Open main menu

Paleontology or palaeontology is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 1999.

List of years in paleontology (table)
In science
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002

Contents

PlantsEdit

Newly named angiospermsEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Quercus hiholensis[2]

Sp nov

Valid

Borgardt & Pigg

Middle Miocene

"Yakima Canyon Flora"

  USA

A white oak, permineralized acorns

ArthropodsEdit

InsectsEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Cephalotes alveolatus[3]

Comb nov

Valid

(Vierbergen & Scheven)

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

  Dominican Republic

A myrmicinae ant,
new combination for Zacryptocerus alveolatus

Cephalotes caribicus[3]

Sp nov

Valid

De Andrade & Baroni Urbani

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

  Dominican Republic

A myrmicinae ant.

Cephalotes dieteri[3]

Sp nov

Valid

De Andrade & Baroni Urbani

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

  Dominican Republic

A myrmicinae ant.

Cephalotes hispaniolicus[3]

Sp nov

Valid

De Andrade & Baroni Urbani

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

  Dominican Republic

A myrmicinae ant.

Cephalotes serratus[3][4]

Comb nov

valid

(Vierbergen & Scheven, 1995)

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

  Dominican Republic

A myrmicinae ant,
moved from Exocryptocerus serratus

Camponotus crozei[5]

Sp nov

Valid

Riou

Turolian

Montagne d'Andance

  France

A formicine ant.

Electrostephanus neovenatus[6]

Sp nov

valid

Aguiar & Janzen

Lutetian

Baltic Amber

  Europe

A stephanid wasp

Electrostephanus sulcatus[6]

Sp nov

jr synonym

Aguiar & Janzen

Lutetian

Baltic Amber

  Europe

A stephanid wasp,
now Denaeostephanus sulcatus

Neoephemera antiqua[7]

sp. nov

valid

Sinitchenkova

Ypresian

Klondike Mountain Formation

  USA

Oldest neoephemerid mayfly species described

Pachycondyla rebekkae[8][9]

sp. nov

valid

Rust & Andersen

Ypresian

Fur Formation

  Denmark

A Myrmeciinae ant, jr synonym of Ypresiomyrma rebekkae

MolluscaEdit

Newly named bivalvesEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Concavodonta ovalis[10]

sp nov

Valid

Sánchez

Caradoc

Don Braulio Formation

  Argentina

third species in the genus

Concavodontinae[10]

subfam nov

Valid

Sánchez

Ordovician

one of two Subfamilies in Praenuculidae

Cuyopsis[10]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Sánchez

Caradoc

Don Braulio Formation

  Argentina

Monotypic with the species C. symmetricus

Emiliania[10]

Gen et sp nov

homonym

Sánchez

Caradoc

Don Braulio Formation

  Argentina

genus name preoccupied by Emiliania Hay & Mohler, 1967, renamed to Emiliodonta

Hemiconcavodonta[10]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Sánchez

Caradoc

Don Braulio Formation

  Argentina

third genus in the subfamily Concavodontinae

Praenuculinae[10]

subfam nov

Valid

Sánchez

Ordovician

one of two Subfamilies in Praenuculidae

Similodonta ceryx[11]

Sp nov

Valid

Cope

Middle Ordovician

Gilfach Farm No. 1 Borehole

  Wales

oldest species in the genus Similodonta

Trigonoconcha[10]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Sánchez

Caradoc

Don Braulio Formation

  Argentina

Monotypic with the species T. acuta

Villicumia[10]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Sánchez

Caradoc

Don Braulio Formation

  Argentina

Monotypic with the species V. canteraensis

FishEdit

Newly named actinopterygii ("ray-finned fish")Edit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Nardovelifer[12]

gen et sp nov

Valid

C. Sorbini & L. Sorbini

Campanian

Nardo

  Italy

ArchosauromorphsEdit

  • Ornithomimid gastroliths documented.[13]

Newly named dinosauriformsEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Eucoelophysis[14]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Sullivan & Lucas

Norian

Chinle Formation, New Mexico

  USA

Sister genus to the Dinosaurs; first identified as a relative of coelophysid.

Newly named dinosaursEdit

Data courtesy of George Olshevsky's dinosaur genera list.[15]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Achillobator[16]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Perle, Norell, & Clark

Late Cretaceous

Bayan Shireh Formation

  Mongolia

A large dromaeosaurid.

Agustinia[17]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Bonaparte

Albian

Lohan Cura Formation

  Argentina

An armored sauropod

"Airakoraptor"[16]

gen nov

Nomen nudum

Perle, Norell, & Clark

  Mongolia

A possible dromaeosaurid that has yet to be fully described.

Animantarx[18]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Carpenter, Kirkland, Burge, & Bird

Late Cretaceous

Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah

  USA

Nodosaur whose name means "living citadel."

"Archaeoraptor"[19]

Hoax

Stephen Czerkas vide:C. P. Sloan vide:Olson

Chimera of Yanornis and Microraptor.

Atlasaurus[20]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Monbaron, Russell, & Taquet

Middle Jurassic

Tiougguit Formation

  Morocco

A primitive sauropod

Beipiaosaurus[21]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Xu, Tang, & Wang

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

  China

A therizinosaur

"Bilbeyhallorum"[22]

Nomen nudum

Burge, Bird, McClelland, & Cicconetti

Aptian

Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah

  USA

informal name for Cedarpelta.

Cedarosaurus[23]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Tidwell, Carpenter, & Brooks

Barremian

Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah

  USA

A sauropod.

Chaoyangsaurus[24]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Zhao, Cheng, & Xu

Late Jurassic

Tuchengzi Formation

  China

An extremely primitive ceratopsian

Dinheirosaurus[25]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Kimmeridgian

Alcobaça Formation

  Portugal

A diplodocid.

"Eugongbusaurus"[26]

gen nov

Nomen nudum

Knoll

Late Jurassic

Shishugou Formation

  China

A ?hypsilophodont that hasn't yet been formally named.

Gondwanatitan[27]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Kellner & Azevedo

Late Cretaceous

Adamantina Formation

  Brazil

A titanosaur

Guaibasaurus[28]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Bonaparte, Ferigolo, & Ribeiro

Late Triassic

Caturrita Formation

  Brazil

A sauropodomorph.

Jobaria[29]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Sereno, et al

Middle Jurassic

Tiourarén Formation

  Niger

A eusauropod

Lessemsaurus[30]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Bonaparte

Late Triassic

Los Colorados Formation

  Argentina

A primitive sauropodomorph

Lirainosaurus[31]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Sanz et al

Late Cretaceous

Vitoria Formation

  Spain

A titanosaur.

Lurdusaurus[32]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Taquet & Russell

Aptian

Elrhaz Formation

  Niger\

A hadrosaur

"Newtonsaurus"[33]

gen et sp nov

Nomen nudum

Welles vide: Welles & Pickering

Late Triassic

Rhaetic beds

  Wales

Informal name

Nigersaurus[29]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Early Cretaceous

Elrhaz Formation

  Niger

A rebbachisaurid

Nodocephalosaurus[34]

gen et sp nov

Valid taxon

  • Sullivan

Campanian

Kirtland Formation

  USA

An ankylosaurid

Proyandusaurus[26]

gen nov

synonym

Knoll

Bajocian

Shaximiao Formation

  China

informal name for Hexinlusaurus

Qantassaurus[35]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Rich & Vickers-Rich

Early Cretaceous

Wonthaggi Formation

  Australia

A possible hypsilophodontid

Santanaraptor[36]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Kellner

Cenomanian

Santana Formation

  Brazil

A theropod

Saturnalia[37]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Langer, Abdala, Richter, & Benton

Carnian

Santa Maria Formation

  Brazil   Zimbabwe

A basal sauropodomorph

Sinornithosaurus[38]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Xu, Wang, & Wu

Aptian

Yixian Formation

  China

A Dromaeosaurid

Tangvayosaurus[39]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Allain et at

Early Cretaceous

Grès Supérior Formation

  Laos

A titanosaur

Tehuelchesaurus[40]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Rich et al

Middle Jurassic

Cañadon Asfalto Formation

  Argentina

A eusauropod

Newly named birdsEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Amplibuteo concordatus [41]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Steven D. Emslie

Nicholas J. Czaplewski

Late Pliocene

Florida and Arizona

  USA:

  Florida;

  Arizona

An Accipitridae.

Anatalavis oxfordi [42]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Storrs L. Olson

Early Eocene

Ypresian,

London Clay,

MP 8

  UK:

  England

An Anseranatidae, Anatalavinae Olson, 1999. In 2002 Jíří Mlíkovský made this species the type species of his not widely accepted new genus Nettapterornis.[43]

Aquila bivia [41]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Steven D. Emslie

Nicholas J. Czaplewski

Late Pliocene

Florida

  USA:

  Florida;

  Arizona

An Accipitridae.

Argornis caucasicus [44]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Aleksandr A. Karkhu

Late Eocene

Northern Caucasus

  Russia

An Apodiformes, Jungornithidae Karkhu, 1988.

Canadaga arctica [45]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Hou Lianhai

Late Cretaceous

Middle Maastrichtian

  Canada:

  Nunavut

A Hesperornithidae Marsh, 1872.

Changchengornis hengdaoziensis [46]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Ji Qiang

Luis M. Chiappe

Ji Shu’an

Early Cretaceous

Chaomidianzi Formation

  China

A Confuciusornithidae Hou, Zhou, Gu et Zhang, 1995.

Chaunoides antiquus [47]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Herculano M. F. de Alvarenga

Late Oligocene or Early Miocene

Tremembé Formation

  Brazil

An Anhimidae.

Chauvireria bulgarica [48]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Boev

Pleistocene

  Bulgaria

A Phasianidae.

Confuciusornis dui [49]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Hou Lianhai

Larry D. Martin

Zhou Zhonghe

Alan Feduccia

Zhang Fucheng

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

  China

A Confuciusornithidae Hou, Zhou, Gu et Zhang, 1995.

Dryolimnas augusti [50]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Cécile Mourer-Chauviré

Roger Bour

Sonia Ribes

François Moutou

Holocene

Réunion

  Réunion

A Rallidae.

Emberiza alcoveri [51]

Sp. nov.

Valid

J. C. Rando

M. Lopez

B. Seguí

Late Pleistocene-Holocene

Canary Islands, Tenerife

  Spain:

  Canary Islands

An Emberizidae.

Eocuculus cherpinae [52]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Robert M. Chandler

Late Eocene

Early Chadronian

  USA:

  Colorado

A ?Cuculidae.

Eoenantiornis buhleri [53]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Hou Lianhai

Larry D. Martin

Zhou Zongzhe

Alan Feduccia

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

  China

An Enantiornithes Walker, 1981, Eoenantiornithiformes Hou, Martin, Zhou et Feduccia, 1999, Eoenantiornithidae Hou, Martin, Zhou et Feduccia, 1999, this is the type species of the new genus.

Falco bakalovi [54]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Zlatozar N. Boev

Late Pliocene

Villafranchian,

MN 17

  Bulgaria

A Falconidae.

Gallinula balcanica [55]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Zlatozar N. Boev

Late Pliocene

Villafranchian,

MN 17

  Bulgaria

A Rallidae.

Graculavus augustus [56]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Sylvia Hope

Late Cretaceous

Late Maastrichtian,

Lance Formation

  USA:

  Wyoming

A Graculavidae Fürbringer, 1888.

Gurilynia nessovi [57]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Evgeny N. Kurochkin

Late Cretaceous

Gurilyn Tsav

  Mongolia

An Enantiornithes Walker, 1981, Alexornithiformes Brodkorb, 1976, Enantiornithidae Nessov & Borkin, 1983.

Hebeiornis fengningensis [58]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Yan

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

  China

Ornithothoraces Chiappe et Calvo, 1994, this is the type species of the new genus. Vescornis hebeiensis Zhang, Ericson et Zhou, 2004. is a junior synonym.[59]

Liaoxiornis delicatus [60]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Hou Lianhai

Chen Peiji

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

  China

A Liaoxiornithidae L. H. Hou et Chen, 1999, this is the type species of the new genus. Lingyuanornis parvus Ji & Ji, 1999. is a junior synonym.[61]

Longmornis robustirostrata [62]

Gen, nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Walter E. Boles

?Early Miocene

Riversleigh

  Australia:

  Queensland

An Oriolidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Loxia patevi [63]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Zlatozar N. Boev

Late Pliocene

MN 17

  Bulgaria

A Fringillidae.

Masillapodargus longipes[64]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Gerald Mayr

Middle Eocene

Messel pit,

MP 11

  Germany:

  Hessen

A stem Podargidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Ngawupodius minya [65]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Walter E. Boles

Tessa J. Ivison

Late Oligocene

Namba Formation

  Australia:

  South Australia

A stem Megapodiidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Nupharanassa bohemica [66]

Sp. nov.

Valid ?

Jirí Mlíkovský

Early Miocene

MN 4b

  Czech Republic

A Jacanidae. Mourer-Chauviré, 1999 transferred this species to the genus Geranopterus Milne-Edwards, 1892 and later it was placed in the Geranopteridae Mayr & Mourer-Chauviré, 2000.[67]

Paraprefica kelleri[64]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Gerald Mayr

Middle Eocene

Messel pit,

MP 11

  Germany:

  Hessen

A stem Nyctibiidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Paraprefica major[64]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Gerald Mayr

Middle Eocene

Messel pit,

MP 11

  Germany:

  Hessen

A stem Nyctibiidae.

Pelecanus schreiberi [68]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Strorrs L. Olson

Early Pliocene

Yorktown Formation

  USA:

  North Carolina

A Pelecanidae.

Primotrogon wintersteini[69]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Gerald Mayr

Middle Oligocene

MP 23

  France

A stem Trogonidae, the type species of the new genus.

Pumiliornis tessellatus[70]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Gerald Mayr

Middle Eocene

Messel pit,

MP 11

  Germany:

  Hessen

Order and family Incerta Sedis, the type species of the new genus.

Regulus bulgaricus [71]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Zlatozar N. Boev

Late Pliocene

MN 17

  Bulgaria

A Regulidae.

Scolopax carmesinae [72]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Bartomeu Seguí

Late Pliocene

Menorca,

MN 17-18

  Spain:

  Menorca

A Scolopacidae.

Selmes absurdipes [73]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Dieter S. Peters

Middle Eocene

Messel pit,

MP 11;

MP 13

  Germany:

  Hessen;

  Saxony-Anhalt

A Coliiformes, Selmeidae Zelenkov et Dyke, 2008, the type species of the new genus.

Tyto neddi [74]

Sp. nov.

Valid

David W. Steadman

William B. Hilgartner

Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene

Barbuda

  Antigua and Barbuda

A Tytonidae.

Yandangornis longicaudus [75]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Cai Zhengquan

Zhao Lijun

Early Late Cretaceous

Santonian

  China

An Enentiornithes, this is the type species of the new genus.

Newly named pterosaursEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Dendrorhynchoides[76]

gen nov

Valid

Ji S.-A., Ji Q., & Padian

Aptian

Yixian Formation

  China

A new genus for "Dendrorhynchus" curvidentatus (Ji & Ji, 1998)

Siroccopteryx

gen et sp nov

junior synonym?

Mader & Kellner

Cenomanian

Kem Kem Formation

  Morocco

possibly a jr synonym of Coloborhynchus?

Tendaguripterus[77]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Unwin & Heinrich

Kimmeridgian

Tendaguru Formation

  Tanzania

Monotypic with the species T. recki

LepidosauromorphsEdit

Newly named plesiosaursEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Callawayasaurus[78]

gen nov

Valid

Carpenter

Aptian

Paja Formation

  Colombia

New genus for the species "Alzadasaurus" colombiensis Wells, 1962

Newly named scincomorphansEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Pachygenys[79]

gen nov

Valid

Gao and Cheng

Early Cretaceous

Eastern China

  China

Has a distinctly small amount of dentary teeth.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Gini-Newman, Garfield; Graham, Elizabeth (2001). Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 9780070887398. OCLC 46769716.
  2. ^ Borgardt, S. J.; Pigg, K. B. (1999). "Anatomical and developmental study of petrified Quercus (Fagaceae) fruits from the Middle Miocene, Yakima Canyon, Washington, USA". American Journal of Botany. 86 (3): 307–325. doi:10.2307/2656753. JSTOR 2656753. Archived from the original on 2017-05-10. Retrieved 2016-12-28.
  3. ^ a b c d e de Andrade, M. L.; Baroni Urbani, C. (1999). "Diversity and adaptation in the ant genus Cephalotes, past and present". Stuttgarter Beitrage zur Naturkunde Series B (Geolgie and Palaontologie). 271: 537–538.
  4. ^ Vierbergen GS, Scheven J (27 March 1995). "Nine new species and a new genus of Dominican amber ants of the tribe (Cephalotini Hymenoptera: Formicidae)" (PDF). Creation Research Society Quarterly. 31 (December 1995): 158–170 – via AntWiki.
  5. ^ Riou, B. (1999). "Descriptions de quelques insectes fossiles du Miocène supérieur de la Montagne d'Andance (Ardèche, France)". Travaux de l'École Pratique des Hautes Études, Biologie et Évolution des Insectes. 11/12: 123–133.
  6. ^ a b Engel, M.S.; Ortega-Blanco, J. (2008). "The fossil crown wasp Electrostephanus petiolatus Brues in Baltic Amber (Hymenoptera, Stephanidae): designation of a neotype, revised classification, and a key to amber Stephanidae". ZooKeys (4): 55–64. doi:10.3897/zookeys.4.49.
  7. ^ Sinitchenkova, N. D. (1999). "A new mayfly species of the extant genus Neoephemera from the Eocene of North America (Insecta: Ephemerida=Ephemeroptera)" (PDF). Paleontological Journal. 33 (4): 403–405. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-30.
  8. ^ Rust, J.; Andersen, N. M. (1999). "Giant ants from the Paleogene of Denmark with a discussion of the fossil history and early evolution of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)" (PDF). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 125 (3): 331–348. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1999.tb00596.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-27.
  9. ^ Archibald, S.B.; Cover, S. P.; Moreau, C. S. (2006). "Bulldog Ants of the Eocene Okanagan Highlands and History of the Subfamily (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmeciinae)" (PDF). Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 99 (3): 487–523. doi:10.1603/0013-8746(2006)99[487:BAOTEO]2.0.CO;2.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Sánchez, T.M. (1999). "New Late Ordovician (Early Caradoc) Bivalves from the Sierra de Villicum (Argentine Precordillera)". Journal of Paleontology. 73 (1): 66–76. JSTOR 1306745.
  11. ^ Cope, J.C.W. (1999). "Middle Ordovician bivalves from Mid-Wales and the Welsh Borderland". Palaeontology. 42 (3): 467–499. doi:10.1111/1475-4983.00081.
  12. ^ Sorbini, C.; Sorbini, L. (1999). "The Cretaceous fishes of Nardo. 10: Nardovelifer altipinnis, gen. et sp. nov. (Teleostei, Lampridiformes, Veliferidae)". St Ric Giac Terz Bolca. 8: 11–27.
  13. ^ Kobayashi et al. (1999). Sanders, Manley, and Carpenter (2001), "Table 12.1" page 167.
  14. ^ Sullivan, R.M.; Lucas, S.G. (1999). "Eucoelophysis baldwini, a new theropod dinosaur from the Upper Triassic of New Mexico, and the status of the original types of Coelophysis". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 19 (1): 81–90. doi:10.1080/02724634.1999.10011124.
  15. ^ Olshevsky, George. "Dinogeorge's Dinosaur Genera List". Retrieved 2008-08-07.
  16. ^ a b Perle, A., M. Norell and J. Clark. (1999). A new maniraptoran theropod Achillobator giganticus (Dromaeosauridae) from the Upper Cretaceous of Burkhant, Mongolia. Contributions of the Department of Geology, National University Mongolia (35 pages).
  17. ^ Bonaparte, J.F. (1999). An armored sauropod from the Aptian of Northern Patagonia, Argentina. Proceedings of the Second Gondwanan Dinosaur Symposium (15 October). National Science Museum Monographs 15 (Y. Tomida, T.H. Rich and P. Vickers-Rich, eds.), Tokyo.
  18. ^ Carpenter, K., K. Kirkland, D. Burge, and J. Bird. (1999). "Ankylosaurs (Dinosauria; Ornithischia) of the Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, and the stratigraphic distributions". In: Vertebrate Paleontology in Utah (D. Gillete, ed.). Utah Geological Survey Miscellaneous Publication 99-1.
  19. ^ Czerkas vide Sloan, C.P. (1999). "Feathers for T. rex?" National Geographic 196 (5 - November): pp. 98-107. vide Olson, 2000.
  20. ^ Monbaron, M.; Russell, D.A.; Taquet, P. (1999). "Atlasaurus imelakeii n.g., n.sp., a brachiosaurid-like sauropod from the Middle Jurassic of Morocco". Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Série IIA. 329 (7): 519–526. Bibcode:1999CRASE.329..519M. doi:10.1016/s1251-8050(00)80026-9.
  21. ^ Xu, X. Z.-L. Tang; Wang, X.-L (1999). "A therizinosauroid dinosaur with integumentary structures from China". Nature. 399 (6734): 350–354. Bibcode:1999Natur.399..350X. doi:10.1038/20670.
  22. ^ Burge, D.L., J.H. Bird, B.K. McClelland, and M.A. Cicconetti. (1999). "Comparison of four armored dinosaurs from the Cedar Mountain Formation of Eastern Utah". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Abstracts of Papers, 59th Annual Meeting, Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Denver, CO, Volume 19, Supplement to n. 3, p. 34A.
  23. ^ Tidwell, V.; Carpenter, K.; Brooks, W. (1999). "New sauropod from the Lower Cretaceous of Utah, USA". Oryctos. 2: 21–37.
  24. ^ Zhao, Xijin; Cheng, Zhengwu; Xu, Xing (1999). "The earliest ceratopsian from the Tuchengzi Formation of Liaoning, China". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 19 (4): 681–691. doi:10.1080/02724634.1999.10011181.
  25. ^ Bonaparte, J.F.; Mateus, O. (1999). "A new diplodocid, Dinheirosaurus lourinhanensis gen. et sp. nov., from the Late Jurassic beds of Portugal". Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales. 5 (2): 13–29.
  26. ^ a b Knoll, F. (1999). "The family Fabrosauridae". In: IV European Workshop on Vertebrate Palaeontology: p. 65;
  27. ^ Kellner, A.W.A. and S.A.K. de Azevedo. (1999). A new sauropod dinosaur (Titanosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of Brazil. In: Proceedings of the Second Gondwanan Dinosaur Symposium (Y. Tomida, T.H. Rich, and P. Vickers-Rich, eds.): pp. 111-142.
  28. ^ Bonaparte, J.F., J. Ferigolo, and A.M. Ribeiro. (1999). A new early Late Triassic saurischian dinosaur from Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. In: Proceedings of the Second Gondwanan Dinosaur Symposium (Y. Tomida, T.H. Rich, and P. Vickers-Rich, eds.): pp. 89-109.
  29. ^ a b Sereno, P.C; Allison, L.; Beck, D.B.; Dutheil, H.C.E.; Larsson, G.H.; Lyon, B.M.; Rudyard, W.; Sadleir, C.; Sidor, C. A.; Varricchio, D.J.; Wilson, G.P.; Wilson, J.A. (1999). "Cretaceous sauropods from the Sahara and the uneven rate of skeletal evolution among dinosaurs". Science. 286 (5443): 1342–1347. doi:10.1126/science.286.5443.1342. PMID 10558986.
  30. ^ Bonaparte, J. F. (1999). "Evolución de las vértebras presacras en Sauropodomorpha". Ameghiniana. 36: 115–187.
  31. ^ Sanz, J.L., J.E. Powell, J. Le Loueff, R. Martinez, and X. Pereda-Suberbiola. (1999). Sauropod remains from the Upper Cretaceous of Laño (Northcentral Spain). Titanosaur phylogenetic relationships. Est. Mus. Cienc. Nat. de Alava 14 (Num. Espec. 1): pp. 235-255 [1] [2].
  32. ^ Taquet, P. D.A. Russell (1999). "A massively constructed iguandont from Gadoufaouna, Lower Cretaceous of Niger". Annales de Paléontologie. 85 (1): 85–96. doi:10.1016/s0753-3969(99)80009-3.
  33. ^ Pickering, S. (1995). A fractal scaling in dinosaurology project (2nd revised printing). Capitola, California: 478 pages; [nomen nudum].
  34. ^ Sullivan, R.M. (1999). "Nodocephalosaurus kirtlandensis, gen. et sp. nov., a new ankylosaurid dinosaur (Ornithischia: Ankylosauria) from the Upper Cretaceous Kirtland Formation (upper Campanian), San Juan Basin, New Mexico". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 19 (1): 126–139. doi:10.1080/02724634.1999.10011128.
  35. ^ Rich, T. H. and P. Vickers-Rich. (1999). The Hypsilophodontidae from southeastern Australia. In: Proceedings of the Second Gondwanan Dinosaur Symposium (Y. Tomida, T.H. Rich, and P. Vickers-Rich, eds.): pp. 167-180.
  36. ^ Kellner, A.W.A. (1999). "Short note on a new dinosaur (Theropoda, Coelurosauria) from the Santana Formation (Romualdo Member, Albian), Northeastern Brazil". Boletim do Museu Nacional (Rio de Janeiro, Brasil), N.S. 9: 8 pages.
  37. ^ Langer, M.C., F. Abdala, M. Richter, and M.J. Benton. (1999). A sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Upper Triassic (Carnian) of southern Brazil. Compte rendu hebdomadaire des séances de l'Académie des Sciences Paris, Sciences de la Terre et des Planètes 329 : pp. 511-517.
  38. ^ Xu, X.; Wang, X.-L.; Wu, X.-C. (1999). "A dromaeosaurid dinosaur with a filamentous integument from the Yixian Formation of China". Nature. 401 (6750): 262–266. Bibcode:1999Natur.401..262X. doi:10.1038/45769.
  39. ^ Allain, R.; Taquet, P.; Battail, B.; Dejax, J.; Richir, P.; Veran, M.; Vacant, R.; Mateus, O.; Sayarath, P.; Khenthavong, B.; Phouyavong, S. (1999). "Un nouveau genre de dinosaure sauropode de la formation des Gres superieurs (Aptien-Albien) du Laos". Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Série IIA. 329 (8): 609–616. Bibcode:1999CRASE.329..609A. doi:10.1016/s1251-8050(00)87218-3.
  40. ^ Rich, T.H., P. Vickers-Rich, O. Gimenez, R. Cúneo, P. Puerta, and P. Vacca. (1999). "A new sauropod dinosaur from Chubut Province, Argentina". In: Proceedings of the Second Gondwanan Dinosaur Symposium (Y. Tomida, T.H. Rich, and P. Vickers-Rich, eds.): pp. 61-84.
  41. ^ a b Emslie, Steven D.; Czaplewski, Nicholas J. (1999). "Two New Fossil Eagles from the Late Pliocene (Late Blancan) of Florida and Arizona and Their Biogeographic Implications" (PDF). in: Avian Paleontology at the Close of the 20th Century: Proceedings of the 4th International Meeting of the Society of Avian Paleontology and Evolution, Washington, D.C., 4–7 June 1996, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 89: 185–198.
  42. ^ Olson, Storrs L. (1999). "The Anseriform Relationship of Anatalavis Olson and Parris (Anseranatidae), with a New Species from the Lower Eocene London Clay" (PDF). in: Avian Paleontology at the Close of the 20th Century: Proceedings of the 4th International Meeting of the Society of Avian Paleontology and Evolution, Washington, D.C., 4–7 June 1996, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 89 (89): 231–243. doi:10.5479/si.00810266.89.1.
  43. ^ Mlíkovský, Jíří (2002). "Cenozoic Birds of the World Part 1: Europe" (PDF). Praha Ninox Press. 2002: 1–407. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-03-07. Retrieved 2014-08-04.
  44. ^ Karkhu, Aleksandr A. (1999). "A New Genus and Species of the Family Jungornithidae (Apodiformes) from the Late Eocene of the Northern Caucas, with Comments on the Ancestry of Hummingbirds" (PDF). in: Avian Paleontology at the Close of the 20th Century: Proceedings of the 4th International Meeting of the Society of Avian Paleontology and Evolution, Washington, D.C., 4–7 June 1996, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 89: 207–216.
  45. ^ Hou Lianhai (1999). "New Hesperornithid (Aves) from the Canadian Arctic" (PDF). Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 37 (3): 228–233. doi:10.19615/j.cnki.1000-3118.1999.03.009.
  46. ^ Qiang, Ji; Chiappe, Luis M.; Shu’an, Ji (1999). "A New Late Mesozoic Confuciusornithid Bird from China". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 19 (1): 1–7. doi:10.1080/02724634.1999.10011117.
  47. ^ de Alvarenga, Herculano M. F. (1999). "A Fossil Screamer (Anseriformes: Anhimidae) from the Middle Tertiary of Southeastern Brazil" (PDF). in: Avian Paleontology at the Close of the 20th Century: Proceedings of the 4th International Meeting of the Society of Avian Paleontology and Evolution, Washington, D.C., 4–7 June 1996, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 89: 223–230.
  48. ^ Boev, Zlatozar N. (1999). "Neogene-Quaternary Birds of Bulgaria". София: 508.
  49. ^ Hou, Lianhai; Martin, Larry D.; Zhou, Zhonghe; Feduccia, Alan; Zhang, Fucheng (1999). "A Diapsid Skull in a New Species of the Primitive Bird Confuciusornis". Nature. 399 (6737): 679–682. Bibcode:1999Natur.399..679H. doi:10.1038/21411.
  50. ^ Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile; Bour, Roger; Ribes, Sonia; Moutou, François (1999). "The Avifauna of Réunion Island (Mascarene Islands) at the Time of the Arrival of the First Europeans" (PDF). in: Avian Paleontology at the Close of the 20th Century: Proceedings of the 4th International Meeting of the Society of Avian Paleontology and Evolution, Washington, D.C., 4–7 June 1996, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 89: 1–38.
  51. ^ Rando, J. C.; Lopez, M.; Seguí, B. (1999). "A New Species of Extinct Flightless Passerine (Emberizidae: Emberiza) from the Canary Islands" (PDF). The Condor. 101 (1): 1–13. doi:10.2307/1370440. JSTOR 1370440.
  52. ^ Chandler, Robert M. (1999). "Fossil Birds of Florissant, Colorado: With a Description of a New Genus and Species of Cuckoo". The National Park Service Paleontological Research. 4: 49–53.
  53. ^ Hou, Lianhai; Martin, Larry D.; Zhou, Zongzhe; Feduccia, Alan (1999). "Archaeopteryx to Opposite Birds Missing Link from the Mesozoic of China" (PDF). Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 37 (2): 88–95. doi:10.19615/j.cnki.1000-3118.1999.02.002.
  54. ^ Boev, Zlatozar N. (1999). "Falco bakalovi sp. n. - a Late Pliocene Falcon (Falconidae, Aves) from Varhets (W Bulgaria)". Geologica Balcanica. 29: 131–135.
  55. ^ Boev, Zlatozar N. (1999). "Gallinula balcanica sp. n. - a Villafranchian Moorhen from Bulgaria". Acta Zoologica Bulgarica. 51: 43–47.
  56. ^ Hope, Sylvia (1999). "A New Species of Graculavus from the Cretaceous of Wyoming (Aves: Neornithes)" (PDF). in: Avian Paleontology at the Close of the 20th Century: Proceedings of the 4th International Meeting of the Society of Avian Paleontology and Evolution, Washington, D.C., 4–7 June 1996, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 89: 261–266.
  57. ^ Kurochkin, Evgeny N. (1999). "A New Large Enantiornithid from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia (Aves, Enantiornithes)". Russian Academy of Sciences, Proceedings of the Zoological Institute. 277: 130–141.
  58. ^ Yan in Xu Gui-lin, Yang You-shi & Deng Shao-yeng (1999). "First Discovery of Mesozoic Bird Fossils in Hebei Province and Its Significance". Regional Geology of China. 18: 444–448.
  59. ^ Zhang, Fucheng; Ericson, Per G.P.; Zhou, Zhonghe (2004). "Description of a New Enantiornithine Bird from the Early Cretaceous of Hebei, Northern China" (PDF). Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 41 (9): 1097–1107. Bibcode:2004CaJES..41.1097Z. doi:10.1139/e04-055.
  60. ^ Hou Lianhai; Chen Peiji (1999). "Liaoxiornis delicatus gen. et sp. nov., the Smallest Mesozoic Bird". Chinese Science Bulletin. 44 (9): 834–838. Bibcode:1999ChSBu..44..834H. doi:10.1007/bf02885031. Archived from the original on 2014-08-08.
  61. ^ Ji Qiang; Ji Shuan (1999). "A New Genus of Mesozoic Birds from Lingyuan, Liaoning, China". Chinese Geology, 1999. 262 (3): 45–48.
  62. ^ Boles, Walter E. (1999). "A Songbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Oriolidae) from the Miocene of Riversleigh, Northwestern Queensland, Australia". Alcheringa. 23: 51–56. doi:10.1080/03115519908619338.
  63. ^ Boev, Zlatozar N. (1999). "Earliest Finds of Crossbills (Genus Loxia) (Aves: Fringillidae) from Varhshets (NW Bulgaria)". Geologica Balcanica. 29 (3–4): 51–57.
  64. ^ a b c Mayr, Gerald (1999). "Caprimulgiform Birds from the Middle Eocene of Messel (Hessen, Germany)". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 79 (3): 521–532. doi:10.1080/02724634.1999.10011162.
  65. ^ Boles, Walter E.; Ivison, Tessa J. (1999). "A New Genus of Dwarf Megapode (Galliformes: Megapodiidae) from the Late Oligocene of Central Australia" (PDF). in: Avian Paleontology at the Close of the 20th Century: Proceedings of the 4th International Meeting of the Society of Avian Paleontology and Evolution, Washington, D.C., 4–7 June 1996, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 89: 199–206.
  66. ^ Mlíkovský, Jirí (1999). "A New Jacana (Aves: Jacanidae) from the Early Miocene of the Czech Republic" (PDF). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Série II. 328 (2): 121–123. Bibcode:1999CRASE.328..121M. doi:10.1016/s1251-8050(99)80007-x.
  67. ^ Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile (1999). "Position Systématique de Nupharanassa bohemica Mlikovsky, 1999". Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Série IIA. 329 (2): 149–152. Bibcode:1999CRASE.329..149M. doi:10.1016/s1251-8050(99)80217-1.
  68. ^ Olson, Strorrs L. (1999). "A New Species of Pelican (Aves: Pelecanidae) from the Lower Pliocene of North Carolina and Florida" (PDF). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 112 (3): 503–509. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-08-08. Retrieved 2014-08-04.
  69. ^ Mayr, Gerald (1999). "A New Trogon from the Middle Oligocene of Céreste, France" (PDF). The Auk. 116 (2): 427–434. doi:10.2307/4089376. JSTOR 4089376.
  70. ^ Mayr, Gerald (1999). "Pumiliornis tessellatus n. gen. n. sp., A New Enigmatic Bird from the Middle Eocene of Grube Messel (Hessen, Germany)" (PDF). Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg. 216: 75–83.
  71. ^ Boev, Zlatozar N. (1999). "Regulus bulgaricus sp. n. - The First Fossil Kinglet (Aves: Sylviidae) from the Late Pliocene of Varshets, Western Bulgaria" (PDF). Historia Naturalis Bulgarica. 10: 109–115. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-07-20.
  72. ^ Seguí, Bartomeu (1999). "A Late Tertiary Woodcock from Menorca, Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean" (PDF). The Condor. 101 (4): 909–915. doi:10.2307/1370088. JSTOR 1370088.
  73. ^ Peters, Dieter S. (1999). "Selmes absurdipes, New Genus, New Species, a Sancoleiform Bird from the Oil Shale of Messel (Germany, Middle Eocene)" (PDF). in: Avian Paleontology at the Close of the 20th Century: Proceedings of the 4th International Meeting of the Society of Avian Paleontology and Evolution, Washington, D.C., 4–7 June 1996, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 89: 217–222.
  74. ^ Steadman, David W.; Hilgartner, William B. (1999). "A New Species of Extinct Barn Owl (Aves: Tyto) from Barbuda, Lesser Antilles" (PDF). in: Avian Paleontology at the Close of the 20th Century: Proceedings of the 4th International Meeting of the Society of Avian Paleontology and Evolution, Washington, D.C., 4–7 June 1996, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 89: 75–83.
  75. ^ Cai Zhengquan; Zhao Lijun (1999). "A Long Tailed Bird from the Late Cretaceous of Zhejiang". Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences. 42 (4): 434–441. Archived from the original on 2016-06-10. Retrieved 2014-08-03.
  76. ^ Ji, S.-A.; Ji, Q.; Padian, K. (1999). "Biostratigraphy of new pterosaurs from China". Nature. 398 (6728): 573–574. Bibcode:1999Natur.398..573J. doi:10.1038/19221.
  77. ^ Unwin, David M.; Heinrich, Wolf-Dieter (1999). "On a pterosaur jaw from the Upper Jurassic of Tendaguru (Tanzania)". Mitteilungen aus dem Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin, Geowissenschaftliche Reihe. 2: 121–134.
  78. ^ Carpenter, K (1999). "Revision of North American elasmosaurs from the Cretaceous of the Western Interior". Paludicola. 2 (2): 148–173.
  79. ^ Gao, K.; Cheng, Z. (1999). "A new lizard from the Lower Cretaceous of Shandong, China". Society of Vertebrate Palaeontology. 19 (3): 456. doi:10.1080/02724634.1999.10011158. JSTOR 4524009.