Ombudsman of the Philippines
The Ombudsman of the Philippines, also known as Tanodbayan ng Pilipinas (using Filipino loan words), is an ombudsman responsible for investigating and prosecuting Philippine government officials accused of crimes, especially graft and corruption.
|Tanodbayan ng Pilipinas|
|Headquarters||Agham Road, Quezon City, Philippines|
|Annual budget||₱4.05 billion (2020)|
Under the 1987 Philippine Constitution and the Ombudsman Act of 1989, the Office of the Ombudsman independently monitors all three branches of the government for political corruption. The Ombudsman "is principally tasked to investigate on its own or upon complaint by any person, in any form or manner, any act or omission of any public officer or employee, including those in government-owned or controlled corporations, which appears to be illegal, unjust, improper or inefficient." After an investigation, the Ombudsman files charges at the Sandiganbayan, a special anti-graft court.
The Offices of the Ombudsman includes the Ombudsman's own office, along with offices for a team composed of a Sheriff, the Ombudsman's second in command, and six other deputies who lead their respective divisions or bureaus.
The Office of the Ombudsman predates the 1987 Constitution. There have been several offices established under various presidents of the Philippines whose duties are now subsumed under the Office of the Ombudsman. President Elpidio Quirino established the Integrity Board in 1950; President Ramon Magsaysay, the Presidential Complaints and Action Commission in 1957; President Carlos P. Garcia, the Presidential Committee on Administration Performance Efficiency in 1958; President Diosdado Macapagal, the Presidential Anti-Graft Committee in 1962; and finally President Ferdinand Marcos, the Presidential Agency on Reform and Government Operations in 1966.
In 1969, the Office of the Citizens Counselor was created by the Republic Act No. 6028. It was primarily designed to conduct fact-finding investigations and make recommendations to Congress and the President. The office was "not at all implemented." Subsequently, Marcos created the Complaints and Investigation Office in 1970 and the Presidential Administrative Assistance Committee in 1971. None of these were successful nor were independent.
In the martial law-era 1973 Philippine Constitution (Sections 5 and 6, Article XIII), provided for the establishment of a special court called the Sandiganbayan and an office of the ombudsman called the Tanodbayan. On June 11, 1978, during martial law, the late strongman President Ferdinand Marcos created by presidential decree the office of the Tanodbayan. The Tanodbayan was not independent but served at the pleasure of the president and could be removed at any time.
After Marcos was overthrown in the 1986 People Power Revolution, President Corazon Aquino issued two Executive Orders (nos. 243 and 244) in July 1987 that established a new Office of the Ombudsman and transformed the Tanodbayan into the Office of the Special Prosecutor under the Ombudsman. Following the passage of the 1987 Constitution, the Ombudsman Act of 1989 was passed to define the roles and structure of the Office.
The Ombudsman and its subordinates are appointed by the President of the Philippines from a list submitted by the Judicial and Bar Council for a nonrenewable seven-year term. The Ombudsman can be removed from office only through impeachment.
|Samuel Martires||Tanodbayan (Ombudsman)|
|Warren Rex H. Liong||Over-all Deputy Ombudsman|
|Cornelio L. Somido||Deputy Ombudsman for Luzon|
|Paul Elmer M. Clemente||Deputy Ombudsman for Visayas|
|Rodolfo M. Elman||Deputy Ombudsman for Mindanao|
|Cyril E. Ramos||Deputy Ombudsman for Military and Police|
|Edilberto G. Sandoval||Special Prosecutor|
|#||Ombudsmen||Term||Post held prior to appointment||Appointed by|
|1||Conrado M. Vasquez||May 1988–August 4, 1995||Supreme Court Associate Justice (1982–1983)||Corazon Aquino|
|2||Aniano A. Desierto||August 4, 1995–August 2, 2002||Special Prosecutor (1991–1995)||Fidel V. Ramos|
|3||Simeon V. Marcelo||October 10, 2002–December 1, 2005[a]||Solicitor General (2001–2002)||Gloria Macapagal Arroyo|
|4||Merceditas Gutierrez||December 1, 2005–May 6, 2011[a]||Justice Secretary (2002–2003, 2003–2004)|
|–||Orlando C. Casimiro[b]||May 6, 2011–July 28, 2011||Over-all Deputy Ombudsman||Benigno Aquino III|
|5||Conchita Carpio-Morales||July 28, 2011–July 26, 2018||Supreme Court Associate Justice (2002–2011)|
|6||Samuel Martires||July 26, 2018–present (Term to end on July 26, 2025)||Supreme Court Associate Justice (2017–2018)||Rodrigo Duterte|
- Aika Rey (January 8, 2020). "Where will the money go?". Rappler. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
- "1987 Constitution of the Philippines". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved October 24, 2015.
SECTION 5. There is hereby created the independent Office of the Ombudsman, composed of the Ombudsman to be known as Tanodbayan, one overall Deputy and at least one Deputy each for Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. A separate Deputy for the military establishment may likewise be appointed.
- PRIMER (PDF). Office of the Ombudsman. Retrieved November 28, 2015.
- "History". Office of the Ombudsman. Retrieved November 30, 2015.
- Pamaos, Fred Bertulfo (October 3, 2006). "The Office of the Ombudsman, mandated as Protector of the People". Philippine e-Legal Forum. Jaromay Laurente Pamos Law Offices. Retrieved November 30, 2015.
- "PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. 1487 CREATING THE OFFICE OF THE OMBUDSMAN, TO BE KNOWN AS TANODBAYAN". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. ChanRobles Law Firm. Retrieved November 28, 2015.
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