterte Martires Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent
69 Maryann Corpus-Mañalac Dec 8, 2017 AJ Duterte Cornejo Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent
70 Georgina Hidalgo Jan 18, 2018 AJ Duterte Ponferrada Cabotaje-Tang incumbent
71 Ronald Moreno Jun 8, 2018 AJ Duterte Gesmundo Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent
72 Arthur Malabaguio May 24, 2021 AJ Duterte Cruz Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent
73 Juliet Manalo-San Gaspar Sep 27, 2023 AJ Marcos Jr. Quiroz Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent
74 vacant AJ Marcos Jr. Herrera Jr.
75 vacant AJ Marcos Jr. Dela Cruz

by Appointing President

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Number of Justices by appointing President
President Number of Justices appointed
Ferdinand Marcos Sr.
13
Corazon Aquino
7
Fidel V. Ramos
12
Joseph Estrada
7
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
13
Benigno Aquino III
11
Rodrigo Duterte
9
Bongbong Marcos
1

by Gender

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Number of Justices by gender
Gender Number of Justices by gender
Male
60
Female
13

Timeline of Justices by Presiding Justice (1978-present)

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During the Presiding Justiceship of Manuel Pamaran (1978-1986)

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Bar Key:   Marcos appointee

During the Presiding Justiceship of Francis Garchitorena (1986-2002)

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Tanda:   Marcos appointee   C. Aquino appointee   Ramos appointee   Estrada appointee   Macapagal-Arroyo appointee

During the Presiding Justiceship of Minita Chico-Nazario (2002–2004)

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Bar Key:   Ramos appointee   Estrada appointee   Macapagal-Arroyo appointee

During the Presiding Justiceship of Teresita de Castro (2005-2007)

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Bar Key:   Ramos appointee   Estrada appointee   Macapagal-Arroyo appointee

During the Presiding Justiceship of Diosdado Peralta (2008–2009)

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Bar Key:   Ramos appointee   Estrada appointee   Macapagal-Arroyo appointee

During the Presiding Justiceship of Maria Cristina G. Cortez-Estrada (July 2 - November 30, 2009)

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Bar Key:   Ramos appointee   Estrada appointee   Macapagal-Arroyo apppintee

During the Presiding Justiceship of Norberto Geraldez (2010)

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Bar Key:   Ramos appointee   Estrada appointee   Macapagal-Arroyo apppintee

During the Presiding Justiceship of Edilberto G. Sandoval (2010-2011)

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Bar Key:   Estrada appointee   Macapagal-Arroyo apppintee   Tinalagq ni Aquino III 

During the Presiding Justiceship of Francisco Villaruz, Jr. (2011-2013)

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Bar Key:   Estrada appointee   Macapagal-Arroyo apppintee   Tinalagq ni Aquino III 

The rule of seniority

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The Associate Justices of the Court are usually ordered according to the date of their appointment. There are no official ramifications as to this ranking, although the order determines the seating arrangement on the bench and is duly considered in all matters of protocol. Within the discretion of the Court, the ranking may also factor into the composition of the divisions of the Court.

The incumbent Justice with the earliest date of appointment is deemed the Senior Associate Justice. The Senior Associate Justice has no constitutional or statutory duties, but usually acts as Acting Presiding Justice during the absence of the Presiding Justice. The Senior Associate Justice is not usually designated as the chairperson of the second division of the Court.

The following became Senior Associate Justices in their tenure in the Sandiganbayan:

No. SAJ DA TRE
1 Bernardo Fernandez 1978.12.10 1978.12.10 1981.0..11
2 Romeo Escareal 1978.12.10 1981.06.11 1996.03.05
3 Cipriano Del Rosario 1986.05.22 1996.03.05 2001.03.15
4 Minita Chico-Nazario 1993.05.10 2001.03.15 2003.02.28*
5 Edilberto Sandoval 1996.03.11 2003.02.28 2010.09.17
6 Gregory S. Ong 1998.10.05 2010.09.17 2014.09.23 [iii]
7 Roland Jurado 2003.10.03 2014.09.23 2017.02.01 [iv]
8 Efren N. de la Cruz 2003.10.17 2017.02.01 2024.06.18
9 Rafael Lagos 2010.12.09 2024.06.18 incumbent

Graphical Representation

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Bar Key:   Term   Term as Senior AJ

  1. ^ Justice Escareal became the acting presiding Justice upon the retirement of Presiding Justice Pamaran on March 31, 1986 until April 18, 1986
  2. ^ Justice Sandoval the acting Preising Justice from February 10, 2004 to December 15, 2004, from December 4, 2007 until March 27, 2008, from erbruart 27 to 28 2010 and from April 4–5, 2010
  3. ^ removed by the Supreme court on 2014.09.14 by a vote of 13-2
  4. ^ opted for an early retirement

See also

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Notes

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  1. ^ Assoc. Justice Ong became acting PJ after the retirement of PJ Sandoval and PJ Villaruz's appointment and again between the retirement of PJ Villaruz and the Appointment of PJ Cabotaje-Tang

References

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  1. ^ Aika Rey (January 8, 2020). "Where will the money go?". Rappler. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
  2. ^ "C. Sandiganbayan" (PDF). dbm.gov.ph. Department of Budget and Management. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  3. ^ "PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. 1486 : CREATING A SPECIAL COURT TO BE KNOWN AS "SANDIGANBAYAN" AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES". lawphil.net. June 11, 1978.
  4. ^ "P.D. No. 1606". www.lawphil.net.
  5. ^ REPUBLIC ACT NO. 7975 : AN ACT TO STRENGTHEN THE FUNCTIONAL AND STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION OF THE SANDIGANBAYAN, AMENDING FOR THAT PURPOSE PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 1606, AS AMENDED, March 30, 1995.
  6. ^ Republic Act No. 8249 : AN ACT FURTHER DEFINING THE JURISDICTION OF THE SANDIGANBAYAN, AMENDING FOR THE PURPOSE PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 1606, AS AMENDED, PROVIDING FUNDS THEREFOR, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES., February 5, 1997.
  7. ^ "Republic Act No. 10660". lawphil.net. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  8. ^ "PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 1606, as amended by R.A. NO. 7975* and R.A. NO. 8249*" (PDF).
  9. ^ Stephenson, Matthew (July 2016). "Specialised anti-corruption courts: Philippines". U4 Brief. 3: 4 – via U4.
  10. ^ a b c "Sandiganbayan". sb.judiciary.gov.ph. Retrieved July 15, 2018.
  11. ^ Gutierrez, Natashya (April 21, 2015). "Aquino signs law expanding Sandiganbayan to 7 divisions". Rappler. Retrieved July 15, 2018.
  12. ^ Malin, Herbert (February 1985). "The Philippines in 1984: Grappling with Crisis". Asian Survey. 25 (2): 198–205. doi:10.2307/2644303. JSTOR 2644303.
  13. ^ Manning, Robert (Winter 1984). "The Philippines in Crisis". Foreign Affairs. 63 (2): 392–410. doi:10.2307/20042190. JSTOR 20042190.
  14. ^ Villegas, Bernardo (February 1986). "The Philippines in 1985: Rolling with the Political Punches". Asian Survey. 26 (2): 127–140. doi:10.2307/2644448. JSTOR 2644448.
  15. ^ Hernandez, Carolina (February 1988). "The Philippines in 1987: Challenges of Redemocratization". Asian Survey. 28 (2): 229–241. doi:10.2307/2644824. JSTOR 2644824.
  16. ^ Reidinger, Jeffrey (February 1995). "The Philippines in 1994: Renewed Growth and Contested Reforms". Asian Survey. 35 (2): 209–216. doi:10.2307/2645032. JSTOR 2645032.
  17. ^ a b "[REPUBLIC ACT NO. 1379] AN ACT DECLARING FORFEITURE IN FAVOR OF THE STATE ANY PROPERTY FOUND TO HAVE BEEN UNLAWFULLY ACQUIRED BY ANY PUBLIC OFFICER OR EMPLOYEE AND PROVIDING FOR THE PROCEEDINGS THEREFOR" (PDF). napolcom. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
  18. ^ "AN ACT DEFINING AND PENALIZING THE CRIME OF PLUNDER". The LawPhil Project. July 12, 1991. Retrieved July 15, 2018.
  19. ^ "Sandiganbayan" (PDF).
  20. ^ a b c "JURISDICTION OF SANDIGANBAYAN". Retrieved July 9, 2018.
  21. ^ "The Judiciary : Sandiganbayan" (PDF).
  22. ^ a b c "Presidential decree" (PDF). www.ombudsman.gov.ph. Retrieved December 26, 2019.
  23. ^ "Internal rules" (PDF). www.ombudsman.gov.ph. Retrieved December 26, 2019.
  24. ^ "Aquino signs law expanding Sandiganbayan to 7 divisions". April 21, 2015.
  25. ^ "About".
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h Supreme Court of the Philippines. "Revised Internal Rules of the Sandiganbayan." Retrieved July 9, 2018.
  27. ^ "Internal Rules of the Supreme Court".
  28. ^ "Plunder and graft trials: How do cases proceed in the courts?". Rappler. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
  29. ^ a b "Speedy Trial Act of 1998". February 12, 1998. Retrieved July 7, 2018.
  30. ^ Merez, Arianne. "TIMELINE: Jinggoy Estrada's pork barrel scam case". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
  31. ^ Ramos, Marlon. "3 Sandiganbayan justices quit cases vs Jinggoy Estrada". Retrieved July 9, 2018.
  32. ^ a b c "Imelda Marcos snubs last day of trial for 1991 graft case". Rappler. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
  33. ^ "SANDIGANBAYAN INCUMBENT JUSTICES". sb.judiciary.gov.ph. Retrieved March 27, 2022.
  34. ^ "Article VIII, Sec. 11 of the Constitution of the Philippines". Retrieved August 6, 2021.

Sources

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