Elections in the Philippines

Elections in the Philippines are of several types. The president, vice-president, and the senators are elected for a six-year term, while the members of the House of Representatives, governors, vice-governors, members of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan (provincial board members), mayors, vice-mayors, members of the Sangguniang Panlungsod/members of the Sangguniang Bayan (city/municipal councilors), barangay officials, and the members of the Sangguniang Kabataan (youth councilors) are elected to serve for a three-year term.

Voter turnout during national elections from 1946 onwards.

Congress has two chambers. The House of Representatives has 304 seats as of 2019, of which 80% are contested in single seat electoral districts and 20% are allotted to party-lists according to a modified Hare quota with remainders disregarded and a three-seat cap. These party list seats are only accessible to marginalized and under-represented groups and parties, local parties, and sectoral wings of major parties that represent the marginalized. The Constitution of the Philippines allows the House of Representatives to have more than 250 members by statute without a need for a constitutional amendment. The Senate has 24 members who are elected on a nationwide at-large basis; they do not represent any geographical district. Half of the Senate is renewed every three years.

The Philippines has a multi-party system, with numerous parties in which no one party normally has a chance of gaining power alone, and parties must work with each other to form a coalition government. The Commission on Elections (COMELEC) is responsible for running the elections.

Under the Constitution, elections for the members of Congress and local positions (except barangay officials) occur every second Monday of every third year after May 1992, and presidential and vice presidential elections occur every second Monday of May every sixth year after May 1992. All elected officials, except those at the barangay level, start (and end) their terms of office on 30 June of the election year.

VotingEdit

QualificationEdit

Every citizen 18 years old or above on Election Day who has been a resident of the Philippines for at least a year and for at least six months in the place where she or he is registered, and who is not otherwise disqualified by law, may vote. To actually vote, a citizen has to register. The COMELEC has a registration period of several months prior to the election. Those who are not registered do not appear on the voters' list and are ineligible to vote despite being otherwise qualified to do so.

People aged 18 to 24 may vote in Sangguniang Kabataan elections. As with their adult counterparts, the COMELEC has a registration period a few months prior to the election.

Absentee votersEdit

Absentee voters are divided into two types: the local absentee voters and the overseas absentee voters. Local absentee voters include people who are working during Election Day. These include soldiers, policemen, government employees and the like. Overseas absentee voters are Filipinos residing abroad. They are eligible to vote for national positions only (president, vice-president, senators and party-list representatives). Overseas absentee voters may vote in Philippine embassies and consulates, and voting begins as early as 4 months prior to the election. The voting can be as long as 6 months in a very few situations.

ProcessEdit

Once a registered voter finds his/her name in the voters' list and locates the correct precinct, he may queue in line for the distribution of the ballot.

Prior to the 2010 elections, voters have to write the names of the candidates next to the positions in which they are running. COMELEC-approved nicknames may be used by the voters in writing the names. After the polling period ends, the Board of Election Inspectors (or the teachers manning the polling precinct) counts the ballots by hand. Once all the ballots are counted, the election returns will now be sent to the city or municipal Board of Canvassers, political parties and other groups.

The city or municipal Board of Canvassers canvasses the votes from all polling precincts within their jurisdiction and prepares two documents: a Statement of Votes (SOV) in which all votes from all candidates in all positions per precinct is listed; and a Certificate of Canvass (COC), a document showing the vote totals of all candidates within the Board of Canvassers' jurisdiction.

If the city or municipal Board of Canvassers' jurisdiction is an independent city with its own congressional district, they will send their SOV and COC to the national Board of Canvassers (the COMELEC for senate and party-list elections, Congress for presidential and vice presidential elections). If it is otherwise, they will send their SOV and COC to the provincial Board of Canvassers where the votes as stated from the city or municipal COC will be canvassed. The provincial Board of Canvassers sends their SOV and COC to the national Board of Canvassers once canvassing is done. The national Board of Canvassers then canvasses all COCs and declares the winners for national positions.

Election automationEdit

Since the 2010 elections, the voters have to shade the oval that was indicated before the candidate's name, and a voting machine manufactured by Smartmatic automatically counts each ballot as it is fed into it. The results are then printed as the election return and sent electronically to the city or municipal Board of Canvassers.

In 2016, for the third time in a row, the Philippines automated their elections using electronic vote counting machines. The deployment of 92,500 of these machines was the largest in the world. Brazil and India, countries which also use technology to process their votes, employ e-voting instead of an automated count.[1]

For the 2019 elections, the COMELEC presented its source code for review by accredited U.S. software testing company Pro V&V in an effort to make the automated elections transparent.[2]

The Philippines stands today with Brazil, Estonia, Belgium and Venezuela at the forefront of election technology adoption.

ScheduleEdit

ElectionEdit

Fixed-term electionsEdit

National and local elections are held on the second Monday of May every third year starting 1992. The presidential and vice presidential elections are held every six years. Election Days in which the president and vice president and barangay officials are not elected are called "midterm elections"; Election Days in which the president and vice president are elected are called "presidential elections". Barangay-level officials, although are currently elected in the same year as the other officials, are elected separately the succeeding months (see below).

From 1949 to 1971, election days are held every second Tuesday of November of every odd-numbered year with the presidential and vice presidential election held the every fourth year starting from 1951.

Barangay-level elections, starting from 2007, are to be held every three years during the last Monday of October, although these elections are frequently postponed (and incumbents' terms are extended) as a cost-saving measure. Elections for the positions in the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (BARMM), starting from 2011, are to be held every three years during the second Monday of May.

Position 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Type Presidential (May) None Barangay (May) Midterm (May) None Presidential (May) Barangay (December)
President and
vice president
President and vice president None President and vice president
Senate Seats contested during even-numbered years (12 seats) None Seats contested during odd-numbered years (12 seats) None Seats contested during even-numbered years (12 seats)
House of Representatives All seats None All seats None All seats
BARMM/ARMM All positions None All positions
Provinces, cities and municipalities All positions None All positions None All positions
Barangays None All positions None Postponed None All positions

InaugurationEdit

Position 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Type Presidential (June) None Barangay (June) Midterm (June) None Presidential (June)
President and
vice president
June 30 None June 30
Senate June 30 None June 30 None June 30
House June 30 None June 30 None June 30
BARMM/ARMM June 30 None None None June 30
Provinces, cities and municipalities June 30 None June 30 None June 30
Barangays None June 30 None None January 1, 2023


Elected officesEdit

Position Number
President 1
Vice president 1
Senators 12
House of Representatives (district) 1
House of Representatives (party-list) 1
Governor 1*
Vice governor 1*
Board members 1 to 7*
Mayor 1
Vice mayor 1
Councilors 4 to 12
Total presidential 22 to 39
Total midterm 20 to 37
Regional governor 1
Regional vice governor 1
Regional assemblymen 3
Total ARMM 5
Barangay captain 1
Barangay councilor (kagawad) 7
Total barangay 8
SK chairman 1
SK councilor (kagawad) 7
Total SK 8
*Independent cities do not elect provincial officials.

In a presidential election year, a voter may vote for as much as 34 names and a party-list organization. In ARMM elections, a voter may vote for five names, and in barangay elections, a voter may vote for eight names. A voter for the Sangguniang Kabataan (SK, youth council) may vote for eight names; currently, SK voters are aged 15 to 18 years old with only the SK voters aged 18 years old may vote for other barangay officials.

President and vice presidentEdit

Each voter is entitled to one vote each for the duration of the election. The voter may split his or her ticket. The candidate with the most votes wins the position; there is no run-off election, and the president and vice president may come from different parties. If two or more candidates emerge with an equal and highest number of votes, one of them will be elected by the Senate and the House of Representatives, voting separately.

The first presidential and vice-presidential election in the Philippines was the Tejeros Convention of 1897; this was for the leadership of the Katipunan, where Aguinaldo was elected as leader. The first presidential election in which the presidency of the Philippines was at stake was on January 1, 1899, when the Malolos Congress of the First Philippine Republic elected Aguinaldo as president.

The first presidential election via a direct election was on September 16, 1935 where Aguinaldo was defeated by Manuel L. Quezon. The first presidential election in the current constitution was on June 30, 1992 where Fidel Ramos defeated six other candidates.

CongressEdit

SenatorsEdit

The Senate has 24 members, and 12 members are elected every election; hence, each voter is entitled to twelve votes for the Senate in every election. The voter may not complete the twelve votes for the Senate, but s/he must not surpass the twelve votes or else his/her ballot for that position will be nullified. With the entire country as one at-large district, the twelve candidates with the most votes are elected. This is often not proportional to the results.

From 1951 to 1971, instead of 12 senators elected every three years, the electorate voted for eight senators every two years in the same format. From 1941 to 1949, all elections to the senate were by block voting: the voters may write a name for every seat contested, or they can write the name of the party, which would then give all of the voters' votes to that party's ticket. Compounded with the Nacionalista Party's dominance, this caused a sweep of 24 seats for them in 1941.[3] From 1916 to 1934, voting was via senatorial districts; voters vote for one candidate every three years, except for the first election in 1916 where they'd vote for two candidates; the second-placed candidate would only serve for three years.

House of RepresentativesEdit

Each voter has two votes in the House of Representatives, via parallel vote: 80% of seats are from single-member districts, and 20% are from the party-list system.

A voter may vote a representative from the congressional district of residence. The candidate with the highest number of votes in a district wins that district's seat.

A voter may also vote a party-list organization. The voter votes for the party, not for the candidate, and the voter is restricted to one vote. All votes are tallied in an at-large basis, and parties with at least 2% of the vote wins at least one seat in the House. A further two more seats will be granted if there are still spare seats (the party-list representatives comprise 20% of the House), and if there are still unfilled seats, the parties with less than 2% of the vote will get one seat each in descending order until all seats are filled. A party-list organization is limited to representing marginalized sectors of society such as youth, laborers, women, and the like.

Previously, the calculation for the winners in the party-list election was different: the winning parties should have 2% of the national vote and are awarded one seat; any additional 2% is given an additional seat until the maximum of three seats per party is filled up. Since only a few parties surpassed the 2% election threshold, the number of party-list representatives was always less than 20% of the House's membership.

The party-list system was first used in 1998; from 1987 to 1995, the president with the concurrence of the Commission on Appointments, appointed the sectoral representatives. Sectoral representatives were first elected during 1978.

The first legislative election was the for the Malolos Congress in June 23 – September 10, 1898. The first election for an entirely elected body was in July 30, 1907. This was also the first general election in the Philippines.

Local positionsEdit

Synchronized with the national elections are the local elections. The voter may vote for any of the following:

If the city the voter is residing in a highly urbanized city or independent component city, the voter can not vote for any of the provincial-level positions.

The Sangguniang Panlalawigan (provincial board), Sangguniang Panlungsod (city council) and Sangguniang Bayan (municipal council)'s manner of election is identical with that of the Senate. In some cities and provinces, they are split into districts (not necessarily the same as the congressional district) in which separate board members/council members are elected.

Barangay elections are held every three years, although usually not in the same time as elections for other positions. Terms of incumbent barangay officials are often extended when Congress suspend the barangay elections as a cost-saving measure. The barangay-level positions are:

The manner of election of the Sangguniang Kabataan in the barangay is identical to the one used in the Senate. Each barangay is entitled to one SK. The SK chairperson is also an ex officio member of the Sangguniang Barangay.

During the Spanish era, there was no elected or appointed national legislature representing the Philippines. The natives were allowed to elect the cabeza de barangay or the barangay (village) chief, but the electorate was almost always from the principalia or the ruling class. Originally hereditary, the position become elective by 1768. In each town, a gobernadorcillo serves as the representative of the Spanish government. It is elected by the 12 most senior cabezas, and the outgoing gobernadorcillo. The position was made elective in 1786. This system of governance persisted until the enactment of the Maura Law in 1893. The first (and only) election under this new system was in January 1, 1895.

When the Americans defeated the Spanish in the Spanish–American War, and the Filipinos in the Philippine–American War, the Americans began holding elections in pacified areas. The first such elections, which are open to all males above 21 years of age, was held in May 7, 1899.

Autonomous regional electionsEdit

The first general election for the Bangsamoro shall be in 2022. Elections to the 80-member Bangsamoro Parliament shall be similar to how the members of the House of Representatives are elected.

One-half of the membership (40) will be elected via the party-list system, and not more than 40% of the seats (32) are via single-member parliamentary districts. Not more than 10% of the seats are reserved seats, 2 seats for non-Moro indigenous peoples and settler communities, and one seat each for women, youth, traditional leaders and the Ulama, with these seats should be not less than 8 seats.

The Bangsamoro Parliament shall elect the chief minister, the regional head of government, and the wali (governor), the ceremonial head of the region.

In the now defunct Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao which was replaced by the Bangsamoro, voters elected the regional governor and regional vice governor via the plurality system, and members of the Regional Legislative Assembly via plurality-at-large voting.

Other electionsEdit

Referendums and plebiscitesEdit

Referendums and plebiscites are conducted to pass certain laws. Any amendments or revision to the constitution, merging, creation and abolition of local government units and autonomous regions and the like are validated via plebiscites. For a referendum and plebiscite to pass, the votes in favor must be greater in number than those which are opposed; there is no requirement for how high the voter turnout should be in such referendums or plebiscites.

The terms "referendum" and "plebiscite" mean different things in the context of Philippine political discourse:

  • Referendum is the power of the electorate to approve or reject a legislation through an election called for the purpose.
  • Plebiscite is the electoral process by which an initiative on the Constitution is approved or rejected by the people.
    • It is also the term used in determining the creation of a barangay (village), municipalities, cities, provinces and autonomous regions.

To initiate a referendum, a total of 10% of all registered voters, plus 3% from every affected legislative district, must sign a petition. If the affected locality only has one legislative district, the 3% requirement falls to every municipality for a province-wide referendum, and for every barangay for citywide referendum. For barangay-level referendums, the requirement is 10% of all registered voters. For a constitutional plebiscite, 12% of all registered voters is needed, with 3% for all legislative districts, and that it could be exercised five years after its ratification on February 2, 1987, and once every five years after each plebiscite. A referendum is passed if it is approved by a majority of the votes cast; a defeat means the law sought to be rejected or amended remains to be in full effect.

There had been two "waves" of national referendums in the Philippines: the first was during the Commonwealth period, and the latter was during the martial law period. Locally, the most common plebiscites are on creating new provinces and the upgrading of a municipality into a city.

The last provincial-level plebiscite was on 2019 for the renaming of Compostela Valley to "Davao del Oro" that was passed; the last national plebiscite was in 1987 for the approval of the constitution endorsed by the 1986 Constitutional Commission.

Recall electionsEdit

Elected local government officials may be recalled. A recall election may be called if there is a petition of at least 25% of the registered voters in that LGU. An amendment to the law where a majority of all members of a preparatory recall assembly, composed of all elected local officials within a local government unit (LGU), endorse a recall, was repealed. The recalled official is not allowed to resign when facing a recall election, but may participate in it; the candidate with the highest number of votes wins the recall election.

The president, vice president, members of Congress cannot be removed via recall. The president and vice president can be removed by impeachment, while members of Congress can be removed via expulsion within their ranks.

The last recall election above the barangay level was the 2015 Puerto Princesa mayoral recall election.

InitiativesEdit

Initiatives (locally known as "people's initiative") to amend or revise the constitution or propose new laws are allowed if there is a petition of at least 12% of all registered voters in the country, with at least 3% in every legislative district. A plebiscite will be called it meets such requirements. A people's initiative has never made it past the stage verification of signatures.

Special electionsEdit

The term "special election" in the Philippines may mean either of the following:

  • An election that was supposedly held with the general election but was delayed;
  • An election to elect a new official after the predecessor left office (known as "by-elections" elsewhere)

Members of the House of Representatives and of unaffiliated members of the upcoming Bangsamoro Parliament can be elected under the second type of special election whenever the predecessor leaves office, except when the next regularly scheduled election is less than a year away. A special election for president and vice president can only be called if both offices are vacant at the same time, and is outside the 18 months prior to the next regularly scheduled presidential election. Replacement of vacancies in legislatures governed by the Local Government Code is done via appointment, and not by special elections.

The last special election to elect a vacancy to the House of Representatives was 2012 for Negros Occidental's 5th legislative district. The last special election for the presidency was on 1986.

Indirect electionsEdit

The barangay and SK chairmen, and the city and municipal councilors have a series of indirect elections among themselves to determine their representatives of the local legislature immediately above their level.

The barangay SK chairpersons in a city or municipality elect among themselves a president that will sit as an ex officio member of the city or municipal council. The city (if applicable) and municipal SK presidents then elect among themselves a president that will sit in the provincial board as an ex officio member. Finally, provincial and city (which are not under the jurisdiction of a province) chairpersons elect among themselves the SK national federation president that will sit as an ex officio member of the National Youth Commission.

The manner of representation of the different barangay chairmen in the municipal, city and provincial legislatures as ex officio members is identical with the way how the SK chairpersons are represented; the provincial and city (which are not under the jurisdiction of a province) chairpersons elect amongst themselves the president of the National League of the Barangays (Liga ng mga Barangay).

The city (if applicable) and municipal councilors will vote among themselves which will be their representative to the provincial board. Councilors will also elect among themselves the officers of the Philippine Councilors League.

Primary electionsEdit

Primary elections do not currently exist in the Philippines. The leaders of the various political parties select the candidates themselves, and party membership is liquid. In some cases, if a politician is not chosen to be a candidate, he can join another party (such as Ferdinand Marcos, a Liberal, jumped ship to the Nacionalistas in 1965 when the Liberals picked incumbent Diosdado Macapagal as their presidential candidate), or create their own party (such as Fidel Ramos, when he created Lakas ng Tao (now Lakas Kampi CMD) after the Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino chose Ramon Mitra as their presidential candidate in 1992).

Primary elections did exist in the Third Republic era in the Liberal and Nacionalista parties.

Constitutional ConventionsEdit

Calling a Constitutional Convention is one of the ways to amend or revise the constitution of the Philippines. While voting is expected to be via the existing legislative districts, Congress decides on how many delegates would be elected, thus how many delegates would be distributed per district. The election is nonpartisan.

During the 1970 Constitutional Convention election, each district had 2 to 16 delegates, elected via plurality-at-large voting. During the 1934 Constitutional Convention election, each district had 2 to 14 delegates, also elected via plurality-at-large-voting.

The body that proposed the current constitution, the Philippine Constitutional Commission of 1986, was appointed by the President, Corazon Aquino. The Malolos Congress was partly elected.

HistoryEdit

Beginning during the Spanish Colonial Period there were a few attempts nationally of electing local officials. Once the Spanish colonial government was replaced by the American colonial Insular Government. following the Spanish–American War, and the First Philippine Republic defeated in the Philippine–American War, there were multiple elections held throughout peaceful areas of the country for provincial and local officials.

During the First Philippine Republic an attempt was made to elect a national congress but the Republic did not control the Philippines and so no nationwide election could be held. The first fully national election for a fully elected legislative body was in 1907 for the Philippine Assembly, the elected half of the bicameral Philippine Legislature during the American Colonial Period.

List of electionsEdit

Only elections national in scope are included.

Year General President Upper house Lower house Local Barangay Other Referendum
1895 Municipal
1898 1898 Congress
1899 Local
1902 Local
1904 Local
1905 Local
1907 Philippine Assembly
1909 Philippine Assembly Local
1912 Philippine Assembly Local
1916 Legislative Senate House of Representatives Local
1919 Legislative Senate House of Representatives Local
1922 Legislative Senate House of Representatives Local
1925 Legislative Senate House of Representatives Local
1928 Legislative Senate House of Representatives Local
1931 Legislative Senate House of Representatives Local
1934 Legislative Senate House of Representatives Local Constitutional convention
1935 General President & vice president National Assembly Constitutional
1937 Local Women's suffrage
1938 National Assembly
1940 Constitutional
1941 General President & vice president Senate House of Representatives Local
1943 National Assembly Local
1946 General President & vice president Senate House of Representatives
1947 Senate Local Parity rights
1949 General President & vice president Senate House of Representatives
1951 Senate Local
1953 General President & vice president Senate House of Representatives
1955 Senate Local
1957 General President & vice president Senate House of Representatives
1959 Senate Local
1961 General President & vice president Senate House of Representatives
1963 Senate Local
1965 General President & vice president Senate House of Representatives
1967 Senate Local
1969 General President & vice president Senate House of Representatives
1970 Constitutional convention
1971 Senate Local
1973 Constitutional (January)
Martial law (July)
1975 Executive and legislative powers
1976 Constitutional
1977 Constitutional
1978 Parliament
1980 Local
1981 President Constitutional (April)
Barangay institutionalization (June)
1982 Barangay
1984 Parliament Constitutional
1986 President & vice president
1987 Legislative Senate House of Representatives Constitutional
1988 Local
1989 Barangay
1992 General President & vice president Senate House of Representatives Local SK
1994 Barangay
1995 General Senate House of Representatives Local
1996 SK
1997 Barangay
1998 General President & vice president Senate House of Representatives Local
2001 General Senate House of Representatives Local
2002 Barangay & SK
2004 General President & vice president Senate House of Representatives Local
2007 General Senate House of Representatives Local Barangay & SK
2010 General President & vice president Senate House of Representatives Local Barangay & SK
2013 General Senate House of Representatives Local Barangay
2016 General President & vice president Senate House of Representatives Local
2018 Barangay & SK
2019 General Senate House of Representatives Local

Latest electionsEdit

The latest presidential and vice presidential elections were held in May 2016. The latest national and local elections are the May 2016 polls, followed in October by barangay elections.

2016 presidential electionEdit

e • d Summary of the May 9, 2016 Philippine presidential election results
Candidate Party Votes %
Rodrigo Duterte Partido Demokratiko Pilipino–Lakas ng Bayan
(Philippine Democratic Party–People's Power)
16,601,997 39.01%
Mar Roxas Liberal Party 9,978,175 23.45%
Grace Poe Independent 9,100,991 21.39%
Jejomar Binay United Nationalist Alliance 5,416,140 12.73%
Miriam Defensor Santiago People's Reform Party 1,455,532 3.42%
Total 42,552,835 100%
Valid votes 42,552,835 94.61%
Roy Señeres[p 1] Partido ng Manggagawa at Magsasaka (Workers' and Peasants' Party) 25,779 0.06%
Total invalid votes 2,426,316 5.39%
Votes cast 44,979,151 81.5%
Registered voters 55,739,911
  1. ^ Withdrew on February 5, 2016, and died three days later. All of his votes were considered as spoiled votes.

2016 vice presidential electionEdit

e • d Summary of the May 9, 2016 Philippine vice presidential election results
Candidate Party Votes %
Leni Robredo Liberal Party 14,418,817 35.11%
Bongbong Marcos Independent[v 1] 14,155,344 34.47%
Alan Peter Cayetano Independent[v 2] 5,903,379 14.38%
Francis Escudero Independent[v 3] 4,931,962 12.01%
Antonio Trillanes Independent[v 4] 868,501 2.11%
Gregorio Honasan United Nationalist Alliance 788,881 1.92%
Total 41,066,884 100%
Valid votes 41,066,884 91.30%
Invalid votes 3,912,267 8.70%
Votes cast 44,979,151 81.5%
Registered voters 55,739,911
  1. ^ Member of Nacionalista Party, which does not field an official candidate; Miriam Defensor Santiago's (PRP) guest candidate for vice president
  2. ^ Member of Nacionalista Party, which does not field an official candidate; Rodrigo Duterte's (PDP–Laban) guest candidate for vice president
  3. ^ Escudero is Grace Poe's (Independent) vice presidential running mate.
  4. ^ Member of Nacionalista Party, which does not field an official candidate; supported by Magdalo and endorsed Grace Poe for President

2019 legislative electionEdit

2019 Senate electionEdit

e • d Summary of the May 13, 2019 Philippine Senate election results per party
 
Party Popular vote Breakdown Seats
Total % Swing Entered Up Not up Gains Holds Losses Won End 17th 18th +/−
Start %
PDP–Laban (Philippine Democratic Party–People's Power) 76,712,223 21.22%   21.22% 5 1 4 3 1 0 4 2 5 20.8%   3
Nacionalista (Nationalist Party) 60,955,374 16.86%   16.01% 3 2 1 2 1 0 3 3 4 16.7%   1
Liberal (Liberal Party) 43,273,583 11.97%   19.33% 6 1 4 0 0 1 0 5 4 16.7%   1
NPC (Nationalist People's Coalition) 31,279,191 8.65%   1.42% 2 2 2 0 2 1 1 4 3 12.5%   1
Lakas (People Power–Christian Muslim Democrats) 22,240,710 6.15%   2.07% 2 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 4.2%   1
LDP (Struggle of Democratic Filipinos) 18,161,862 5.02%   5.02% 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 4.2%  
PMP (Force of the Filipino Masses) 16,678,603 4.61%   0.88% 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0%  
UNA (United Nationalist Alliance) 14,974,776 4.14%   3.50% 2 1 0 0 1 0 1 2 1 4.2%   1
Makabayan (Patriotic Coalition of the People) 4,683,942 1.30%   0.72% 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0%  
KDP (Union of Democratic Filipinos) 4,185,673 1.16%   1.16% 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0%  
KBL (New Society Movement) 3,487,780 0.96%   0.35% 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0%  
WPP (Labor Party Philippines) 3,409,010 0.94%   0.18% 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0%  
Aksyon (Democratic Action) 2,757,879 0.76%   1.86% 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0%  
Bagumbayan (New Nation-Volunteers for a New Philippines) 2,059,359 0.57%   0.57% 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0%  
PFP (Federal Party of the Philippines) 1,490,764 0.41%   0.41% 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0%  
PLM (Strength of the Masses Party) 893,506 0.25%   0.25% 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0%  
PDSP (Philippine Social Democratic Party) 347,013 0.10%   0.10% 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0%  
Akbayan (Akbayan Citizens' Action Party) Not participating 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 4.2%  
Independent 53,959,909 14.92%   16.44% 18 3 2 0 1 2 1 5 4 16.7%   1
Vacancy 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 0%   2
Total votes 361,551,157 N/A 62 12 12 6 6 6 12 24 24 100%   1
Registered voters 63,665,944 100%   20.11%

2019 House of Representatives electionsEdit

e • d Summary of the May 13, 2019 Philippine House of Representatives election results for representatives from congressional districts[4]
 
Party Popular vote Seats
Total % Swing Entered Up Won[5] % +/−
PDP–Laban (Philippine Democratic Party–People's Power) 12,653,960 31.23%   29.33% 127 94 82 26.97%   12
Nacionalista (Nationalist Party) 6,524,100 16.10%   6.68% 69 37 42 13.82%   5
NPC (Nationalist People's Coalition) 5,797,543 14.31%   2.73% 61 33 37 12.17%   4
NUP (National Unity Party) 3,852,909 9.51%   0.16% 42 28 25 8.22%   3
Liberal (Liberal Party) 2,321,759 5.73%   35.99% 26 18 18 5.92%  
Lakas (People Power–Christian Muslim Democrats) 2,069,871 5.11%   3.57% 29 5 12 3.95%   7
PFP (Federal Party of the Philippines) 965,048 2.38%   2.38% 32 2 5 1.64%   3
HNP (Faction of Change) 652,318 1.61%   1.61% 6 3 3 0.99%  
Aksyon (Democratic Action) 398,616 0.98%   0.40% 6 0 1 0.33%   1
PMP (Force of the Filipino Masses) 396,614 0.98%   0.77% 9 1 1 0.33%  
Bukidnon Paglaum (Hope for Bukidnon) 335,628 0.83%   0.48% 3 2 2 0.66%  
PDDS (Noble Blood Association of Federalists) 259,423 0.64%   0.64% 31 0 0 0.00%  
LDP (Struggle of Democratic Filipinos) 252,806 0.62%   0.32% 3 3 2 0.66%   1
UNA (United Nationalist Alliance) 232,657 0.57%   6.05% 7 0 0 0.00%  
HTL (Party of the People of the City) 197,024 0.49%   0.35% 1 0 1 0.33%   1
PPP (Palawan's Party of Change) 185,810 0.46%   0.46% 2 0 2 0.66%   2
Bileg (Ilocano Power) 158,523 0.39%   0.39% 1 1 1 0.33%  
PRP (People's Reform Party) 138,014 0.34%   0.34% 2 0 1 0.33%   1
Unang Sigaw (First Cry of Nueva Ecija) 120,674 0.30%   0.30% 1 0 0 0.00%  
KDP (Union of Democratic Filipinos) 116,453 0.29%   0.29% 4 0 0 0.00%  
Asenso Abrenio (Progress for Abrenians) 115,865 0.29%   0.29% 1 0 1 0.33%   1
Kambilan (Shield and Fellowship of Kapampangans) 107,078 0.26%   0.26% 1 0 0 0.00%  
Padayon Pilipino (Onward Filipinos) 98,450 0.24%   0.10% 2 0 0 0.00%  
Asenso Manileño (Progress for Manilans) 84,656 0.21%   0.29% 2 0 2 0.66%   2
Kusog Bicolandia (Force of Bicol) 82,832 0.20%   0.21% 2 0 0 0.00%  
CDP (Centrist Democratic Party of the Philippines) 81,741 0.20%   0.17% 1 0 1 0.33%   1
Navoteño (Navotas Party) 80,265 0.20%   0.20% 1 1 1 0.33%  
KABAKA (Partner of the Nation for Progress) 65,836 0.16%   0.03% 1 1 1 0.33%  
PDSP (Philippine Social Democratic Party) 56,223 0.14%   0.14% 3 0 0 0.00%  
Bagumbayan (New Nation-Volunteers for a New Philippines) 33,731 0.08%   0.08% 1 0 0 0.00%  
KBL (New Society Movement) 33,594 0.08%   0.45% 1 0 0 0.00%  
AZAP (Forward Zamboanga Party) 28,605 0.07%   0.07% 1 0 0 0.00%  
WPP (Labor Party Philippines) 9,718 0.02%   0.00% 2 0 0 0.00%  
DPP (Democratic Party of the Philippines) 1,110 0.00%   0.00% 1 0 0 0.00%  
HSS (Surigao Sur Party) 816 0.00%   0.00% 1 0 0 0.00%  
PGRP (Philippine Green Republican Party) 701 0.00%   0.01% 1 0 0 0.00%  
Independent 2,014,211 4.97%   0.86% 143 1 2 0.66%   1
TotalA 40,524,366 100% N/A 627 238 243 79.9%   5
Valid votes 40,524,366 86.90%   0.39%
Invalid votes 6,106,908 13.10%   0.39%
Turnout 46,631,274 75.40%
Registered voters (without overseas voters) 61,843,771 100%   11.48%

Notes:

^ The congressional districts for General Santos and both Southern Leyte's districts were supposedly done later in 2019, as these were approved after the ballots were printed. Elections for South Cotabato as two districts, where General Santos is included in the 1st district, and Southern Leyte's lone district, still proceeded, but all votes were declared as stray. However, the Supreme Court ruled that the result of the election for South Cotabato's 1st district, stood, ordering the commission to proclaim Shirlyn L. Bañas-Nograles as the winner.[6] The commission then decided that the winner in Southern Leyte's congressional election, Roger Mercado, be proclaimed as well.[7]

e • d Summary of the May 13, 2019 Philippine House of Representatives election results for party-list representatives
Party Popular vote Seats
Total[8] % Swing Up Won[9] +/−
ACT-CIS 2,651,987 9.51%   9.17% 0 3   3
Bayan Muna 1,117,403 4.01%   2.14% 1 3   2
Ako Bicol 1,049,040 3.76%   1.38% 3 2   1
CIBAC 929,718 3.33%   1.61% 1 2   1
ANG PROBINSYANO 770,344 2.76%   2.76% 0 2   2
1PACMAN 713,969 2.56%   1.49% 2 2  
Marino 681,448 2.44%   2.12% 0 2   2
Probinsyano Ako 630,435 2.26%   2.26% 0 2   2
Senior Citizens 516,927 1.85%   1.66% 0 1   1
MAGSASAKA 496,337 1.78%   1.78% 0 1   1
APEC 480,874 1.72%   1.72% 0 1   1
GABRIELA 449,440 1.61%   2.61% 2 1   1
An Waray 442,090 1.59%   0.23% 1 1  
Coop-NATCCO 417,285 1.50%   0.57% 2 1   1
ACT Teachers 395,327 1.42%   2.23% 2 1   1
PHILRECA 394,966 1.42%   1.42% 0 1   1
Ako Bisaya 394,304 1.41%   1.41% 0 1   1
Tingog Sinirangan 391,211 1.40%   0.75% 0 1   1
Abono 378,204 1.36%   0.90% 2 1   1
Buhay 361,493 1.30%   1.05% 2 1   1
Duterte Youth 354,629 1.27%   1.27% 0 1   1
Kalinga 339,665 1.22%   0.31% 1 1  
PBA 326,258 1.17%   1.24% 2 1   1
ALONA 320,000 1.15%   0.19% 1 1  
RECOBODA 318,511 1.14%   1.14% 0 1   1
Bagong Henerasyon 288,752 1.04%   0.12% 1 1  
BAHAY 281,793 1.01%   1.01% 0 1   1
CWS 277,940 1.00%   0.97% 0 1   1
Abang Lingkod 275,199 0.99%   0.45% 1 1  
A TEACHER 274,460 0.98%   0.49% 1 1  
BHW 269,518 0.97%   0.97% 0 1   1
SAGIP 257,313 0.92%   0.92% 0 1   1
TUCP 256,059 0.92%   0.52% 1 1  
Magdalo 253,536 0.91%   0.05% 1 1  
GP 249,484 0.89%   0.89% 0 1   1
Manila Teachers 249,416 0.89%   0.06% 1 1  
RAM 238,150 0.85%   0.38% 0 1   1
ANAKALUSUGAN 237,629 0.85%   0.26% 0 1   1
Ako Padayon 235,112 0.84%   0.84% 0 1   1
AAMBIS-OWA 234,552 0.84%   0.69% 1 1  
Kusug Tausug 228,224 0.82%   0.06% 1 1  
Dumper PTDA 223,199 0.80%   0.78% 0 1   1
TGP 217,525 0.78%   0.78% 0 1   1
PATROL 216,653 0.78%   0.78% 0 1   1
Anak Mindanao 212,323 0.76%   1.42% 2 1   1
AGAP 208,752 0.75%   1.08% 1 1  
LPGMA 208,219 0.75%   0.69% 1 1  
OFW Family Club 200,881 0.72%   0.09% 0 1   1
KABAYAN 198,571 0.71%   1.89% 2 1   1
DIWA 196,385 0.70%   0.70% 0 1   1
Kabataan 195,837 0.70%   0.23% 1 1  
AKMA-PTM 191,804 0.69%   0.69% 0 0  
SBP 180,535 0.65%   2.40% 2 0   2
Angkla 179,909 0.65%   0.39% 1 0   1
Akbayan 173,356 0.62%   1.26% 1 0   1
Wow Pilipinas 172,080 0.62%   0.62% 0 0  
Inang Mahal 170,019 0.61%   0.61% 0 0  
YACAP 167,826 0.60%   0.86% 1 0   1
ABAMIN 166,883 0.60%   0.05% 0 0  
Butil 164,412 0.59%   0.63% 1 0   1
Append 158,003 0.57%   0.11% 0 0  
Anakpawis 146,511 0.53%   0.60% 1 0   1
ANAK-IP 144,291 0.52%   0.46% 1 0   1
Ang Nars 141,263 0.51%   0.17% 0 0  
PBB 136,093 0.49%   0.35% 0 0  
AA-KASOSYO PARTY 134,795 0.48%   0.48% 0 0  
AGRI 133,505 0.48%   2.10% 2 0   2
ACTS-OFW 131,865 0.47%   0.69% 1 0   1
ATING KOOP 131,344 0.47%   0.10% 0 0  
Mata 128,201 0.46%   0.56% 1 0   1
1-CARE 127,867 0.46%   0.56% 1 0   1
Murang Kuryente 127,530 0.46%   0.46% 0 0  
1-ANG EDUKASYON 119,646 0.43%   0.43% 1 0   1
PEACE 119,211 0.43%   0.43% 0 0  
ALENG ENTREP 113,134 0.41%   0.06% 0 0  
Aangat Tayo 109,939 0.39%   0.36% 1 0   1
Ako An Bisaya 109,463 0.39%   0.39% 0 0  
ABANTE PILIPINAS 97,114 0.35%   0.35% 0 0  
Alay Buhay 94,320 0.34%   0.24% 0 0  
Global 89,775 0.32%   0.32% 0 0  
CONSLA 88,075 0.32%   0.34% 0 0  
ABEKA 83,379 0.30%   0.30% 0 0  
KONTRA BROWNOUT 81,141 0.29%   0.29% 0 0  
PRAI 79,818 0.29%   0.29% 0 0  
MAYPAGASA 79,358 0.28%   0.28% 0 0  
JUAN MOVEMENT 76,769 0.28%   0.28% 0 0  
ITO ANG TAMA 76,428 0.27%   0.27% 0 0  
AASENSO 74,722 0.27%   0.64% 1 0   1
1AAAP 74,465 0.27%   0.27% 0 0  
Ang Kabuhayan 74,229 0.27%   0.81% 1 0   1
Agbiag! 70,318 0.25%   0.49% 1 0   1
ABAKADA 69,257 0.25%   0.42% 0 0  
ALL-FISH 69,138 0.25%   0.43% 0 0  
ALIF 68,805 0.25%   0.25% 0 0  
Laang Kawal 68,333 0.25%   1.19% 1 0   1
Sinag 61,696 0.22%   0.22% 0 0  
People's Champ 60,448 0.22%   0.22% 0 0  
LUNTIAN 59,096 0.21%   0.21% 0 0  
GRECON 58,561 0.21%   0.21% 0 0  
ANUPA 54,767 0.20%   0.14% 0 0  
AKO BISDAK 51,228 0.18%   0.18% 0 0  
KOOP-KAMPI 50,889 0.18%   0.18% 0 0  
UNIDO 45,710 0.16%   0.01% 0 0  
1-LAMBAT 44,181 0.16%   0.02% 0 0  
AKO 43,583 0.16%   0.16% 0 0  
BANAT 40,899 0.15%   0.05% 0 0  
1-UTAK 36,285 0.13%   0.13% 0 0  
AMEPA OFW 35,373 0.13%   0.24% 0 0  
ASEAN 32,464 0.12%   0.27% 0 0  
ABS 31,394 0.11%   0.82% 1 0   1
Sulong Dignidad 29,830 0.11%   0.11% 0 0  
Kabalikat 29,187 0.10%   0.10% 0 0  
PTA 28,908 0.10%   0.10% 0 0  
PLM 28,824 0.10%   0.10% 0 0  
PM 28,351 0.10%   0.10% 0 0  
METRO 28,261 0.10%   0.19% 0 0  
1-AHAPO 26,564 0.10%   0.07% 0 0  
Tao Muna 25,946 0.09%   0.18% 0 0  
AVE 25,025 0.09%   0.40% 0 0  
AWAKE 24,780 0.09%   0.00% 0 0  
1-UTAP Bicol 22,948 0.08%   0.08% 0 0  
IP 21,974 0.08%   0.08% 0 0  
Partido Sandugo 19,649 0.07%   0.07% 0 0  
BUKLOD FILIPINO 18,297 0.07%   0.07% 0 0  
FICTAP 16,038 0.06%   0.05% 0 0  
TRICAP 15,731 0.06%   0.10% 0 0  
Tinderong Pinoy 14,580 0.05%   0.09% 0 0  
PPP 13,848 0.05%   0.05% 0 0  
KMM 12,061 0.04%   0.04% 0 0  
MARVELOUS TAYO 11,751 0.04%   0.04% 0 0  
FFP 10,589 0.04%   0.04% 0 0  
1-APTO 8,883 0.03%   0.03% 0 0  
KAMAIS 7,571 0.03%   0.11% 0 0  
SAMAKO 6,344 0.02%   0.14% 0 0  
Total 27,884,790 100.00% N/A 59 61   2
Valid votes 27,884,790 60.22%   11.76%
Invalid votes 18,418,594 39.78%   11.76%
Total turnout 46,303,384 72.73%   7.97%
Registered voters 63,665,944 100.00%   14.22%


2016 Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao general electionEdit

2019 gubernatorial electionsEdit

2019 local electionsEdit

2018 barangay and SK electionsEdit

Future electionsEdit

The next presidential, legislative and local election is on May 9, 2022. The next barangay election is on December 5, 2022.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Inquirer, News (May 10, 2016). "Smartmatic: PH now world reference point for automated elections". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved May 10, 2016.
  2. ^ News, Christian V. Esguerra, ABS-CBN. "2019 polls source code passes foreign firm review: Comelec spokesman". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved January 7, 2019.
  3. ^ Quezon, Manuel III (November 20, 2006). "Block voting". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on March 26, 2012. Retrieved December 10, 2010.
  4. ^ Commission on Elections
  5. ^ "Number of Elected Candidates by Party Affiliation Per Elective Position, by Sex" (PDF). COMELEC.gov.ph. Retrieved April 12, 2020.
  6. ^ Supreme Court en Banc (September 10, 2019). "G.R. No. 246328 - Vice Mayor Shirlyn L. Bañas-Nograles, et al. Vs. Commission on Elections". Supreme Court of the Philippines. Retrieved March 14, 2020.
  7. ^ Arnaiz, Jani (December 17, 2019). "Rep. Mercado proclaimed as Congressman for lone District of Southern Leyte". The Reporter. Archived from the original on December 25, 2019. Retrieved March 14, 2020.
  8. ^ Placido, Dharel. "ACT-CIS, Bayan Muna get 3 party-list seats as Comelec proclaims winners". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
  9. ^ Tomacruz, Sofia. "Comelec proclaims 51 winning groups in 2019 party-list elections". Rappler. Retrieved April 12, 2020.

External linksEdit