Assassination of Ninoy Aquino

Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr., a former Philippine senator, was assassinated on Sunday, August 21, 1983, on the tarmac of Manila International Airport (now named Ninoy Aquino International Airport in his honor). A longtime political opponent of President Ferdinand Marcos, Aquino had just landed in his home country after three years of self-imposed exile in the United States when he was shot in the head while being escorted from an aircraft to a vehicle that was waiting to transport him to prison. Also killed was Rolando Galman, who was falsely accused of Aquino's murder.

Assassination of Ninoy Aquino
Part of the People Power Revolution
Ninoy Aquino 3.jpg
Benigno Aquino Jr.
LocationManila International Airport, Parañaque, Philippines
DateAugust 21, 1983; 38 years ago (1983-08-21)
c. 13:00 PST (UTC+08:00)
TargetBenigno Aquino Jr.
Attack type
Weapons.357 revolver
DeathsBenigno Aquino Jr.
Rolando Galman
AccusedRolando Galman[2]
Pablo Martinez[3]
Rogelio Moreno
Convicted16 (including Pablo Martinez and Rogelio Moreno)

Aquino was elected to the Philippine Senate in 1967 and shortly thereafter began speaking out against Marcos's authoritarian rule. He was imprisoned on trumped up charges shortly after Marcos's 1972 declaration of martial law. In 1980, he had a heart attack in prison and was allowed to leave the country two months later by Marcos' wife, Imelda. He spent the next three years in exile near Boston before deciding to return to the Philippines.

Aquino's assassination is credited with transforming the opposition to the Marcos regime from a small, isolated movement into a national crusade. It is also credited with thrusting Aquino's widow, Corazon Aquino, into the public spotlight and her running for president in the 1986 snap election. Although Marcos was officially declared the winner of the election, widespread allegations of fraud and illegal tampering on Marcos's behalf are credited with sparking the People Power Revolution, which resulted in Marcos fleeing the country and conceding the presidency to Mrs. Aquino.

Although many, including the Aquino family, maintain that Marcos ordered Aquino's assassination, this was never definitively proven. An official government investigation ordered by Marcos shortly after the assassination led to murder charges against 25 military personnel and one civilian, all of whom were acquitted by the Sandiganbayan (special court). After Marcos was ousted, another government investigation under President Corazon Aquino's administration led to a retrial of 16 military personnel, all of whom were convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment by the Sandiganbayan. The Supreme Court affirmed the decision and rejected later motions by the convicted soldiers for a retrial.[1] One of the convicts was subsequently pardoned, three have died in prison, and the remainder had their sentences commuted at various times; the last convicts were released from prison in 2009.


Benigno Aquino Jr. was elected to the Philippine Senate in 1967. During his first years as a senator, Aquino began speaking out against the authoritarian rule of President Ferdinand Marcos; Marcos in turn saw Aquino as the biggest threat to his power.

On September 23, 1972, Marcos declared martial law and ordered Aquino and others arrested and imprisoned on trumped up charges of murder and subversion. Aquino went on a hunger strike to protest the injustice of his military trial, but ended the strike after 40 days. The tribunal lasted several years, all while Aquino was still imprisoned, and on November 25, 1977, he was convicted on all charges and sentenced to death. However, Aquino and others believed that Marcos would not allow him to be executed as Aquino had gained a great deal of support while imprisoned, and such a fate would surely make him a martyr for his supporters.

In 1978, while still in prison, Aquino founded his political party, Lakas ng Bayan (abbreviated "LABAN"; English: People's Power, with the abbreviation meaning "fight" in Tagalog), to run for office in the Interim Batasang Pambansa (Parliament). All LABAN candidates lost, primarily to candidates of Marcos' party, amid allegations of election fraud.

In March 1980, Aquino had a heart attack in prison. He was transported to the Philippine Heart Center, where he had a second heart attack. Doctors determined he needed coronary artery bypass surgery; however, no surgeon wanted to perform the operation out of fear of controversy, and Aquino refused to undergo the procedure in the Philippines out of fear of sabotage by Marcos, indicating that he would either go to the United States to undergo the procedure or die in his prison cell. On May 8, 1980, First Lady Imelda Marcos arranged for Aquino and his family to leave for the U.S. He underwent a coronary bypass surgery in Dallas, Texas, and met with Muslim leaders in Damascus, Syria, before settling with his family in Newton, Massachusetts.

Aquino spent the next three years in self-exile in the U.S., wherein he worked on manuscripts for two books and delivered several lectures and speeches critical of the Marcos government across the nation. By 1983, news of the political situation in the Philippines led Aquino to return to the country, fully aware of the danger that awaited him.

Former Lanao del Sur congressman Rashid Lucman helped Aquino circumvent Malacañang Palace's order not to issue passports to the Aquino family, providing him with a passport under the alias "Marcial Bonifacio" – a reference to martial law as well as Aquino's detention at Fort Bonifacio.[4]

Aquino, after flying in a circuitous route from the United States to several Asian cities such as Singapore and Kuala Lumpur to meet Malaysian leaders, and then to Hong Kong, boarded a China Airlines plane in Taipei and landed in Manila on August 21, 1983.

B-1836, the incident aircraft, taxiing at Kai Tak Airport on 31 October 1983, two months after the assassination.


Prior to his departure from Taipei, Aquino gave an interview from his room at the Grand Hotel in which he indicated that he would be wearing a bulletproof vest. He advised the journalists that would be accompanying him on the flight: "You have to be ready with your hand camera because this action can become very fast. In a matter of three or four minutes it could be all over, and I may not be able to talk to you again after this."[5] His last few moments in the flight while being interviewed by the journalist Jim Laurie, and just prior to disembarking from the flight at Manila airport, were recorded on camera.[6] On the morning of August 21, 1983, accompanied by his brother-in-law, ABC News correspondent Ken Kashiwahara,[7] along with other members of the press, Aquino boarded China Airlines Flight 811, a Boeing 767-200 registered as B-1836, that departed Chiang Kai-shek International Airport. In Manila, a contingent of over 1,000 armed soldiers and police were assigned by the government to provide security for Aquino's arrival. Flight 811 arrived at Manila International Airport at gate number 8 at 1:04 in the afternoon.[8]

Upon the airplane's arrival at the gate, soldiers boarded the airplane to arrest Aquino. The soldiers escorted him off the airplane and onto the jet bridge; however, instead of following the jet bridge to the terminal, they exited the jet bridge down the service staircase onto the apron, where a military vehicle was waiting to bring him to prison.[8] As Aquino disembarked the plane, one of the personnel was heard saying "Pusila! Pusila! Op! Pusila! Pusila! Pusila!" ("Pusila" is the Visayan word for "shoot") before the gunshots were heard. It was recorded on the news camera, but the actual shooting of Aquino was not caught on camera due to the exposure to bright sunlight.[9][10]

When the firing stopped, Aquino and a man later identified as Rolando Galman lay dead on the apron, both from gunshot wounds. Aquino's body was carried into an Aviation Security Command (AVSECOM) van by two AVSECOM SWAT soldiers, while another soldier at the bumper of the van continued to fire shots at Galman. The AVSECOM van sped away, leaving behind the bullet-riddled body of Galman. The subsequent Sandiganbayan ruling later established that Aquino had died before arriving at Fort Bonifacio General Hospital.[11] However, this remains controversial due to contradicting evidence presented in court interviews of General Custodio.

A reenactment by the military showed that Rolando Galman approached Aquino and shot him moments before he could board the van.[9] An official report of the Marcos government and Pablo Martinez stated that Galman shot Aquino dead. However, there is no solid evidence to substantiate this claim.[9] Several foreign media personnel were with Aquino on the plane.[9]

Murder weaponEdit

According to contemporary news reports, the alleged murder weapon was an American-made handgun, specifically a Smith & Wesson .357 Magnum revolver, which Interpol traced to a gun store in Bangkok. It was also reported that the manufacturer had shipped the pistol to the Thai National Trading Co. in Bangkok on September 25, 1970.


Hours after the assassination, Aquino's remains were autopsied at Loyola Memorial Chapels in Makati.[12][13] Even though Aquino was embalmed by renowned embalmer Frank Malabed, Aquino's mother, Doña Aurora, told the funeral home not to apply makeup on the body, so that the public may see "what they did to my son."[14] His remains lay in state for eight days. However, Aquino's family decided to display Aquino with the blood-stained safari jacket he wore upon his assassination, and refused any makeup to disguise the visible wounds in his face. Thousands of supporters flocked to Aquino's wake, which took place at his house on Times Street in West Triangle, Quezon City. Aquino's wife, Corazon, and children Ballsy, Pinky, Viel, Noynoy, and Kris arrived from Boston the day after the assassination. In a later interview, Aquino's eldest daughter, Ballsy (now Aquino-Cruz), recounted that they learnt of the assassination through a phone call from Kyodo News.[15] She was initially shocked upon being asked to confirm if her father had indeed been killed. The report of the assassination was verified to Aquino's family when Shintaro Ishihara, an acquaintance of Ninoy and a member of the Japanese Parliament, called Cory and informed her that Kiyoshi Wakamiya, a journalist who had been with Ninoy in the flight from Taipei to Manila, confirmed the shooting to him.[16]

Aquino's remains were later transferred to Santo Domingo Church, where his funeral was held on August 31. Following a Mass at 9 a.m., with the Cardinal Archbishop of Manila, Jaime Sin officiating, the funeral procession brought his remains to Manila Memorial Park in Parañaque. The flatbed truck that served as his hearse wound through Metro Manila for 12 hours. It passed by Rizal Park, where the Philippine flag had been brought to half-staff. Aquino's casket finally reached the memorial park at around 9 p.m. More than two million people lined the streets for the procession. Some stations like the church-sponsored Radio Veritas and DZRH were the only stations to cover the entire ceremony.[17]

Jovito Salonga, then head of the Liberal Party, said about Aquino:

Ninoy was getting impatient in Boston, he felt isolated by the flow of events in the Philippines. In early 1983, Marcos was seriously ailing, the Philippine economy was just as rapidly declining, and insurgency was becoming a serious problem. Ninoy thought that by coming home he might be able to persuade Marcos to restore democracy and somehow revitalize the Liberal Party.[18]


Everyone from the Central Intelligence Agency, to the United Nations, to the Communist Party of the Philippines, to First Lady Imelda Marcos was accused of conspiracy.[19] President Marcos was reportedly gravely ill, recovering from a kidney transplant when the incident occurred. Theories arose as to who was in charge and who ordered the execution. Some hypothesized that Marcos had a long-standing order for Aquino's murder upon the latter's return.

Rolando GalmanEdit

Mere hours after the shooting, the government alleged that Rolando Galman was the man who killed Aquino, falsely accusing Galman of being a communist hitman acting on orders from Philippine Communist Party chair Rodolfo Salas.[20][21] A government reenactment that aired on television days after the shooting alleged that Galman hid under the service staircase while Aquino and his military escorts descended it, and as Aquino neared the van, Galman emerged from under the staircase and shot Aquino in the back of the head. Several members of the security detail in turn fired several shots at Galman, killing him.

There were numerous irregularities in this version of events, including the amount of time between Aquino leaving the plane to the sound of gunfire (eight seconds), whereas this scenario would have taken at least 13 seconds, when reenacted, as well as how an alleged lone gunman could have penetrated a security detail of over 1,000 people at the airport without assistance. Politicians and diplomats found evident contradictions between the claim and the photos and videotape footage that documented the time before and after the shooting.[22] Years later, the official investigation into the assassination concluded that Galman was a scapegoat in a larger plot to kill Aquino; despite this conclusion, some individuals continue to support the position that Galman was the perpetrator.

Agrava BoardEdit

Marcos immediately created a fact-finding commission called the Fernando Commission to investigate Aquino's assassination. It was headed by Supreme Court Chief Justice Enrique Fernando. Four retired Supreme Court justices were appointed; they resigned after its composition was challenged in court. Arturo M. Tolentino declined his appointment as board chair. However, the commission held only two sittings due to intense public criticism.[8]

On October 14, 1983, President Marcos issued Presidential Decree No. 1886,[23] creating an independent board of inquiry, called the "Agrava Commission" or "Agrava Board". The board was composed of former Court of Appeals Justice Corazon Agrava[8] as chair, with lawyer Luciano E. Salazar, entrepreneur Dante G. Santos, labor leader Ernesto F. Herrera, and educator Amado C. Dizon as members.

The Agrava Fact-Finding Board convened on November 3, 1983. Before it could start its work, President Marcos accused the communists of the killing of Senator Aquino: the decision to eliminate the former senator, Marcos claimed, was made by none other than the general-secretary of the Philippine Communist Party, Rodolfo Salas. He was referring to his earlier claim that Aquino had befriended and subsequently betrayed his communist comrades.

The Agrava Board conducted public hearings and requested testimonies from several persons who might shed light on the crimes, including Imelda Marcos, and General Fabian Ver, Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.

In the subsequent proceedings, no one actually identified who fired the gun that killed Aquino, but Rebecca Quijano, another passenger, testified that she saw a man behind Aquino (running from the stairs towards Aquino and his escorts) point a gun at the back of his head, after which there was a sound of a gunshot. A post-mortem analysis disclosed that Aquino was shot in the back of the head at close range with the bullet exiting at the chin at a downward angle, which supported Quijano's testimony. More suspicions were aroused when Quijano described the assassin as wearing a military uniform. Some airside employees of the airport on duty during the assassination gave testimonies that support that of Quijano, stating that Galman was having a conversation with one soldier when gunshots rang out.

After a year of thorough investigation—with 20,000 pages of testimony given by 193 witnesses, the Agrava Board submitted two reports to President Marcos—the Majority and Minority Reports. The Minority Report, submitted by Chairman Agrava alone, was submitted on October 23, 1984. It confirmed that the Aquino assassination was a military conspiracy, but it cleared General Ver. Many believed that President Marcos intimidated and pressured the members of the Board to persuade them not to indict Ver, Marcos's first cousin and most trusted general. Excluding Chairman Agrava, the majority of the board submitted a separate report—the Majority Report indicting several members of the Armed Forces including Ver, General Luther Custodio, head of the AVSECOM, and General Prospero Olivas, chief of the Metropolitan Command (METROCOM).

Trials and convictionsEdit

In 1985, 25 military personnel (including several generals and colonels) and one civilian were charged for the murders of Benigno Aquino Jr. and Rolando Galman. President Marcos relieved Ver as AFP Chief and appointed his second cousin, General Fidel V. Ramos, as acting AFP Chief. The accused were tried by the Sandiganbayan (special court). After a brief trial, the Sandiganbayan acquitted all of the accused on December 2, 1985.[24] Immediately after the decision, Marcos reinstated Ver. The 1985 Sandiganbayan ruling and the reinstatement of Ver were denounced as a mockery of justice.

After Marcos was ousted in 1986, another investigation was set up by the new government.[25] The Supreme Court ruled that the previous court proceedings were "a sham" and ordered a new Sandiganbayan trial.[26] Sixteen defendants were found guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment by the Sandiganbayan in 1990[27] and ordered to pay damages to the families of Aquino and Galman.[28][29]

The sixteen were Brig. Gen. Luther Custodio, Capt. Romeo Bautista, 2nd Lt. Jesus Castro, Sergeants Claro L. Lat, Arnulfo de Mesa, Filomeno Miranda, Rolando de Guzman, Ernesto Mateo, Rodolfo Desolong, Ruben Aquino, and Arnulfo Artates, Constable Rogelio Moreno (the gunman),[30] M/Sgt. Pablo Martinez (also the alleged gunman), C1C Mario Lazaga, A1C Cordova Estelo, and A1C Felizardo Taran. The Supreme Court affirmed the decision in 1991.[27]

Pablo Martinez, one of the convicted conspirators in the assassination, alleged that his co-conspirators told him that Danding Cojuangco ordered the assassination. Martinez also alleged that only he and Galman knew of the assassination, and that Galman was the actual shooter, a point not corroborated by other evidence in the case.[31] The convicts filed an appeal to have their sentences reduced after 22 years, claiming that the assassination was ordered by Marcos's crony and business partner (and Corazon Aquino's estranged cousin) Danding Cojuangco. The Supreme Court ruled that it did not qualify as newly found evidence. Even though the supreme court didn't convict President Marcos, there are those that still believe that Marcos did, indeed, kill Ninoy Aquino.[32] Through the years, some have been pardoned, others have died in detention, while others have had their terms commuted and then served out. In November 2007, Pablo Martinez was released from the New Bilibid Prison after President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo ordered his release on humanitarian grounds.[33] In March 2009, the last remaining convicts were released from prison.


Bloodied safari jacket, pants (folded), belt, and boots worn by Aquino upon his return from exile are on permanent display at the Aquino Center in Tarlac.

Aquino's death transformed the Philippine opposition from a small isolated movement to a massive unified crusade, incorporating people from all walks of life. The middle class got involved, the impoverished majority participated, and business leaders whom Marcos had irked during martial law endorsed the campaign—all with the crucial support of the military and the Catholic Church hierarchy. The assassination showed the increasing incapacity of the Marcos regime—Ferdinand was mortally ill when the crime occurred while his cronies mismanaged the country in his absence. It outraged Aquino's supporters that Marcos, if not masterminding it, allowed the assassination to happen and engineered its cover-up. The mass revolt caused by Aquino's demise attracted worldwide media attention and Marcos's American contacts, as well as the Reagan administration, began distancing themselves. There was a global media spotlight on the Philippine crisis, and exposes on Imelda's extravagant lifestyle (most infamously, her thousands of pairs of shoes) and "mining operations", as well as Ferdinand's excesses, came into focus.

The assassination thrust Aquino's widow, Corazon, into the public eye. She was the presidential candidate of UNIDO opposition party in the 1986 snap election, running against Marcos. The official results showed a Marcos victory, but this was universally dismissed as fraudulent. In the subsequent People Power Revolution, Marcos resigned and went into exile, and Corazon Aquino became president.

While no Filipino president has ever been assassinated, Benigno Aquino is one of three presidential spouses who had been murdered. Alicia Syquia-Quirino and three of her children were murdered by Imperial Japanese troops along during the Battle of Manila in 1945, while Doña Aurora Quezon was killed along with her daughter and son-in-law in a Hukbalahap ambush in 1949.

AVSECOM van discoveryEdit

In 2010, the AVSECOM van (dubbed "Ninoy Aquino's death van" by some) was found in Villamor Air Base in Pasay in a decrepit state.[34] It had been apparently dumped in a secluded area of the base where it was left to rot until its purchase by Marlon Marasigan, a retired Philippine Air Force colonel in 1997.[35]

Following its discovery, the van was examined wherein it was revealed to be the same van that carried Ninoy's body, and then moved to the National Historical Commission of the Philippines (NHCP) complex, where it awaits restoration. After its restoration, the van is proposed to be housed in the Freedom Memorial Museum, located at the University of the Philippines Diliman campus across the office of the Commission on Higher Education. A scale replica of the China Airlines aircraft as well as the original airbridge where Ninoy alighted will also be added to the exhibit. The van was originally intended to be displayed in the Presidential Car Museum in Quezon City but was objected to by NHCP chair Rene Escalante.[36]


The airport terminal where the assassination occurred, now the present day Terminal 1 of Manila International Airport, which as since been renamed as "Ninoy Aquino International Airport" in his honor. Many still refer to the airport by its former and call this terminal as "Ninoy Aquino Terminal".

In 1987, Manila International Airport, where the assassination occurred, was renamed "Ninoy Aquino International Airport" in Aquino's honor. The spot on the apron where his body lay sprawled is now marked by a brass plaque.

Ninoy Aquino Day was formally instituted upon the passage of Republic Act No. 9256 and was to be observed every August 21[37] (the anniversary of Aquino's death). However, by order of then-President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, the observance of this holiday became moveable—to be celebrated on the "Monday nearest August 21" every year—as part of her controversial 'holiday economics' philosophy as reflected in Republic Act No. 9492.[38] The commemoration has since been reverted to August 21 by orders of then-President Benigno Aquino III.

Timeline of the murder caseEdit

  • August 21, 1983 – Benigno Aquino Jr. and Rolando Galman are assassinated on the apron of Manila International Airport.
  • August 24, 1983 – President Ferdinand Marcos creates a fact-finding commission headed by Supreme Court Chief Justice Enrique Fernando to investigate the Aquino murder.
  • August 31, 1983 – More than two million people attend Aquino's twelve-hour funeral procession.
  • October 22, 1983 – Marcos creates another fact-finding committee known as the Agrava Fact-Finding Board.
  • October 22, 1984 – The Agrava Board releases reports concluding that military officers, which included General Fabian Ver, conspired to kill Aquino; the Supreme Court assigns the case to the Sandiganbayan.
  • December 2, 1985 – The Sandiganbayan acquits all of the accused.
  • September 12, 1986 – The Supreme Court, newly reorganized following the 1986 EDSA Revolution, orders a retrial of the accused. 25 military men and one civilian are charged.
  • September 28, 1990 – 16 defendants are convicted by the Sandiganbayan and sentenced to life imprisonment.
  • July 23, 1991 – The Supreme Court affirms the Sandiganbayan conviction.[27]
  • November 21, 1998 – General Ver dies of a lung ailment in Bangkok.
  • March 8, 2005 – The Supreme Court denies the petition of the accused (filed in August 2004) to re-open the case.[39]
  • August 21, 2007 – Chief Justice Andrés Narvasa appeals for the closure of the case on the 24th anniversary of the assassination. Juan Ponce Enrile asks for a review of clemency in favor of the 14 convicts, while Pedro Arigo, Vicar Apostolic of Puerto Princesa and chair of the CBCP's Episcopal Commission on Prison Pastoral Care (ECPPC), asks pardon for the convicts, though he said the ECPPC will have to study the cases before asking for clemency. Corazon Aquino forgives the 14 soldiers but oppose their appeals for clemency or parole (which Justice Secretary Raul M. Gonzalez submitted to President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo in 2004). Executive Secretary Eduardo Ermita states that the Bureau of Pardons and Parole had recommended a grant of executive clemency.[40][41][42]
  • August 24, 2007 – Secretary Ermita officially announces that, due to political implications, the appeal for clemency by the 14 soldiers was archived, even if the Bureau of Pardons and Parole was still reviewing the plea. Ermita refuses to give a timeframe for the review.[43]
  • November 22, 2007 – After two decades, M/Sgt. Pablo Martínez (one of the convicted), is pardoned by President Macapagal-Arroyo for humanitarian reasons. Martínez said:

Kung nakikinig man kayo Madam Cory Aquino, patawarin ninyo ako sa nagawa kong pagkakasala noón. (If you are listening, Madame Cory Aquino, forgive me for the sin I committed before.)[44]

  • March 14, 2008 – Former Cpl. 1st Class Mario Lazaga, one of the 16 convicted soldiers, dies in prison of hypertension. Two other convicts had already died in detention since M/Sgt. Martínez's pardon.[45]
  • February 2009 – A1C Felizardo Taran and Sgt. Rolando de Guzmán complete their prison terms and are released.[46]
  • March 4, 2009 – The remaining ten convicts – Rogelio Moreno, Ruben Aquino, Arnulfo Artates, Romeo Bautista, Jesús Castro, Arnulfo de Mesa, Rodolfo Desolong, Claro Lat, Ernesto Mateo, and Filomeno Miranda – are released.[47]
  • May 7, 2014 – M/Sgt. Martínez is hit by an SUV and rushed to San Juan de Dios Hospital, where he dies during treatment at the age of 77.[48][49]

In popular cultureEdit

  • The incident is dramatized at the beginning of the 1988 political thriller film, A Dangerous Life, starring Gary Busey. The Agrava Board is also depicted in the film and the depiction of the incident is based on the testimony of one of the few witnesses to the assassination, Rebecca Quijano, as well as airport employees who also witnessed the shooting.
  • An archival audio of the incident is heard in the 2002 film, Dekada 70.
  • The incident is dramatized in the March 26, 2009 episode of the GMA Network docudrama series, Case Unclosed, named "Sino ang Pumatay kay Ninoy?" (Who Killed Ninoy?).
  • The incident is mentioned in the 2012 Filipino science fiction horror anthology film Shake, Rattle and Roll Fourteen: The Invasion through radio news reports during the ending of the segment "Pamana" ("Inheritance").

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b "Who masterminded Ninoy's murder?". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved November 25, 2020. Who masterminded Ninoy's murder? After 35 years and after two Aquino presidencies, the answer remains a legal enigma.
  2. ^ "Who killed Ninoy? (1)". Philippine Daily Inquirer. August 16, 2018. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  3. ^ "Bandila: One of the accused on killing Ninoy dies". ABS-CBN News. YouTube.
  4. ^ Aquino, Corazon C. (21 August 2003). "The last time I saw Ninoy". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  5. ^ "YouTube - Ninoy Aquino: Worth Dying For (the last interview!) ORIGINAL UPLOAD". Archived from the original on 2021-12-15. Retrieved October 6, 2008.
  6. ^ Laurie, Jim. "The Last moments and assassination of Ninoy Aquino". You Tube. Archived from the original on 2021-12-15. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
  7. ^ Kashiwahara, Ken (16 October 1983). "Aquino's Final Journey". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
  8. ^ a b c d Sandiganbayan ruling - Investigation of the assassination of Benigno Aquino (PDF). Maynila: Fact Finding Board. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 September 2009. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
  9. ^ a b c d "Agosto Beinte-Uno". ABS-CBN News. Archived from the original on 2021-12-15 – via YouTube.
  10. ^ "Benigno Aquino Assassinated - 1983 | Today In History | 21 Aug 17". AP Archive. YouTube.
  11. ^ People of the Philippines v. B/Gen. Luther A. Custodio, et al., 1983, Decision of the Special Division of the Sandiganbayan in Criminal Case No. 10010 and 10011
  12. ^ Rimban, Luz (November 22, 2013). "Forgotten details from an old story". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
  13. ^ Punongbayan, JC [@jcpunongbayan] (August 21, 2020). "Last Feb, fotog Sonny Camarillo exhibited at TriNoma his photos of martial law and the events leading up to EDSA. I was struck the most by photos of Ninoy's corpse and the outpouring of support by Filipinos who braved the streets amid political and economic turmoil. #NinoyIsAHero" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  14. ^ "Francisco Malabed, mortician to Marcos and Ninoy, dies at 67". ABS-CBN News. September 22, 2017. Retrieved December 8, 2021.
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  18. ^ "The Greatest President We Never Had". Retrieved 19 April 2015.
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  20. ^ Chronicles of a Revolution: 1995, p. 27
  21. ^ "G.R. No. 72670 - Saturnina Galman vs. Sandiganbayan". Chan Roble Virtual Law Library. Archived from the original on 2021-10-04. Retrieved 2021-10-04.
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  23. ^ Presidential Decree No. 1886 (1983), Creating a Fact-Finding Board with Plenary Powers to Investigate the Tragedy Which Occurred on August 21, 1983, retrieved August 30, 2013
  24. ^ 10 things of interest about the assassination of Ninoy Aquino, Aquino, Tricia. (20 August 2013),
  25. ^ "Challenge to Marcos: The Tumult Since '83; Aquino Assassination in 1983 Created Conditions for Crisis". The New York Times. 23 February 1986. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
  26. ^ Panganiban, Artemio (August 26, 2018). "Who masterminded Ninoy's murder?". Inquirer. Retrieved July 20, 2021.
  27. ^ a b c "In the Know: Pablo Martinez among 16 soldiers convicted of killing Aquino". Inquirer. 2014-05-09. Archived from the original on 2014-05-09. Retrieved 2021-08-01.
  28. ^ "Philippine Court Convicts 16, Acquits 20 in Slaying of Aquino's Husband". Los Angeles Times. 1990-09-28. Retrieved 2022-02-11.
  29. ^ "Cold Trail: 10 Issues and Cases in the Philippines That are Still Unresolved". Spot. 2014-01-20. Retrieved 2022-02-11.
  30. ^ Gavilan, Jodesz (2016-08-20). "Look back: The Aquino assassination". RAPPLER. Retrieved 2022-02-11.
  31. ^ "Transcript of ABS-CBN Interview with Pablo Martinez, co-accused in the Aquino murder case". Archived from the original on 28 June 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
  32. ^ "Custodio vs Sandiganbayan : 96027-28 : March 8, 2005 : J. Puno : En Banc Resolution". Archived from the original on October 12, 2016. Retrieved 2016-11-19.
  33. ^ "Aquino-Galman murder convict freed by Arroyo". GMA News. 22 November 2007. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
  34. ^ Robles, Raissa. (20 August 2012). "Ninoy Aquino's death van". Inside Philippine Politics and Beyond.
  35. ^ Cayabyab, Jason. (22 August 2019). [1]. Van that carried Ninoy's body up for restoration.
  36. ^ "Museum is final stop of Avsecom van that bore Ninoy's body". 22 August 2019.
  37. ^ Republic Act No. 9256 (2004), Act Declaring August 21 of Every Year as Ninoy Aquino Day, a Special Nonworking Holiday, and for Other Purposes, retrieved April 28, 2011
  38. ^ Republic Act No. 9492 (2007), Act Rationalizing the Celebration of National Holidays Amending for the Purpose Section 26, Chapter 7, Book I of Executive Order No. 292, as amended, otherwise known as the Administrative Code of 1987, retrieved April 28, 2011
  39. ^ "- Decisions / Signed Resolutions". Retrieved 19 April 2015.
  40. ^, Pardon for Ninoy Aquino's killers now in Arroyo's hands
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