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Paleontology or palaeontology (from Greek: paleo, "ancient"; ontos, "being"; and logos, "knowledge") is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 1998.

List of years in paleontology (table)
In science
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001

Contents

ArthropodsEdit

InsectsEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Acanthostichus hispaniolicus[2]

Sp. nov

Valid

De Andrade

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

  Dominican Republic

A Dorylinae ant

Carabus neli[3]

Sp nov.

valid

Deuve

Turolian

Montagne d'Andance

  France

A ground beetle

Cylindromyrmex antillanus[4]

Sp. nov

Valid

De Andrade

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

  Dominican Republic

A Dorylinae ant

Ledouxnebria[3]

Gen et sp nov.

valid

Deuve

Turolian

Montagne d'Andance

  France

A ground beetle

MolluscsEdit

BivalvesEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Pojetaia sarhroensis[5]

sp nov

Valid

Geyer & Streng

Early Cambrian

Anti-Atlas mountains

  Morocco

Early Cambrian Fordillidae bivalve

AmphibiansEdit

newly named anuransEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Rhadinosteus[6]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Henrici

Kimmeridgian

Morrison Formation

  USA

A possible Rhinophrynidae frog

ArchosauromorphaEdit

DinosaursEdit

Data courtesy of George Olshevsky's dinosaur genera list.[11]

Name Status Authors Location Notes Images
Altirhinus[12] Valid taxon
''Augustia''

Preoccupied

Camposaurus[13] Valid taxon
  • Sullivan, and
  • Lockley
Caseosaurus[13] Valid taxon
  • Sullivan, and
  • Lockley
Caudipteryx[14] Valid taxon
Cristatusaurus[15] Valid taxon
Eobrontosaurus[16] Valid taxon. Now Synonym of Brontosaurus
Eolambia[17] Valid taxon
Gargoyleosaurus[18] Valid taxon
  • Cloward
Gastonia[19] Valid taxon
Gongxianosaurus[20] Valid taxon
  • He,
  • Wang C.,
  • Liu S.,
  • Zhou F.,
  • Liu T.,
  • Cai and
  • Dai
Histriasaurus[21] Valid taxon
  • Dalla Vecchia
Lourinhanosaurus[22] Valid taxon
  • Mateus
Lourinhasaurus[23] Valid taxon
  • Dantas,
  • Sanz,
  • Da Silva,
  • Ortega,
  • Dos Santos and
  • Cachao
Megaraptor[24] Valid taxon
  • Novas
Nedcolbertia[25] Valid taxon
  • S. K. Madsen and
  • Burge
Notohypsilophodon[26] Valid taxon
  • Martínez
Ozraptor[27] Valid taxon
  • J. A. Long and
Protohadros[28] Valid taxon
  • Head
''Rahona''[29] Preoccupied
  • Forster
  • Sampson
Rahonavis[30] Valid taxon
  • Forster,
  • Sampson,
Scipionyx[31] Valid taxon
  • Dal Sasso and
  • Signore
Shanxia[32] Valid taxon
  • Barrett,
  • You,
  • Upchurch and
  • Burton
Shuvuuia[33] Valid taxon
  • Clark
Sonorasaurus[34] Valid taxon
  • Ratkevich,
  • Sidor,
  • Varricchio,
Tianzhenosaurus[35] Valid taxon
  • Pang and
  • Cheng Z.
Variraptor[36] Valid taxon
  • Le Loeuff and
  • Buffetaut
Zuniceratops[37] Valid taxon
  • Wolfe and

Newly named birdsEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Abavornis bonapartei [38]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Andrei V. Panteleyev

Late Cretaceous

Coniacian,

Bissekty Formation

  Uzbekistan

An Alexornithidae Brodkorb, 1976, this is the type species of the new genus.

Actitis balcanica [39]

Sp. nov.

Valid ?

Zlatozar N. Boev

Late Pliocene

MN 17

  Bulgaria

A Scolopacidae?, the holotypical tarsometatarsus looks more like a Charadriidae.

Aizenogyps toomeyae [40]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Steven D. Emslie

Late Pliocene

Late Blancan

  USA:

  Florida

A Cathartidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Anhinga beckeri [40]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Steven D. Emslie

Early Pliocene

Late-Early Irvingtonian

  USA:

  Florida

An Anhingidae.

Basityto rummeli [41]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Jiří Mlíkovský

Early Miocene

MN 2-3

  Germany:

  Bavaria

A Gruidae, transferred to the genus Balearica by Mourer-Chauviré in 2001,[42] this is the type species of the new genus.

Buteo sanya [43]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Hou Lianhai

Late Pleistocene

Cave Deposits

  China

An Accipitridae.

Buteo spassovi [44]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Zlatozar N. Boev

Late Miocene

MN 11-12

  Bulgaria

An Accipitridae.

Catenoleimus anachoretus [38]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Andrei V. Panteleyev

Late Cretaceous

Coniacian

  Uzbekistan

An Enantiornithes Walker, 1981, Euenantiornithes Incertae Sedis, this is the type species of the new genus.

Chloephaga robusta [45]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Claudia P. Tambussi

Middle-Late Pliocene

Irene Formation

  Argentina

An Anatidae.

Coccothraustes balcanicus [46]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Zlatozar N. Boev

Late Pliocene

MN 18

  Bulgaria

A Fringillidae.

Coccothraustes simeonovi [46]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Zlatozar N. Boev

Late Pliocene

MN 17

  Bulgaria

A Fringillidae.

Diamantornis spaggiarii [47]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Brigitte Senut

Yannicke Dauphin

Martin Pickford

Early Middle Miocene

Karingarab

  Namibia

A Struthionidae, eggshells.

Explorornis nessovi [38]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Andrei V. Panteleyev

Late Cretaceous

Coniacian,

Bissekty Formation

  Uzbekistan

An Alexornithidae Brodkorb, 1976, this is the type species of the new genus.

Gargantuavis philoinos [48]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Eric Buffetaut

Jean Le Loeuff

Late Cretaceous

Late Campanian-Early Maastrichtian,

Marnes de la Maurine Formation

  France

An Ornithothoraces, this is the type species of the new genus.

Gavia schultzi [49]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Jiří Mlíkovský

Middle Miocene

MN 7

  Austria:

  Burgenland

A Gaviidae.

Geronticus balcanicus [50]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Zlatozar N. Boev

Late Pliocene,

MN 18

Slivnica

  Bulgaria

A Threskiornithidae.

Glaucidium explorator [40]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Steven D. Emslie

Late Pliocene

Florida

  USA:

  Florida

A Strigidae.

Gracilitarsus mirabilis [51]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Gerald Mayr

Middle Eocene

Messel pit,

MP 11

  Germany:

  Hessen

A Piciformes, Gracilitarsidae G. Mayr, 2001, this is the type species of the new genus.

Hassiavis laticauda [52]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Gerald Mayr

Middle Eocene

Messel pit,

MP 11

  Germany:

  Hessen

An Apodiformes, ?Archaeotrogonidae Mourer-Chauviré, 1980, this is the type species of the new genus.

Incolornis silvae [38]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Andrei V. Panteleyev

Late Cretaceous

Coniacian,

Bissekty Formation

  Uzbekistan

An Alexornithidae Brodkorb, 1976, this is the type species of the new genus.

Intulula tinnipara [53]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Jirí Mlíkovský

Early Miocene

MN 2a

  Czech Republic;

  Germany:

  Bavaria

A Strigidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Masillacolius brevidactylus [54]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Gerald Mayr

Dieter S. Peters

Middle Eocene

Messel pit,

MP 11

  Germany:

  Hessen

A Coliidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Messelirrisor halcyrostris [51]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Gerald Mayr

Middle Eocene

Messel pit,

MP 11

  Germany:

  Hessen

An Upupiformes, Laurillardiidae Harrison, 1979.

Messelirrisor parvus [51]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Gerald Mayr

Middle Eocene

Messel pit,

MP 11

  Germany:

  Hessen

An Upupiformes, Laurillardiidae Harrison, 1979, this is the type species of the new genus.

Mioglaux debellatrix [53]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Jirí Mlíkovský

Early Miocene

MN 3

  Czech Republic

A Strigidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Miopico benimellalensis [51]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Gerald Mayr

Middle Miocene

Beni Mellal

  Morocco

A Miopiconidae G. Mayr, 1998, this is the type species of the new genus.

Palaelodus pledgei [55]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Robert F. Baird

Patricia Vickers Rich

Late Oligocene - Middle Miocene

Etadunna Formation

  Australia:

  South Australia

A Phoenicopteriformes, Palaelodidae Stejneger, 1885.

Palaelodus wilsoni [55]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Robert F. Baird

Patricia Vickers Rich

Late Oligocene - Middle Miocene

Etadunna Formation

  Australia:

  South Australia

A Phoenicopteriformes, Palaelodidae Stejneger, 1885.

?Primozygodactylus ballmanni [51]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Gerald Mayr

Middle Eocene

Messel pit,

MP 11

  Germany:

  Hessen

A Zygodactylidae Brodkorb, 1971, not surely a Primozygodactylus.

Primozygodactylus danielsi [51]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Gerald Mayr

Middle Eocene

Messel pit,

MP 11

  Germany:

  Hessen

A Zygodactylidae Brodkorb, 1971, this is the type species of the new genus.

Primozygodactylus major [51]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Gerald Mayr

Middle Eocene

Messel pit,

MP 11

  Germany:

  Hessen

A Zygodactylidae Brodkorb, 1971.

Pseudastur macrocephalus [56]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Gerald Mayr

Middle Eocene

Messel pit,

MP 11

  Germany:

  Hessen

A Halcyornithidae Harrison et Walker, 1972. The genus Pseudastur is preoccupied and replaced by Pseudasturides Mayr, 2004, this is the type species of both genera.[57]

Psittacopes lepidus [58]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Gerald Mayr

ppMichael Daniels

Middle Eocene

Messel pit,

MP 11

  Germany:

  Hessen

A stem Psittaciformes, this is the type species of the new genus.

Quasisyndactylus longibrachis [59]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Gerald Mayr

Middle Eocene

Messel pit,

MP 11

  Germany:

  Hessen

An Alcediniformes Incertae Sedis, this is the type species of the new genus.

Rostratula pulia [60]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Jíří Mlíkovský

Early Miocene

MN 4b

  Czech Republic

A Rostratulidae.

Scolopax hutchensi [40]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Steven D. Emslie

Late Pliocene

Florida

  USA:

  Florida

A Scolopacidae.

Struthio karingarabensis [47]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Brigitte Senut

Yannicke Dauphin

Martin Pickford

Early Miocene

Karingarab

  Namibia

A Struthionidae, eggshells.

Tetrao rhodopensis [61]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Zlatozar N. Boev

Early Pliocene

MN 14

  Bulgaria

A Phasianidae.

Xenopsitta fejfari [62]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Jiří Mlíkovský

Early Miocene

MN 3

  Czech Republic

A Psittacidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

PterosaursEdit

New taxaEdit

Name Status Authors Notes

"Dendrorhynchus"

Valid

Ji S.-A. Ji Q.

Normannognathus

Valid

Buffetaut Lepage, J.-J. Lepage, G.

ReferencesEdit

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