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Graeme Smith holds record for most Test matches as captain, as well as most Test wins. He led South Africa from 2003 to 2014.[1]
Some countries opt for a split captaincy, with different captains for different formats to manage workload. Shakib Al Hasan (left) captains Bangladesh in Tests and T20Is, and Mashrafe Mortaza (right) leads the team in ODIs.

The captain of a cricket team, often referred to as the skipper,[2] is the appointed leader, having several additional roles and responsibilities over and above those of the other players. As in other sports, the captain is usually experienced and has good communication skills, and is likely to be one of the most regular members of the team, as the captain often has a say in team selection. Before the game the captains toss for innings. During the match the captain decides the team's batting order, who will bowl each over, and where each fielder will be positioned. While the captain has the final say, decisions are often collaborative. A captain's knowledge of the complexities of cricket strategy and tactics, and shrewdness in the field, may contribute significantly to the team's success.

Due to the smaller coaching/management role played out by support staff, as well as the need for greater on-field decision-making, the captain of a cricket team typically shoulders more responsibility for results than team captains in other sports.[3]

Contents

Captain's responsibilitiesEdit

During a matchEdit

The tossEdit

Before the start of a match the home captain tosses a coin and the away captain calls heads or tails. The captain who wins the toss is given the choice of whether to bat or bowl first.[3] The decision usually depends on the condition of the pitch and whether it is likely to deteriorate, the weather conditions and the weather forecast.

The decision also depends on the relative strengths of the team's batting and bowling. For instance in Test cricket, a side with only fast bowlers may choose to bowl first to try to take advantage of any early moisture in the pitch, knowing that it will be harder to take wickets later in the match. Similarly a side with a weak opening batting pair may choose to bowl first in order to protect their batsmen.[4]

Fielding positionsEdit

The captain decides where the fielders will stand, in consultation with the bowler and sometimes other senior players. The fielding positions will usually be dictated by the type of bowler, the batsman's batting style, and the captain's assessment of the state of the match (and hence whether to set an attacking or a defensive field).[3]

BowlingEdit

The captain decides when each bowler will bowl. If a batsman is seeking to dominate the current bowler, the captain may ask someone else to bowl; alternatively, keeping the bowler on may be deemed the best chance of getting the batsman out or restricting the scoring rate. If the regular bowlers are not achieving the desired results, the captain may decide to use non-regular bowlers to attempt to unsettle the batsmen. The captain may also change the bowlers around to introduce variation, and to prevent the batsmen getting "set".[3]

In limited overs cricket the captain additionally has to make certain that bowlers bowl no more than their allotted maximum number of overs, and that experienced bowlers are available at the end of the batting side's innings, when the batsmen are usually looking to take risks to attack and score quickly.[3]

In the longer forms of cricket, when a new ball becomes available the captain decides whether to use it.[3]

Batting orderEdit

When the team bats, the captain decides the batting order. In professional cricket the captain usually changes the established batting order only for exceptional reasons, because batsmen tend to specialise in batting at certain positions. However, in certain circumstances it may be in the team's interest to change the batting order. If quick runs are needed, a naturally attacking batsman may be promoted up the order. A player who is 'in form' may be promoted to a higher batting position, at the expense of a player who is 'out of form'.[3]

If a wicket falls near the end of a day's play, especially if the light is failing, or if the bowlers seem particularly confident, the captain may choose to send in a non-specialist batsman, referred to as a nightwatchman. If the nightwatchman does not get out before the end of that day's play then the specialist batsman will have been protected, and will not need to bat until the following day when conditions are likely to have improved. If the nightwatchman does get out, the cost of losing a late wicket will have been minimised, because the specialist batsman is still available to bat.[3]

DeclarationsEdit

The captain may declare the team's innings closed at any time, but usually only does so as an attacking ploy, for instance if the captain thinks the team has enough runs to win the match, or if a sudden change in conditions has made it advantageous to bowl rather than bat.[3]

Follow-onEdit

In a two-innings match, if the situation arises the captain decides whether to impose the follow-on.[3]

MiscellaneousEdit

The captain is also consulted on whether an injured batsman from the opposing team may use a runner when batting. Permission is usually given if the batsman has become injured during the course of the match, but if the batsman was carrying the injury at the start of the match then the captain may refuse. (As from 2012 runners are not allowed in test cricket and injured batsmen are required to continue batting with the injury or retire hurt.)[5]

Other dutiesEdit

As well as decisions taken either immediately before or during a match, captains also often have some responsibility for the good running of the cricket club. For instance, they may decide when the team is to practise, and for how long. In professional cricket the captain often has some say in who will form the squad from which teams are selected, and may also decide how young up-and-coming players are to be encouraged and improved, and how members of the squad who are not regularly selected for first-team matches are to gain match practice.[3]

Prior to July 2015, the captain was responsible for deciding when to take batting and bowling powerplays in limited overs matches.[6]

Vice-captainEdit

 
Vice-captains are sometimes considered the full-time successor to the incumbent captain. Michael Clarke was Australia's vice-captain for three years before succeeding Ricky Ponting as captain in 2011.[7]

The captain may be assisted by a vice-captain or in some instances joint vice-captains. This is particularly useful if the captain is forced to leave the field of play during fielding. Some teams also allocate the vice-captain a more or less formal role in assisting with team selection, discipline, field-setting and so on. Sometimes the role of vice-captain is seen as preparation for the player(s) becoming the captain of the side in future.[8]

Current International captainsEdit

ICC Full MembersEdit

Nation Format Captain Vice-Captain(s)
  Afghanistan [9] Test Rahmat Shah Hashmatullah Shahidi
ODI Gulbadin Naib Rashid Khan
T20I Rashid Khan Shafiqullah Shafiq
  Australia[10][11] Test Tim Paine Pat Cummins/Travis Head
ODI Aaron Finch Alex Carey/Pat Cummins
T20I
  Bangladesh Test Shakib Al Hasan Mahmudullah
ODI Mashrafe Mortaza Shakib Al Hasan
T20I Shakib Al Hasan Tamim Iqbal
  England[12] Test Joe Root Jos Buttler
ODI Eoin Morgan
T20I
  India Test Virat Kohli Ajinkya Rahane
ODI Rohit Sharma
T20I
  Ireland Test William Porterfield Kevin O'Brien
ODI
T20I Paul Stirling
  New Zealand Test Kane Williamson Tom Latham
ODI
T20I Tim Southee
  Pakistan Test Sarfraz Ahmed Asad Shafiq
ODI Babar Azam
T20I
  South Africa Test Faf du Plessis Dean Elgar
ODI Quinton de Kock
T20I JP Duminy
  Sri Lanka Test Dimuth Karunaratne Niroshan Dickwella [13]
ODI Dhananjaya de Silva[citation needed]
T20I Lasith Malinga Niroshan Dickwella
  West Indies Test Jason Holder Kraigg Brathwaite
ODI Chris Gayle
T20I Carlos Brathwaite
  Zimbabwe[14] Test Hamilton Masakadza Peter Moor
ODI
T20I

Associate MembersEdit

Nation Captain Vice-Captain
  Argentina Billy MacDermott
  Belgium Brighton Watambwa
  Bermuda Janeiro Tucker
  Botswana Karabo Modise
  Canada Davy Jacobs
  Cayman Islands Ronald Ebanks
  China Jiang Shuyao
  Denmark Michael Pedersen Thomas Hansen
  Fiji Jone Seuvou
  France Arun Ayyavooraju
  Germany Rishi Pillai
  Gibraltar Iain Latin
  Guernsey Jamie Nussbaumer
  Hong Kong Anshuman Rath Waqas Barkat
  Israel Herschel Gutman
  Italy Gayashan Munasinghe
  Japan Tatsuro Chino
  Jersey Peter Gough
  Kenya Rakep Patel
  Kuwait Mohammad Amin
  Malaysia Ahmed Faiz Shafiq Sharif
  Namibia Gerhard Erasmus
    Nepal Paras Khadka Gyanendra Malla
  Netherlands Pieter Seelaar
  Nigeria Kunle Adegbola Dotun Olatunji
  Papua New Guinea Assad Vala
  Scotland Kyle Coetzer
  Oman Zeeshan Maqsood
  South Korea Kyungsik Kim
  Singapore Saad Janjua Chetan Suryawanshi
  Suriname Shazam Ramjohn
  Tanzania Hamisi Abdallah
  Thailand Ryan Raina
  Uganda Frank Nsubuga
  United Arab Emirates Mohammad Naveed
  United States Saurabh Netravalkar
  Vanuatu Andrew Mansale
  Zambia Sarfraz Patel Imran Patel
  Saudi Arabia Shoaib Ali

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Records / Test matches / Individual records (captains, players, umpires) / Most matches as captain". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  2. ^ "skipper Definitions". Wordnik. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "The Role of the Captain". DangerMouse. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  4. ^ "Numbers Suggest the Toss Has Never Been More Important in Test Cricket". Bleacher Report. 22 February 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  5. ^ "Runners abolished, ODI and run-out laws tweaked". ESPN Cricinfo. 27 June 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  6. ^ Gollapudi, Nagraj (26 June 2015). "Bowlers benefit from ODI rule changes". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
  7. ^ Brettig, Daniel (8 August 2015). "Clarke announces retirement after Ashes". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
  8. ^ "Enfield Cricket Club – Captains & Player Responsibilities". Enfield Cricket Club. Archived from the original on 1 February 2015. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  9. ^ "Asghar Afghan removed as Afghanistan captain". Cricbuzz. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  10. ^ "Australia announce new vice-captains". cricket.com.au. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  11. ^ "Aaron Finch replaces Tim Paine as Australia ODI captain". www.icc-cricket.com. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  12. ^ Martin, Ali (31 July 2018). "Jos Buttler's star continues to rise with promotion to Test vice-captaincy". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  13. ^ J, Lin (5 February 2019). "Dimuth Karunaratne appointed as the Stand-In Captain for series against South Africa". The Sunday Reader - Sri Lankan News. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  14. ^ "Hamilton Masakadza to lead Zimbabwe in all three formats through 2019-20". ESPNcricinfo. 19 February 2019. Retrieved 28 March 2019.

External linksEdit