Henderson Island (Pitcairn Islands)

Henderson Island (formerly also San Juan Bautista and Elizabeth Island) is an uninhabited island in the south Pacific Ocean. With Pitcairn, Oeno and Ducie Islands it forms the Pitcairn Island Group.

Henderson Island
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Henderson Island Map.jpg
Map of Henderson Island
LocationPacific Ocean
CriteriaNatural: vii, x
Inscription1988 (12th session)
Coordinates24°21′S 128°19′W / 24.35°S 128.32°W / -24.35; -128.32Coordinates: 24°21′S 128°19′W / 24.35°S 128.32°W / -24.35; -128.32
Henderson Island (Pitcairn Islands) is located in Pacific Ocean
Henderson Island (Pitcairn Islands)
Location of Henderson Island in the Pacific Ocean

It is one of the world's last two raised coral atolls whose ecosystems remain relatively unaffected by human contact,[1] though a 2017 survey found a large amount of plastic debris accumulating on its beaches.[2] Ten of its 51 flowering plants, all four of its land birds and about a third of the identified insects and gastropods are endemic – a remarkable diversity given the island's size.[3]

Measuring 9.6 kilometres (6.0 mi) by 5.1 kilometres (3.2 mi), it has an area of 37.3 square kilometres (14.4 sq mi) and is located 193 kilometres (120 mi) northeast of Pitcairn Island. It has poor soil and little fresh water, and is unsuitable for agriculture. There are three beaches on the northern end and the remaining coast comprises steep (mostly undercut) cliffs up to 15 metres (49 ft) in height.

In 1902 Henderson was annexed to the Pitcairn Islands colony, now a South Pacific British Overseas Territory. It was designated a World Heritage Site by the United Nations in 1988.


Archaeological evidence suggests that a small permanent Polynesian settlement existed on Henderson at some time between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries.[4] The reasons for the group's disappearance remain unknown, but may relate to the similar disappearance of the Polynesians on Pitcairn Island, on whom the Hendersonians would have depended for many of the basics of life, especially stone for making tools.[5] The Pitcairn Polynesians may in turn have disappeared because of the decline of nearby Mangareva; thus, Henderson was at the end of a chain of small, dependent colonies of Mangareva.[6]

On 29 January 1606, Portuguese captain Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, leading a Spanish expedition, was the first European to see the island, and named it San Juan Bautista.[7] Captain Henderson of the British East India Company ship Hercules rediscovered the island on 17 January 1819. Thomas Raine (1793-1860), master of the ship Surry of London, had called it "Henderson's Island" as it appeared to him from the conversation he had with James Henderson at Valparaíso to be his discovery on his last voyage to India from that port in the ship Hercules.[8] On 2 March 1819, Captain Henry King, in the Elizabeth, landed on the island to find the king's colors already flying. His crew scratched the name of their ship into a tree.

A sperm whale rammed and sank the Nantucket whaleship Essex on 20 November 1820 (a report of which inspired Herman Melville to write Moby-Dick), and the crew arrived at Henderson on 20 December in three small whaleboats. They found the island's only known drinkable water-source – a brackish spring on the north shore, exposed at half tide – and ate fish, birds, eggs, crabs and peppergrass, but they had largely exhausted the available food within a week, and on 27 December the three boats set sail for South America, leaving behind Thomas Chappel, Seth Weeks, and William Wright, who chose to stay. They survived until their rescue on 9 April 1821. In his account of the ordeal, Chappel reported having seen human skeletons in a cave.[9]

In August 1851, visitors from Pitcairn Island also found skeletons in a cave and wreckage on the adjacent beach. After a party of Pitcairn Islanders collecting miro wood rediscovered the skeletons in March 1958, a medical examination determined that the bones were of Caucasian origin, and they were then buried in a shallow grave inside the cave. An American survey team examined the bones in 1966 and buried them in five coffins in the left-hand corner of the cave, tightly jamming a large cross between the ceiling and the rock floor at the entrance. They concluded the remains were of five or six people, one of whom was between three and five years of age. It was presumed they were the survivors of a shipwreck who died of dehydration.[10] A final examination in the context of a scientific expedition in 1991 concluded that the human remains on Henderson Island were prehistoric Polynesians.[11]

In 1902, Henderson Island, along with Oeno and Ducie islands, was formally annexed to the British Empire by Captain G. F. Jones, who visited the islands in a cutter with a crew of Pitcairn Islanders. In August 1937, HMS Leander, on a journey from Europe to New Zealand, carried out an aerial survey of Henderson, Oeno and Ducie, and on each island, a British flag was planted and an inscription was nailed up proclaiming: "This island belongs to H.B.M. King George VI".[12]

Henderson Island

In 1957, a 27-year-old American, Robert Tomarchin, lived the life of a castaway on the island for approximately 2 months, accompanied by a pet chimpanzee, apparently as a publicity stunt, until people from Pitcairn rescued him in two longboats.[13]

In the early 1980s, conservative American businessman Arthur "Smiley" Ratliff expressed interest in establishing a mansion for himself on the island, with an airstrip.[14] The Pitcairn Island Council approved his plans but, after environmentalists lobbied to protect the natural ecology and environment of the island, the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office overrode the decision and vetoed the proposed development. Henderson Island was listed as a World Heritage Site in 1988.[3]

In 2019, a group of scientists, journalists, film makers and artists took part in an expedition to Henderson Island to investigate plastic pollution and marine litter on the island. Five members of the expedition became stranded on the island when their inflatable craft capsized.[15]

Natural resourcesEdit

Since the introduction of aluminium-hulled long-boats in the 20th century, Pitcairners have made regular trips to Henderson to harvest the wood of miro and tou trees. Usually, they venture to Henderson once per year, but they may make up to three trips if the weather is favourable. Pitcairners carve the wood into curios for tourists, from which they derive much of their income.[16]


A view along the northern beach

Henderson Island is a raised coral atoll that, with Pitcairn, Ducie and Oeno islands, forms the Pitcairn Island Group. The nearest major landmass is more than 5,000 kilometres (3,100 mi) away. This coral limestone island sits atop a conical (presumed volcanic) mound, rising from a depth of roughly 3,500 metres (11,500 ft). Its surface is mostly reef-rubble and dissected limestone – an extremely rugged mixture of steep, jagged pinnacles and shallow sinkholes – and, except for the north end, the island is encircled by steep limestone cliffs up to 15 metres (49 ft) high.

There are three main beaches, on the northwest, north, and northeast shores, and the north and northwest beaches are fringed by reefs. The depression at the island's center is thought to be a raised lagoon. There is only one known potable water source, a brackish spring on the north shore exposed at half tide, rising from a crevice in flat rock, large surfaces of which compose the face of the beach. The surrounding ocean tidal range is about one meter at spring tide.[3]


Apart from five species bordering the beaches, including coconut palms, the vegetation is undisturbed. Henderson Island is covered by 5–10 m tall tangled scrub forest, more thinly covered in the central depression. It has 51 native species of flowering plants, ten of which are endemic to the island. Dominant tree species include coconut palms, Pandanus tectorius, Thespesia populnea (miro), Heliotropium foertherianum, Cordia subcordata (tou), Guettarda speciosa, Pisonia grandis, Geniostoma hendersonense, Nesoluma st.-johnianum, Hernandia stokesii, Myrsine hosakae, and Celtis sp.[17]


The Henderson lorikeet (Vini stepheni), also known as the Stephen's lorikeet, is a species of parrot in the family Psittacidae, endemic to Henderson Island.


The island is home to four extant endemic land bird species – the Henderson fruit dove, Henderson lorikeet, Henderson reed warbler and the flightless Henderson crake. Three species of the family Columbidae – the Henderson ground dove, the Henderson imperial pigeon and the Henderson archaic pigeon – as well as a species of Polynesian sandpiper, were formerly endemic to the island, but became extinct when the Polynesians arrived around 1000 CE. Of the fifteen non-endemic seabird species found, nine or more are believed to breed on the island.[3] Breeding colonies of the globally endangered Henderson petrel formerly existed on Ducie but were wiped out by invasive rats by 1922. It is believed to now nest uniquely on Henderson island.[18]

Bones associated with prehistoric Polynesian settlement sites dating to somewhere between 500 and 800 years ago include those of the Polynesian storm petrel, Marquesan imperial pigeon, and Polynesian or Pacific imperial pigeon which are no longer found on the island, and two others – Christmas shearwater and red-footed booby – that still visit but no longer nest. It is hypothesized that the Polynesian settlers may have driven these bird species, along with six terrestrial snail species, to local extinction, and this loss of a ready and regular food supply may have contributed to the Polynesians' subsequent disappearance.[19][20] The island has been identified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area for its endemic landbirds and breeding seabirds.[21]

Other animalsEdit

The invertebrate species are largely unknown but a third of the island's known non-marine gastropods and insects are endemic.[3] There are no native mammals but the Pacific rat, introduced by Polynesians 800 years ago, abounds.[22] A skink (Emoia cyanura) and the green sea turtle have been identified, and an unidentified gecko has been reported. There are also crabs.

Biological riskEdit

Land bird populations appear to be relatively stable but there is a high risk of introduction to the island of predators, disease vectors, and diseases by unauthorized landings of yachts. Introduction of the Eurasian black rat or the domestic cat would be likely to cause almost immediate extinction of the ground-dwelling Henderson crake and possibly other species. The endemic birds may have no immunity to the fatal avian pox which is transmitted by biting flies such as hippoboscidae.[17]

Between July and November 2011 a partnership of the Pitcairn Islands Government and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds implemented a poison baiting programme aimed at eradicating the Pacific rat.[23] Mortality was massive but of the 50,000 to 100,000 population, 60 to 80 individuals survived and the population has now fully recovered.[24]

Plastic debrisEdit

Research published in April 2017[2] looked at debris on several beaches, and reported "the highest density of plastic rubbish anywhere in the world" as a result of the South Pacific Gyre. The beaches contain an estimated 37.7 million items of debris together weighing 17.6 tonnes. In a study transect on North Beach, each day 17 to 268 new items washed up on a 10-meter section. The study noted that purple hermit crabs (Coenobita spinosus) make their homes in plastic containers washed up on beaches, and the debris may reduce shoreline gastropod diversity, may contribute to a reduction in the number of sea turtle laying attempts and may increase the risk of entanglement for coastal-nesting seabirds.[25][26][27] In June 2019, an expedition organised by the UK Government attempted to remove some of the plastic debris from the island's East beach. The team collected six tonnes of rubbish, but weather conditions hampered efforts to take the rubbish off the island.[28] A further expedition, planned for April 2020,[29] was delayed because of the COVID-19 pandemic.[citation needed]


See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Fosberg, F. Raymond; Sachet, Marie-Hélène; Stoddart, David R. (September 1983). "Henderson Island (Southeastern Polynesia): Summary Of Current Knowledge". Atoll Research Bulletin. Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press. 272 (272): 1. doi:10.5479/si.00775630.272.1. hdl:10088/4844.
  2. ^ a b Lavers, Jennifer L.; Bond, Alexander L. (2017). "Exceptional and rapid accumulation of anthropogenic debris on one of the world's most remote and pristine islands". PNAS. 114 (23): 6052–6055. doi:10.1073/pnas.1619818114. PMC 5468685. PMID 28507128.
  3. ^ a b c d e "UNESCO World Heritage listing". Retrieved 21 May 2011.
  4. ^ Stefan, Vincent H. (2002). "Henderson Island crania and their implication for Southeastern Polynesian prehistory". Journal of the Polynesian Society.
  5. ^ Diamond, Jared (2005). Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. Penguin Group. ISBN 0-670-03337-5.
  6. ^ Weisler, Marshall I. (1995). "Henderson Island prehistory: colonization and extinction on a remote Polynesian island". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 56 (1–2): 377–404. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.1995.tb01099.x.
  7. ^ Brand, Donald D. (1967). The Pacific Basin: A History of its Geographical Explorations. New York: The American Geographical Society. p. 136.
  8. ^ Dehner, Steve. The Armchair Navigator I.
  9. ^ Heffernan, Thomas Farel (1 September 1990). Stove by a Whale: Owen Chase and the Essex. Wesleyan University Press. pp. 62–84. ISBN 978-0-8195-6244-9. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  10. ^ "Part 15". History of Government and Laws. Pitcairn Islands Study Center. Archived from the original on 11 December 2014.
  11. ^ "The Henderson Island skeletons". www.winthrop.dk. Archived from the original on 23 May 2017. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
  12. ^ Rehder HA; Randall JE (15 January 1975). "Ducie Atoll: Its history, physiography and biota" (PDF). Atoll Research Bulletin. 183: 1–55. doi:10.5479/si.00775630.183.1.
  13. ^ Winthrop, Mark. "The Henderson Island monkey story". Retrieved 21 May 2011.
  14. ^ Serpell J (5 May 1983). "Desert island risk". New Scientist. No. 5 May 1983. p. 320.
  15. ^ Vance/McGregor, Andrea/Iain (25 July 2019). "Desert Island Dump". Stuff. Retrieved 25 July 2019.
  16. ^ Brooke, M. de L.; Hepburn, I.; Trevelyan, R. J. (2004). "Henderson Island World Heritage Site Management Plan 2004–2009" (PDF). London: Foreign and Commonwealth Office. p. 19. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 July 2007. Retrieved 31 March 2009.
  17. ^ a b Graves GR. The endemic land birds of Henderson Island, Southeastern Polynesia: Notes on natural history and conservation. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology. 1992;104(1):32–43.
  18. ^ "Potential for rat predation to cause decline of the globally threatened Henderson petrel Pterodroma atrata: evidence from the field, stable isotopes and population modelling" (PDF). 10 March 2010. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  19. ^ Steadman DW, Olson SL. Bird remains from an archaeological site on Henderson Island, South Pacific: Man-caused extinctions on an "uninhabited" island. PNAS. 1 September 1985;82(18):6191–6195. doi:10.1073/pnas.82.18.6191. PMID 16593606. PMC 391018.
  20. ^ Weisler, Marshall I. (Spring 1994). "The Settlement of Marginal Polynesia: New Evidence from Henderson Island". Journal of Field Archaeology. 21 (1): 83–102. doi:10.1179/jfa.1994.21.1.83. JSTOR 530246.
  21. ^ BirdLife International. (2012). Important Bird Areas factsheet: Henderson Island. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21 January 2012.
  22. ^ RSPB (20 December 2011). "Aircraft carrier and helicopters come to unique island's rescue". BirdLife. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  23. ^ Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. "Henderson Island Restoration Project". Retrieved 28 May 2012.
  24. ^ Amos, W.; Nichols, H.J.; Churchyard, T.; Brooke, M. de L. (20 April 2016). "Rat eradication comes within a whisker! A case study of a failed project from the South Pacific". Royal Society Open Science. 3 (4): 160110. doi:10.1098/rsos.160110. PMC 4852649. PMID 27152226.
  25. ^ Remote South Pacific island has highest levels of plastic rubbish in the world, Dani Cooper, ABC News Online, 16 May 2017
  26. ^ Hunt, Elle (15 May 2017). "38 million pieces of plastic waste found on uninhabited South Pacific island". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  27. ^ "No one lives on this remote Pacific island — but it's covered in 38 million pieces of our trash". Washington Post. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  28. ^ Vance/McGregor. "Desert Island Dump: Chapter 2". Stuff. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
  29. ^ Vance/McGregor (16 December 2019). "Plastic rubbish could finally be removed from world's most polluted place". Stuff. Stuff. Retrieved 17 August 2020.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit