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Paleontology or palaeontology (from Greek: paleo, "ancient"; ontos, "being"; and logos, "knowledge") is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 2006.

List of years in paleontology (table)
In science
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009

Contents

PlantsEdit

PteridophytaEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Wessiea oroszii[2]

Sp nov

Valid

Serbet & Rothwell

Campanian

Horseshoe Canyon Formation

  Canada

A fern of uncertain affinity

ArthropodsEdit

InsectsEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Type unit Location Notes Images

Avitomyrmex[3]

Gen et sp. nov

valid

Archibald, Cover, & Moreau

Ypresian

Unnamed Formation, Kamloops Group

  Canada (  British Columbia)

New bulldog ant genus with three species

Emiliana[4]

Trib, Gen, et sp. nov

valid

Shcherbakov

Lutetian

Parachute Member, Green River Formation

  USA (  Colorado)

oldest member of Tropiduchidae

Eocenomyrma[5]

Gen et 3 sp nov

Valid

Dlussky & Radchenko

Priabonian

Baltic amber

  Russia

A Myrmicin ant, 3 species

Feroseta[6]

Gen et sp nov

valid

Poinar

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

  Dominican Republic

A mantidfly, type sp. F. prisca

Macabeemyrma[3]

Gen et sp. nov

valid

Archibald, Cover, & Moreau

Ypresian

Unnamed Formation, Kamloops Group

  Canada (  British Columbia)

New bulldog ant genus with a single species

Palaeovespa menatensis[7]

Sp nov

valid

Nel & Auvray

Thanetian

Menat Formation

  France

A vespid wasp

Ypresiomyrma[3][8]

Gen et sp. nov & sp nov comb

valid

Archibald, Cover, & Moreau

Ypresian

Fur

  Denmark

New bulldog ant genus, Y. orbiculata, Y. bartletti, Y. rebekkae

TetrapodomorphsEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images
Tiktaalik[9]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Daeschler, Shubin, & Jenkins

Late Devonian

Fram Formation

Type species T. roseae. The Earliest Tetrapod.

AmphibiansEdit

Newly named temnospondyliansEdit

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Iberospondylus[10]

Valid

  • Laurin
  • Soler-Gijon

Late Carboniferous

The type species is Iberospondylus schultzei.

Tirraturhinus[11]

Valid

  • Nield
  • Damiani
  • Warren

Early Triassic

Arcadia Formation

The type species is Tirraturhinus smisseni.

Trematolestes[12]

Valid

  • Schoch

Middle Triassic

Erfurt Formation

The type species is Trematolestes hagdorni.

Newly named amphibiansEdit

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Pangerpeton[13]

Valid

  • Wang
  • Evans

Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous

Daohugou Beds

  China

The type species is Pangerpeton sinensis.

IchthyosaursEdit

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Maiaspondylus[14]

Valid

  • Maxwell
  • Caldwell

Early Cretaceous

Loon River Formation

  Canada

The type species is Maiaspondylus lindoei.

LepidosauromorphsEdit

Newly named basal lepidosauromorphsEdit

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Rautiania[15]

Valid

  • Bulanov
  • Sennikov

Late Permian

Vyasovka Formation

  Russia

Two species was descript: Rautiania alexandri (type) and R. minchi.

Newly named plesiosaursEdit

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Bobosaurus[16]

Valid

  • Dalla Vecchia

Late Triassic

Rio del Lago Formation

The type species is Bobosaurus forojuliensis.

Futabasaurus[17]

Valid

  • Sato
  • Hasegawa
  • Manabe

Late Cretaceous

Tamayama Formation

The type species is Futabasaurus suzukii.

Opallionectes[18]

Valid

  • Kear

Early Cretaceous

The type species is Opallionectes andamookaensis.

Umoonasaurus[19]

Valid

  • Kear
  • Schroeder
  • Lee

Early Cretaceous

Bulldog Shale

The type species is Umoonasaurus demoscyllus.

Newly named squamatesEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Najash[20]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Apesteguia & Zaher

Late Cretaceous

Candeleros Formation

  Argentina

Type sp N rionegrina.

TurtlesEdit

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Gigantatypus[21]

Valid

  • Kaddumi

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

Muwaqqar Chalk Marl Formation

  Jordan

A sea turtle. The type species is G. salahi.

ArchosauromorphsEdit

Newly named crurotarsansEdit

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Adamantinasuchus[22]

Valid

  • Nobre
  • Carvalho

Late Cretaceous

Adamantina Formation

A notosuchian. The type species is Adamantinasuchus navae.

Aldabrachampsus[23]

Valid

  • Brochu

Pleistocene

A crocodylid. The type species is Aldabrachampsus dilophus.

Effigia[24]

Valid

  • Nesbitt
  • Norell

Late Triassic

Chinle Formation

A rauisuchian. The type species is Effigia okeeffeae.

Isisfordia[25]

Valid

  • Salisbury
  • Molnar
  • Frey
  • Willis

Early-Late Cretaceous

Winton Formation

A eusuchian. The type species is Isisfordia duncani.

Newly named dinosaursEdit

  • Vickaryous, M K., 2006, New information on the cranial anatomy of Edmontonia rugosidens Gilmore, a Late Cretaceous nodosaurid dinosaur from Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta: JVP, v. 26, n. 4: 1011-1013.

Data coutersy of George Olshevky's dinosaur genera list.[26]

Name Status Authors Location Notes Images
Adamantisaurus[27] Valid taxon
Agujaceratops Valid taxon
  • Hunt
Alaskacephale[28] Valid taxon
  • Sullivan
An Ankylosaur from the North Pole.
Aniksosaurus[29] Valid taxon
  • Martínez
  • Novas
Antarctopelta.[30] Valid taxon
  • Salgado
  • Gasparini
An Ankylosaur from the South Pole.
Balochisaurus Valid taxon
  • Malkani
"Bayosaurus" Nomen nudum
Cedrorestes[31] Valid taxon
Dracorex[32] Jr. Synonym
  • Larson
  • Saulsbury
Jr. Synonym of Pachycephalosaurus.
Dracovenator[33] Valid taxon
  • Yates
An African Dilophosaur.
Erketu[34] Valid taxon
  • Ksepka
Europasaurus[35] Valid taxon

Mateus Laven Knötschke vide:

  • Sander
  • Mateus
  • Laven
  • Knötschke
Fusuisaurus[36] Valid taxon
  • Mo
  • Wang W.
  • Huang Z.
  • Huang X.
  • Xu X.
Guanlong[37] Valid taxon
  • Erickson
  • Eberth
  • Jia C.
  • Zhao Q.
A Crested Tyrannosaur.
Huanghetitan.[38] Valid taxon
  • You
  • Li D.
  • Zhou L.
  • Ji Q.
Jiutaisaurus[39] Valid taxon
  • Li C.
  • Li T.
Juravenator[40] Valid taxon
  • Göhlich
A ProtoFeathered Compsognathid.
Khetranisaurus[41] Valid taxon
  • Malkani
Koutalisaurus[42] Jr. Synonym
  • Prieto-Marquez
  • Gaete
  • Rivas
  • Galobart
  • Boada
Jr. Synonym of Pararhabdodon.
Ligabuesaurus[43] Valid taxon
  • Apesteguía
An Argentine Titanosaur.
Mantellisaurus[44] Valid taxon
  • Paul
Mapusaurus[45] Valid taxon An Argentine Carcharodontosaur.
Marisaurus[41] Valid taxon
  • Malkani
Maxakalisaurus[46] Valid taxon
  • Kellner
  • Campos
  • Azevedo
  • Trotta
  • Henriques
  • Craik
  • Silva
Othnielosaurus[47] Valid taxon
Pakisaurus[41] Valid taxon
  • Malkani
Razanandrongobe[48] Valid taxon
  • Maganuco
  • Dal Sasso
  • Pasini

Described by the authors as a possible crocodylomorph or theropod.

Sacisaurus[49] Valid taxon
  • Ferigolo
  • Langer
Possibly a Dinosaur.
Sonidosaurus Valid taxon
  • Xu X.
  • Zhang X. H.
  • Tan Q.
  • Zhao X.
  • Tan L.
Sulaimanisaurus[41] Valid taxon
  • Malkani
Theiophytalia[50] Valid taxon
  • Brill
  • Carpenter
Tsaagan[51] Valid taxon
Turiasaurus[52] Valid taxon
  • Royo-Torres
  • Cobos
  • Alcalá
Vitakridrinda.[41] Valid taxon
  • Malkani
An Abelisaur from Pakistan.
Xuanhuaceratops[53] Valid taxon
  • Zhao X.
  • Cheng Z.
  • Xu X.
  • Makovicky
Yamaceratops[54] Valid taxon
  • Makovicky
Yinlong[55] Valid taxon
  • Xu X.
  • Forster
  • Clark
  • Mo
Yuanmousaurus[56] Valid taxon
  • Li S.
  • Ji Q.
Zapalasaurus Valid taxon
  • Salgado
  • Carvalho
  • Garrido
An Argentine Rebbachisaur.

Newly named birdsEdit

Name Status Novelty Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Abdounornis marinus [57]

Nomen Nudum

Thesis name

Bourdon

Early Ypresian

A species of Charadriiformes, Abdounornithidae.

Aequornis traversei [57]

Nomen Nudum

Thesis name

Bourdon

Middle Eocene

A species of Pelagornithidae.

Anas cheuen [58]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Agnolín

Early or Middle Pleistocene

Miramar Formation

A species of Anas.

Archaeorhynchus spathula [59]

Valid

Gen et Sp. nov.

Zhonghe & Fucheng

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

An Ornithurae, type sp A. spathula.

Branta thessaliensis [60]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Boev & Koufos

Middle Turolian

An Anatidae.

Cerebavis cenomanica [61]

Valid

Gen. et Sp. nov.

Kurochkin, Saveliev, Postnov,
Pervushov, & Popov

Cenomanian

An Enantiornithes, described from a brain endocast.

Corvitalusoides [62]

Valid

Gen. et Sp. nov.

Boles

Late Oligocene or Early Miocene

Riversleigh

A Passeriformes Incertae Sedis.
Type species C. grandiculus

Cyanoliseus patagonopsis [63]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Hospitaleche & Tambussi

Pleistocene

Miramar Formation

A Psittacidae.

Dalingheornis [64]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Zhang, Hou, Hasegawa, O'Connor, Martin, & Chiappe

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

An Enantiornithes, type species is Dal. liweii.

Dapingfangornis [65]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Li, Duan, Hu, Wang, Cheng, & Hou

Early Cretaceous

Jiufotang Formation

An Enantiornithes, type species Dap. sentisorhinus

Didunculus placopedetes [66]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Steadman

Subrecent

‘Eua

A Columbidae.

Ducula harrisoni [67]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Wragg & Worthy

Subrecent

Henderson Island

A Columbidae.

Eclectus infectus [68]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Steadman

Holocene

‘Eua, ‘Anatu

A Psittacidae.

Gallirallus ernstmayri [69]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Jeremy J. Kirchman & Steadman

Holocene

New Ireland, Bismarck Archipelago

A Rallidae.

Gallirallus pendiculentus [69]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Kirchman & Steadman

Holocene

Tinian

A Rallidae.

Gallirallus pisonii [69]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Kirchman & Steadman

Holocene

Tinian

A Rallidae.

Gallirallus storrsolsoni [70]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Kirchman & Steadman

Holocene

Huahine, Society Islands

A Rallidae.

Gallirallus temptatus [69]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Kirchman & Steadman

Holocene

Rota

A Rallidae.

Jungornis geraldmayri [71]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Mourer-Chauviré & Sigé

Late Eocene

Phosphorites du Quercy

A Jungornithidae

Loxioides kikuchi [72]

Valid

Sp. nov.

James & Olson

Subrecent

Kaua’i, Hawaii Islands

A Fringillidae

Masillaraptor [73]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Mayr

Middle Eocene

Messel pit

A Masillaraptoridae, type species M. parvunguis

Nyctanassa carcinocatactes [74]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Olson & Wingate

Holocene

Bermuda

An Ardeidae.

Odontopteryx gigas [57]

Nomen Nudum

Thesis name

Bourdon

Early Ypresian

An Odontopterygidae

Odontoptila inexpectata [57]

Nomen Nudum

Thesis name

Bourdon

Early Ypresian

An Odontopterygidae

Pleistoanser [58]

Valid

Gen. et Sp. nov.

Agnolín

Early or Middle Pleistocene

Miramar Formation

An Anatidae. Type species is P. bravardi.

Plesiocathartes major [75]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Weidig

Late Wasatchian

Green River Formation

A Leptosomidae.

Plesiocathartes wyomingensis [75]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Weidig

Late Wasatchian

Green River Formation

A Leptosomidae.

Porphyrio mcnabi [70]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Kirchman & Steadman

Holocene

Huahine, Fa’ahia,

Society Islands

A Rallidae.

Pygoscelis calderensis [76]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Hospitaleche, Chávez, & Fritis

Late Miocene-Middle Pliocene

Bahia Inglesa Formation

A Spheniscidae.

Pygoscelis grandis [77]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Walsh & Suárez

?Early Pliocene

Bahia Inglesa Formation

A Spheniscidae.

Shanxiornis [78]

Valid

Gen. et Sp. nov.

Wang, Zhao, Hu, & Sun

Early Pleistocene

Sanmen Formation

A Phasianidae, type species is S. fenyinis

Tonniornis [79]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Tambussi, Hospitaleche, Reguero, & Marenssi

Late Eocene

La Meseta Formation

A Spheniscidae, two species T. mesetaensis & T. minimum

Waimanu [80]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Slack, Jones, Ando, Harrison, Fordyce, Arnason, & Penny

Early Paleocene

Basic Waipara Greensand

A stem Spheniscidae. The type species is Wa. manneringi. Originally the second species, Wa. tuatahi, was assigned to this genus as well; Mayr et al. (2018) transferred this species to the separate genus Muriwaimanu.[81]

Wieslochia [82]

Valid

Gen. et Sp. nov.

Mayr & Manegold

Rupelian

An early Passeriformes Incertae Sedis, type species is Wi. weissi

Newly named pterosaursEdit

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Cathayopterus[83]

Valid

  • Wang
  • Zhou

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

A pterodactyloid. The type species is Cathayopterus grabaui.

Caviramus[84]

Valid

  • Fröbisch
  • Fröbisch

Late Triassic

Kössen Formation

A rhamphorhynchoid. The type species is Caviramus schesaplanensis.

Longchengpterus[85]

Valid

  • Wang
  • Li
  • Duan
  • Cheng

Early Cretaceous

Jiufotang Formation

A pterodactyloid. The type species is Longchengpterus zhoai.

Muzquizopteryx[86]

Valid

  • Frey
  • Buchy
  • Stinnesbeck
  • Gonzalez
  • Stefano

Late Cretaceous

Austin Group

The type species is Muzquizopteryx coahuilensis.

Yixianopterus[87]

Valid

  • Ji
  • Yuan
  • Gao
  • Sun
  • Ji

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

A pterodactyloid. The type species is Yixianopterus jingangshanensis.

SynapsidsEdit

Non-mammalianEdit

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Herpetoskylax[88]

Valid

Late Permian

The type species is Herpetoskylax hopsoni.

Elliotherium[89]

Valid

  • Sidor
  • Hancox

Upper Triassic

Lower Elliot Formation

The type species is Elliotherium kerstenae (emmend.).

Idelesaurus[90]

Valid

  • Kurkin

Upper Permian

The type species is Idelisaurus tataricus.

Langbergia[91]

Valid

  • Abdala
  • Neveling
  • Welman

Early Triassic

Burgersdorp Formation

The type species is Langbergia modisei.

Nanogomphodon[92]

Valid

  • Hopson
  • Sues

Middle Triassic

Erfurt Formation

The type species is Nanogomphodon wildi.

Oromycter[93]

Valid

  • Reisz

Early Permian

The type species is Oromycter dolesorum.

Pachydectes[94]

Valid

  • Rubidge
  • Sidor
  • Modesto

Middle Permian

Koonap Formation

The type species is Pachydectes elsi.

Paraburnetia[95]

Valid

  • Smith
  • Rubidge
  • Sidor

Upper Permian

Teekloof Formation

The type species is Paraburnetia sneeubergensis.

Protheriodon[96]

Valid

Bonaparte, Soares, & Schultz

Middle Triassic

Santa Maria Formation

Type sp P. estudianti.

MammalsEdit

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Anthracoxyaena[97]

Disputed

Tong & Wang

Early Eocene

Wutu Formation

A member of the family Oxyaenidae. Genus includes new species A. palustris. Subsequently Solé, Gheerbrant & Godinot (2013) considered the genus Anthracoxyaena to be a junior synonym of the genus Arfia, though the authors maintained A. palustris as a distinct species within the latter genus.[98]

Asiohyopsodus[97]

Valid

Tong & Wang

Early Eocene

Wutu Formation

A member of the family Hyopsodontidae. Genus includes new species A. confuciusi.

Asioictops[97]

Valid

Tong & Wang

Early Eocene

Wutu Formation

A member of the family Leptictidae. Genus includes new species A. mckennai.

Celaenolambda[97]

Valid

Tong & Wang

Early Eocene

Wutu Formation

A possible member of the family Archaeolambdidae. Genus includes new species C. wangzhaoi.

Chowliia[97]

Valid

Tong & Wang

Early Eocene

Wutu Formation

A member of the family Isectolophidae. Genus includes new species C. laoshanensis.

Dianomomys[97]

Valid

Tong & Wang

Early Eocene

Wutu Formation

A possible member of the family Paromomyidae. Genus includes new species D. ambiguus.

Dissacus bohaiensis[97]

Valid

Tong & Wang

Early Eocene

Wutu Formation

A member of Mesonychia belonging to the family Mesonychidae.

Hapalodectes huanghaiensis[97]

Valid

Tong & Wang

Early Eocene

Wutu Formation

A member of Mesonychia belonging to the family Hapalodectidae.

Heterocoryphodon?yuntongi[97]

Valid

Tong & Wang

Early Eocene

Wutu Formation

A member of the family Coryphodontidae.

Hylomysoides[97]

Valid

Tong & Wang

Early Eocene

Wutu Formation

A possible member of the family Amphilemuridae. Genus includes new species H. qiensis.

Luchenus[97]

Valid

Tong & Wang

Early Eocene

Wutu Formation

A member of the family Erinaceidae. Genus includes new species L. erinaceanus.

Migrostylops[97]

Valid

Tong & Wang

Early Eocene

Wutu Formation

A member of Arctostylopida belonging to the family Arctostylopidae. Genus includes new species M. roboreus and M. rosella.

Pappomoropus[97]

Valid

Tong & Wang

Early Eocene

Wutu Formation

A member of the family Eomoropidae. Genus includes new species P. taishanensis.

Paresthonyx[97]

Valid

Tong & Wang

Early Eocene

Wutu Formation

A member of Tillodontia. Genus includes new species P. orientalis.

Preonictis[97]

Valid

Tong & Wang

Early Eocene

Wutu Formation

A member of the family Hyaenodontidae belonging to the subfamily Proviverrinae. Genus includes new species P. youngi.

Qilulestes[97]

Valid

Tong & Wang

Early Eocene

Wutu Formation

A possible member of the family Amphilemuridae. Genus includes new species Q. schieboutae.

Scileptictis[97]

Valid

Tong & Wang

Early Eocene

Wutu Formation

A member of the family Leptictidae. Genus includes new species S. simplus and S? stenotalus.

Suyinia[97]

Valid

Tong & Wang

Early Eocene

Wutu Formation

A member of Anagalida belonging to the family Pseudictopidae. Genus includes new species S. changleensis.

Taishanomys parvulus[97]

Valid

Tong & Wang

Early Eocene

Wutu Formation

A rodent.

Talpilestes[97]

Valid

Tong & Wang

Early Eocene

Wutu Formation

A possible member of the family Nyctitheriidae. Genus includes new species T. asiatica.

Variviverra[97]

Valid

Tong & Wang

Early Eocene

Wutu Formation

A member of the family Viverravidae. Genus includes new species V. vegetatus.

Wutucoryphodon[97]

Valid

Tong & Wang

Early Eocene

Wutu Formation

A member of the family Coryphodontidae. Genus includes new species W. xianwui.

Wutuhyus[97]

Valid

Tong & Wang

Early Eocene

Wutu Formation

A member of Suiformes of uncertain phylogenetic placement. Genus includes new species W. primiveris.

Yupingale[97]

Valid

Tong & Wang

Early Eocene

Wutu Formation

A member of the family Astigalidae. Genus includes new species Y. weifangensis.

Zodiocyon[97]

Valid

Tong & Wang

Early Eocene

Wutu Formation

A member of the family Miacidae. Genus includes new species Z. zetesios.

ReferencesEdit

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  6. ^ Poinar, G Jr (2006). "Feroseta priscus (Neuroptera : Mantispidae), a new genus and species of mantidflies in Dominican amber". Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 108 (2): 411–417.
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